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no less than 84 shot in her hull. It was said, that the French sent a thousand wounded to Statia. The loss of the British in all the attacks is stated at 72 killed and 244 wounded. From that time the count kept at a distance but continued constantly in sight; appearing one day with 32 two-decked ships, and another with only 29.

The success of Sir Samuel Hood's bold adventure produced very flattering prospects. The admiral had no doubt, but that Brimstone-hill would hold out, till the niarquis de Bouille and count de Grasse would be glad to retire. But therein he was mistaken. The inhabitants of the island, on the first arrival of the French, adopted a seeming neutrality. Governor Shirley indeed proceeded with 350 militia to reinforce gen. Fraser's sinalt garrison, and continued bravely to encounter all the dangers, and patiently to endure all the hardships of the siege. The French closely invested the hill on all sides, on the night of their landing and the following morning. The artillery destined to serve in the attack on Barbadoes was attempted to be disembarked. But the vessel which conveyed the most heavy and effective part of it, struck on the rocks and sunk. The enemy however were not discouraged by this loss, or the subsequent one of the frigate from Martinico. By persevering industry they fished up no small part of the artillery, shells and stores which had been sunk; and the men of war brought a fresh quantity of heavy ordnance from Martinico. Moreover, the very means provided for the defence of the garrison, were unhappily for them employed in their destruction. Eight brass 24 pounders, with 6000 balls, together with two 13 inch brass mortars and 1500 shells, which had been sent, out by government to furnish the fortress, instead of having been removed up to the works, were all found by the French at the foot of the hill and proved a most seasonable and necessary supply. The hill was naturally strong, but the works at the top were not answerable to its strength; and were little calculated to withstand the batteries, which the possession of the adjoining country, and the weakness of the garrison enabled the enemy to erect in the most advantageous positions. The British were moreover totally destitute of intrenching tools. • The marquis de Bouille commenced and carried on a regulay siege ; but was incommoded during the whole of it, by a most vigorous fire from the garrison. The toil and fatigue of the French was excessive in such a climate, as they had no substitute for human labor in removing their artillery and heavy stores. The trenches however were, opened in the night between the 16th and 17th of January. Sir Samuel Hood took the earliest oppor,


tunity, on his arrival off the island, of sending an officer to Brim. stone-hill, accompanied by one from general Prescott, who in an answer to the offer sent to general Fraser, brought back the following message ". That as he had taken the trouble to come with troops to his assistance, he should doubtless be glad of the honor of seeing him ; but that he was in no want either of him or his troops." Prescott being very desirous notwithstanding, to be put on shore with his Antigua troops, they were according: ly landed on the 28th of Jan. together with the 69th regiment, and immediately got into action, and drove the enemy with a con siderable loss to the latter; but as no solid purpose could be an: swered by the continuance of the troops on shore, they were ta. ken off in the evening of the 29th, without the loss of a man. All communication now being cut off with Brimstone-hill, the general with his troops sailed back for Antigua on the 1st of Fe, bruary. .

The Erench prosecuted their works and attack with unremit: ting industry. During the last three weeks of the siege, they were constantly, night and day,cannonading and bombarding the garri. son; who though continually thinned by the numbers killed and wounded, bore the incessant fatigne of being alway under arms, and the increasing danger, with admirable patience and fortitude At length, the works on one side being so destroyed as to form an entire and complete breach, and there being not more than 500 nien left able to go through duty, and Sir Samuel Hood not having itin his power to afford the least relief, both the governor and gen. Fraser (Feb. 12.] concluded upon proposing a capitulation : which the marquis de Bouille eagerly embraced, as the acquisition of time for further operations was important, and a security from interruption by the arrival of a British admiral to reinforce Sir Samuel was of the first consequence. Every condition they proposed was agreed to, whether in favor of the garrison'or island. The former were allowed all the honors of warin the fullest sensé; and the island was upon the best footing it could be, under a capitulation. The marquis de Bouille, with his usual elevation of soul, by the last article discharged gov. Shirley and gen. Fraser from being considered as prisoners of war, out of respect to theil courage and determined conduct; and declared that the first might return to his governinent of Antigua, and the latter continue in the service of his country.

The surrender of Brimstone-hill, and the capitulation of the island, rendered the longer stay of Sir Samuel Hood in Basseterre road equally useless and dangerous. Beside, the French had been joined by two ships of the line from Europe ; so that count


de Grasse possessed the superiority of 31 to 22 ships of the line. The count anchored off Nevis on the 14th, the day on whichz that island followed the fate of St. Kitts and surrendered. Sip Samuel left Basseterre-road the same night, unperceived as he imagined, for aot one of the French ships was to be seen in the morning; though wlien his fleet slipped their cables, the other tay within five miles, and with their lights full in view. The surrender of Montserrat on the 22d, necessarily succeeded the', loss of the two before mentioned; so that of all the former nunierous British possessions in the West-Indies, there remain onty Jamaica, Barbadocs and Antigua. Notwithstanding the reduction of Brimstone-hill might cost the French 1000 soldiers, and count de Grasse might lose full 1000 sailors by engaging the British fleet, their remaining strength was so great, that the de. sign against Jamaica must have been revived, especially as the Spaniards had a powerful fleet and a great body of land forces in the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, ready to join de Grasse in an attack upon it. - After mentioning, en passant, that the marquis de la Fayette and viscount de Noaille arrived at Paris on the 20th of January, from America, and that commodore Johnstone returned to Portsmouth from the neighborhood of the Cape of Good Hope on the 28th of February, I shall relate what has passed in the United Provinces of Holland, and in the dominions of the em peror of Germany. .,

You will recollect the circumstances of Mr. John Adams's presenting a memorial to the States General in April, 1781. The French ininister would have hindered his presenting it, but could not prevail. Mr. Adams was determined at all hazards, to fol. low his own judgment; which he did in the most independent manner, in opposition to resistance, remonstrance and other en: deavors to produce a different conduct. You must understand, that the gentlemen at the Hague, who are called their high mightinesses, are not the sovereign. They are only deputies of the States General, who compose the sovereignty. These joint de puties form a diplomatic body, not a legislative nor executive one. The States General are the regencies of cities and bodies of nobles. The regencies of cities, are the burgomaster, schepens or judges and counsellors, composing in the whole a number of four or five hundred men, scattered all over the republic. Mr. J. Adams had no way to come at them but by the press. He therefore employed it, and by his publications, · The quarter of Oostergo, in the province of Friesland, was the first public body that proposed a connection with the United VOL. HII. M ni


States of America, in December last. On the 9th of January, Mr. Adams waited on the president Van Den Sandheuvel, and demanded a categorical answer, that he might be able to transmit it to his sovereign. On the 26th of February, Friesland preceded the other confederates, by a resolution for opening negociations with America, and admitting Mr. J. Adams forthwith as the minister of congress. The new ministers of the court of London attempted to bring forward a negociation for a separate peace with the state of Holland. Propositions for a particular peace, with an offer of an immediate suspension of hostilities on the part of Great-Britain, were made to that state by the mediation of the Russian ambassador. The merchants had the greatest aversion to such offers, as artful and dangerous. HolJand and West-Friesland agreed to admit Mr. Adams, on Thursday March 28th-Zealand the same on the 4th of April-Overyssel on the 5th-Groningen on the 9th--Utrecht on the 10th and Guilderland on the 27th of April. On Friday the 19th, it was resolved by the deputies of the States General, that Mr. Adams be admitted and acknowledged. The next day he waited on Mr. Boreel, who presided that week, and presented to him a letter from congress, dated Jan. 1, 1781, containing a credence. On Monday the 22d of April it was resolved, “ That the said Mr. Adams is agreeable to their high mightinesses; that he shall be acknowledged in quality of minister plenipotentiary; and that there shall be granted to him an audience, assigning con missioners, when he shall demand it.” * “ Do not you think that the Dutchmen have behaved bravely at last? It is a great deal for them, after so long a neglect of all enterprise, and such a settled devotion to gain, to aspire at being the second power in Europe to acknowledge American independence, which they have done with great eclat. They never did any thing with more good will. They think it, with reason, one of the brightest periods of their history. It was the naval battle of Dogger's Bank, that raised their courage. When they found that the fingers of their marine warriors had not forgotten to fight, they began to think that they might venture upon a political manoeuvre.”*

The Dutch are chagrined with the intelligence from Bassora, contained in the London Gazette of April the 13th, and are apa prehensive that their settlements of Sadras, Hulicat and Bimlipa. tam, with some other places to the northward of Madras, and Chinsura in Bengal, together with Negapatam, their principal sets

one A letter from the Hague.


tlement on the coast of Coromandel, are actually in the possescom sion of the British. They had some weeks before heard of the successful expedition which had been carried on against Padang and their other factories on the west coast of Sumatra. But they conclude from the British publications, that the French had recovered Demarara and Issequibo for them about the end of January.* The same gazette mentions, that. Hyder Ally had been so repeatedly and totally defeated, as to be obliged to retreat to his own territories. *What follows will afford you peculiar pleasure, as favoring the rights of conscience, and militating against ccclesiastic tym sanny.

A circular letter was sent the last year through all the different districts of Bohemia, with the following notice. That his Imperial majesty was resolved to grant to all the protestants in his hereditary dominions, liberty of conscience; and that all the natives of his hereditary dominions, who had become, voluntary exiles on account of religion, might return in the fullest conviction, that they never should be disturbed in future on the score of religion.” The emperor has likewise caused an edict of the 23th of last November, to be published at Brussels, absolving the religious orders in the Low Countries from all foreign dependence whatsoever. On the 19th of January the following notification appeared in the Vienna Gazette Notice is hereby given to all those who have hitherto kept out of their country count of the religion they profess, that his majesty pardons them on condition that they return in the course of the year. 1782, promising that they shall enjoy the same benefits as those who, on account of religion, had quitted the place of their birth, and taken up their abode isother provinces belonging to his said inajes. ty." His majesty has moreover abolished several religious orders. His edict for the abolition of various convents has taken place at Prague, Brunn, Omultz &c. and the nuns and friars are freed from their vows. The possessions of the already abo"lished monasteries exceed what could be imagined. It is said to be the intention of his majesty to appropriate all the money he may obtain by the abolitions, to charitable uses...

The emperor has caused a rescript to be circulated throughout his dominions, containing the reasons and principles which have induced him to disclaim all subordination to the pope in secular affairs. They are in short these~"That it is the highest absurdity to pretend that the successors of the apostles had a divine * They furrendered to the French by capitulation, Feb. 3, 1782.

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