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joice in victory and glory, the most honorable office a minister of the altars can fill, is to be the organ by which public gratitude is conveyed to the Omnipotent. Those miracles which he once wrought for his chosen people are renewed in our favor; and it would be equally ungrateful and impious not to acknowledge, that the event which lately confounded our enemies and frustrat ed their designs, was the wonderful work of that God who guards your liberties? And who but He could so combine the circunstances which led to success? We have seen our enemies pushi forward amid perils almost innumerable, amid objects almost in: surmountable, to the spot which was designed to witness their disgrace: yet they eagerly sought it as their theatre of triumph't Blind as they were, they bore hunger, thirst and inclement skies poured out their blood in battle against brave republicans, and crossed immense regions to confine themselves in another Teris cho, whose walls were fated to fall before another Joshua. It is He, whose voice commands the winds, the seas, and the seasons, who fornied a junction on the same day, in the same hour, bea tween a formidable fleet from the south; and an army rushing from the north, like an impetuous torrent. Who but He, in whose hånds are the hearts of men, could inspire the allied troops with the friendships, the confidencethe tenderness of brothers? How is it that two nations once divided, jealous, inimical, and nursed in reciprocal prejudices, are now become so cordially united, as to form but one? Worldlings will say, it is the wisdom, the virtuc, and moderation of their chiefs; it is a great national interest which has performed this prodigy: They will say, that to the skill of the generals, to the courage of the troops, to the activity of the whole army, we must attribute this splendid success. Ah!. they are ignorant, that the combining of so many fortunate cir. cumstances, is an einanation from the All-perfect Mind ; that cou* Tage, that skill, that activity, bear the sacred impression of Him who is divine. For how many favors have we not to thank Him during the course of the present year. Your union, which was at first supported by justice alone, has been consolidated by your courage, and the knot which ties you together is become indissoluble, by the accession of all the states; and the unanimous voice of all the confederates. Youpresentto the universe the noble sight of a society, which founded inequality and justice, secure to theindi. viduals who conipose it, the utmost happiness which can be derived from human institutions. This advantage, which so many other nations have been unable to procure, even after ages of effort and misery, is granted by Divine Providence to the United States; end his adorable decrees have marked the presentinoment forthe
* completion of that memorable happy revolution, which has taken:
place in this extensive continent. While your councils were thus acquiring new energy, rapid multiplied successes haye crowned your arms in the southern states. We have seen the unforari tunate citizens of these states forced from their peaceful abodes ass
after a long and cruel captivity, old men, women and children, v thrown without mercy into a foreign country. Master of their a lands and their slaves, amid his temporary affluence, a superb yice. tor rejoiced in their distresses. But Philadelphia has witnessed, their patience and fortitude ; they have found here another home, and though driven from their native soil, they have blessed God » that he has delivered them from the presence of their enemies, and conducted them to a country, where every just and feeling : man has stretched out the helping hand of benevolence, Heaven rewards their virtue. Three large states are at once wrested from the foe. The rapacious soldier has been compelled to take rea, fuge behind his ramparts, and oppression has vanished like those 1 phantoms which are dissipated by the morning ray. On this 50+ lemn occasion, we might renew our thanks to the God of battles, for the success he has granted to the arms of your allies, and your friends, by land and by sea, through the other parts of the globes. But let us not recal those events which too clearly prove how much the hearts of our enemies have been obdurated. Let us, prostrate ourselves at the altar, and implore the God of mercy to!" suspend his vengeance, to spare them in his wrath, to inspire then with sentiments of justice and moderation, to terminate their obos stinacy and error, and to ordain that your victories be followed by.d peace and tranquility. Let us beseech him to continue to shed on the councils of the king your ally, that spirit of wisdom, of jus tice, and of courage, which has rendered his reign so glorious..' Let us entreat him to maintain in each of the states that intellige gence by which the United States are inspired. Let us return him... thanks, that a faction whose rebellion he has corrected, now dei prived of support, is annihilated. Let us offer him pure hearts in unsoiled by private hatred or public dissention; and let us with: one will and one voice, pour forth to the Lord the hymn of: praise, by which christians celebrate their gratitude and his glory.".) i
The most important books and papers of Congress engaged af:.15 length the attention of the enemy, A scheme was converted for 16 carrying them off. Lieut. Moody, who had been so successful.ias taking the American mails, was einployed. He remained on the Jerséy side of the Delaware, while his brother John Moody, and ci another or two repaired to Philadelphia. Before they could on execute the business intrusted to them, a discoyery took place.pl
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and some of them were seized. Parties were sent across the Delaware to secure the lieutenant; but he eluded all their ex: ertions, and escaped in an extraordinary manner. His brother and a fellow-soldier were brought before a board of officers, at which the marquis de la Fayette presided, and were indulged with a candid and full hearing. An opinion of the officers being reported to the board of war, and approved, they were sentenced to die. John Moody was executed on the 13th of November; the other was respited. The care of congress will be engaged the more by this fruitless project, to guard against any future attempts of a similar nature.
On the 23d of November they resolved, “That major gen. the marquis de la Fayette, have permission to go to France, and that he return at such a time as shall be most convenient to himthat he be informed, that on a view of his conduct throughout the past campaign, and particularly during the period in which
he had the chief command in Virginia, the many new proofs · which present themselves of his zealous attachment to the cause
he has espoused, and of his judgment, vigilance, gallantry and address in its defence, have greatly added to the high opinion
entertained by congress of his merits and military talents--that - he make known to the officers and troops whom he commanded i during that period, that the brave and enterprising services with 1 which they seconded his zeal and efforts, and which enabled him .
to defeat the attempts of an enemy far superior in numbers, have ů been beheld by congress with particular satisfaction and appro.
bation that the secretary of foreign affairs acquaint the minia * sters plenipotentiary of the United States, that it is the desire of i congress that they confer with the marquis de la Fayette, and avail
themselves of his information relative to the situation of public
Gen. Washington attended congress according to order, and being introduced (Nov. 28:] by two members, the president addressed him as follows—“Sir, congress, at all times happy in seeing your excellency, feel particular pleasure in your presence at this tiine, after the glorious success of the allied arms in Virginia, It is their fixed purpose to draw.every advantage from it, by exhorting the states in the strongest terms, to the most vigorous and timely exertions. A committee has accordingly been appoinita to state the requisitions necessary to be made for the establishmen: of the army, and they are instructed to confer with you upon that subject. It is therefore the expectation of congress that your excellency would remain for some tinre in Philadelphia, that they may avail themselves of your aid in this important business, and that you may enjoy å respite from the fatigues of war, as far as is consistent with the service.” To which his excellency made the following reply—“Mr. President, I feel very sensibly the favorable declaratiou of congress expressed by your excellency. This fresh proof of their approbation cannot fail of inaking a deep impression upon me, and my study shall be to deserve a continu. ance of it. It is with peculiar pleasure I hear that it is the fixed purpose of congress to exhort the states to the most vigorous and timely exertions; a compliance on their parts will, I persuade myself, be prodnctive of the most happy consequences. I shall yield a ready obedience to the expectation of congress, and give every assistance in my power to their committee. I am obliged by the goodness of congress, in making my personal ease and convenience a part of their concern. Should the service require my attendance with the army upon the North-River or elsewhere, I shall repair to whatever place my duty calls, with the same pleasure that I remain in this city.” On the last day of the year, congress agreed to do ordinance to incorporate the subscribcrs to the Bank of North-America.
A few days before, gen. Washington wrote--k The whole business of prisoners of war brought under one regulation, might probably put a stop to those mutual complaints of ill treatment which are frequently urged on either part. For it is a fact, that for above two years we have had no reason to complain of the treatnient of the continental land prisoners in New York, neither have we been charged with any improper conduct toward those in our hands. I consider the sufferings of the seainen for some time past, as arising in a great measure from the want of that general regulation, and without which there will be constantly a great number reniaining in the hands of the enemy. I know of tio method so likely to put an end to the mutual complaints of both sides, as that of having all prisoners given up to the comanissary-general, to be by him exchanged."
In this letter there is an allusion to an improper conduct toward the British prisoners in the hands of the Americans, which leads me to mention the case of the convention troops. While in Virginia they were often but badly served with meat. The chief of what the American contractor had procured for their supply was such as they could not eat. The British commanding officer at. length made his complaint, and obtained leave to have it surveyed, when it was condemned in general. The American quarter masters were, upon that, obliged to go all over Virginia in search of salt provisions, the want of which was such, at one tinie, that the prisoners had six weeks. meat due to them. On this an addition of one half more was made to the allowance of Indian meal, and the troops lived upon meal and water. When afterward moved to Frederick-town in Maryland, they complained of meeting with much ill usage, and of being badly supplied with provisions and almost half starved. This treatment made the men desert in great numbers. Instances of ime proper conduct toward other prisoners undoubtedly existed. But the general treatment of them was good ; and wherein it was-otherwise, fell so short of what the British practised toward the Americans, that the former frequently, declared of the lat ter, that notwithstanding all their threats they were afraid to Jetaliate. * The British power in Georgia being too weak to prevent it, there has been a complete re-establishment of American gov.g ernment. The general assembly was convened at Augusta on the 16th of Aug. Gen. Greene's success in South-Carolina haya ing opened the víay for gov. Rutledge's safe ixturn to that state, he exercised his authority afresh, and on the 27th of September, issued a proclamation, offering those inhabitants of the state who had joined the British, pardon on condition of their doing six months militia duty, with the exception of such as had takerecome missions, signed congratulatorv addresses on British victories, or who had been otherwise active in support of their government In a few weeks, several hundreds came out of the British lines, and greatly reinforced the American militia. Many were now as assidaoủs in framing excuses for having arranged themselves un. der the British standard, as they had been the year before to apos Togize for their involuntary support of rebellion, Several cast themselves on the public mercy, though excepted by the procla: niation. The governor afterward issued writs for a new election of representatives, by virtue of the extraordinary power dele. gated to him before the surrender of Charleston. The elections. were to be held in the usual places where it was practicable, and