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[General Regulations.']

ALL debts contracted and engagements entered into, before
the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against
the United States under this constitution, as under the confede-

Thisconstitution, and the laws of the United States, which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land ; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws ol any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the
members of the several state legislatures, and all-executive and"
judicial officers, both of the United States, and of the several states,
shall be bound by oath or-affinviation, to support this constitution;
but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to
any office or public trust under the United States.
The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall he suf-
ficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states
so ratifying the sainc.

Done in convention, by the unanimous consent of the states pre-
sent, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our
Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the
Independence of the United States of America the twelfth.
In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names,
and Deputy from Virginia.
New-Hampshire. John Langdon, Nicholas Gil-man.—M^s^-
chusetts. Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King.—Connecticut. Wil-
liam Samuel Johnston, Roger Sherman.—New-York. Alexander
Hamilton.—New-Jersey. William Livingston, David Brearley,
William Patterson, Jonathan Dayion.—Pennsylvania. Benjamin
Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robert Morris, George Clymer, Thos.
Fitzsimons, Jarcd Ingersoll, James IVilscyi, Goterneur Morris.
-—Delaware. George Read, Gunning Bedford, jun. John Dickin-
son, Richard Bassett, Jacob Broom.—Maryland. James M'Hen-
ry, Daniel of St. Tho. Jenifer, Daniel Carroll.—Virginia. John
Blair, James Maddison, jun.—North-Carolina. William Blount,
Richard Dobbs Spaighi, Hugh Williamson.—South-Carolina.
John Rutledgc, Charles Cotersorth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney,
Pierce Butler.—Georgia. William Few, Abraham Baldwin.
Attest, William Jackson, Secretary.


In CONVENTION, Monday, September 17, 1787



The States of New-hampshire, Massachusetts, Connect^ . Icut, Mr. Hamilton, from New-york, New-jersey, PennSylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, NorthCarolina, South-carolina and Georgia: •;


'I 'HA T the preceding constitution be laid before the United X Slates in congress assembled, and that the opinion of this . Convention, that it should afterwards be submitted to a convention cf delegates, chosen in each state by the people thereof,, under the Recommendation ofits legislature, for their assent and ratification.^ and thai each convention assenting to,, and ratifying the same.,, should give no I ice thereof to the United Slates in congress assembled. Resolved,. That it is the opinion of this convention, that as soox as the conventions of nine states shall have ratified this constitution, . the United States in congress assembled should fix a day on whick electors should be appointed by the states which shall have ratified the same, and a day en whick the electors should assemble to vote for the president, and the time and place for commencing proceeding under this constitution: That after such publication the electors should be appointed, and the senators and representatives elected: That the electors should meet on the day fixed for the elecrtion of the president, and should transmit their votes certified, signed, sealed and directed, as the constitution- requires, to the secretary of the United States in congress assembled, that the senators and representatives should convene at the time and place assigned; that the senators should appoint a president of the senate,-for the sole purpose of receiving, opening and counting the voles for presr ident: and, that after he shall be chosen, the congress, together with the president, should, without delay, proceed to execute /his: coHsitution. By the unanimous order of' the convention.

GEORGE WASHINGTON, President. - William Jackson, Secretary.

In CONVENTION, September 17, 1787.

WE have now the honor to submit to the consideration of theUnited States in congress assembled, that constitution! which has appeared to us the most adviseable:

The friends of our country have long seen and desired, that the power of making war, peace and treaties, that of levying money

ney and regulating commerce, and the correspondent executive and judicial authorities, should be fully and effectually vested in. the general government of the union : butthe impropriety of delegating such extensive trust to one body of men is evident—hence results the nvCessity of a different organization.

It is obviously impracticable in the federal government of these states, to secure all rights of independent sovereignty to each, and yet provide for the interest and safety of all.—Individuals entering into society, must give up a share of liberty to preserve the rest. The magnitude of the sacrifice must depend as well on situation and circumstance, as on the object to be obtained. It is at all times difficult to draw with precision the line between those rights which must be surrendered, and those which may be reserved ; and on the present occasion this difficulty was increased by a difference among the several states as to their situation, extent, habits and particular interests.

In all our deliberations on this subject, we kept steadily on our view, that which appears to us the greatest interest of every true American, the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, safety, perhaps our national existence.— This important consideration seriously and deeply impressed on our minds, led each state in the convention to be less rigid on points of inferior magnitude, than might have been otherwise expected: and thusthc constitution, which we now present, is-the result of a spirit of amity, and of that mutual deference and concession which the peculiarity of our political situation rendered indispensable.

That it will meet the full and entire approbation of every state is not perhaps to be expected , but each will doubtless consider that had her interests been alone consulted, the consequences might have been particularly disagreeable or injurous to others; that it is liable to as few exceptions as eould reasonably have been expected, we hope and believe ; that it may promote the lasting welfare of that country so dear to us all, and secure her freedom and happinesses our most ardent wish. With great respect, we have the honor to be,


Your Excellency's most obedient,

And humble servants, GEORGE WASHINGTON, President By unanimous order of the convention. Mis Excellency the President of Congress.

The End Of The Third And Last Volume.

The Numerical Letters refer to the different Volumes;
the Figures to the Pages.

ACT, the first, imposing cus- frein, 231. admirals Hyde Parker
toms on the colonies alone, and Zoutman, 233. Graves and
to be collected by colonial re- Grasse, 251. Hughes and Suf-
venue officers, i. 39. Acts pas- frein, 304. Rodney and ie Grasse,
sed by the English parliament 306. -307. lord Howe and the
respecting the colonies, 74. by combined fleets, 343. Hughes and
the British parliament, 75,79. SO. Suffrein, 352, 353.
86. 105. The act for better se- Adams, Mr. John, is chosen to
curing the king's dock yard, 214. .negociate a treaty of peace with
for shutting up the port of Boston, Great Britain, iii. 28. commis-
231. for regulating the govern- sioned to be the American pleni-
ment of Massachusetts Bay, 232. potentiary to the States General,
for the impartial administration 179. presents a memorial to their
of justice, and the suppression of high mightinesses, 188. pursues
riots in the Massachusetts, ib. successful measures, and is ac-
for making more effectual provi- knowledged, 288. concludes a
sion for the government of Que- treaty of amity and commerce be-
bcc, 235. for restraining the com- tween the States General and the
merce of the New-England pro- United States of America, 345.
vinces, and for prohibiting their arrives at Paris, 348. writes in
fishery, 300. for confiscating all favor of a compliance with the re-
American property found upon commendation to be made by con-
th* water, ii. 37, 38. for prohibit- gress agreeable to the articles of
ing all intercourse with tthe Thir- peace, 356.

teen United Colonies, 53. for se- Adams, Mr. Samuel, is chosen
curing persons accused of high representative for Boston, i. 142.
treason or suspected of piracy, His views to independency, 140.
183. his speech in congress, 272. is

Action, the naval, between the alarmed lest his views should be
British and American fleets on frustrated, ii. 13.
Lake Champlain, ii. 145. between Address, a joint one, of both
admirals Keppel and D'Orvilliers, houses of Parliament agreed to,
347. Byron and D'Estaing, 455. i. 280. but protested against by
between the Serapis, capt. Pear« several lords, ibid.

son, and the Bon Homme Richard, of the general as-

capt. Paul Jones, 457. between, sembly of the church of Scotland,

Sir George Rodney and Don Lan- ii. 188.

gara, iii. 82. Rodney and De Gui- Addresses approving the acts of

chon, 84. Sir Samuel Hood and government and counter petitions,

Count de Grasse, 230. commo- ii. 45.

dore Johnstone and Mr. de Suf- Administration, a new one,

Vol. III. 3 E

formed in 1782, under the auspi- 99. evacuate the island, 101. their
ces of the Marquis of Rocking- state afterwards, 104, 108. are
ham, iii. 2 82. stationed at different places, 110.

Affairs, the, of the United evacuate New-York island, 118.
States in a ruinous condition, ii. are guilty of great plundevings,
410. 168. march toward the Brandy-

Aitken, John, alias Jehn the wine, 215. are defeated by the
■Painter, ii. 184. royal army, 224. surprise the roy-

Allen, colonel, surprises Tycon- al troops at Germantown, 232.
deroga, i. 334. is taken by Sir theirdistressatValley-forge,310.
Guy Carleton, and put into irons, engage the royal troops near Mon-
*426. mouth court-house, 357. th^ir dis-

Allicd 'troops under General tress for want of provision, iii. 43.
Washington arrive at the Head of are greatly dissatisfied, 54.
Elk, and within half an hour af- , in Canada, their Mis-
ter, hear of de Grasse's arrival, behavior, ii. 62. their distress
iii. 254. join the troops under la when general Thomas arrives and
Fayette, 255. takes the command, 63. they re-

Ambassador, the French, pre- treat from before Quebec, 64.
sents memorials to congress, ii. general Sullivan takes the com-
408, 411. mand on the death of Thomas,

« » the Spanish, the 65. they retreat up the Sorel, and

marquis d'Almodover, presents a on to Crown-Point, 70. move to
manifesto to the British minister, mount Independence, 105. eva-
ii. 45 U cuate the northern posts, 206.

Americans insulted by several their force under general Schuy-
in both houses of parliament, i. ler, 211. commanded by general
304. Gates, and engage the royal army

, some hundreds arrive under general Burgoyne, Sept.

at Mafblehead in cartel ships from 19, 1777, 248. and again on Oct.
England, iii. 322. 7, 255.

-, the number of, lost by American commerce, the loss of

the war, iii. 390. it not generally felt, ii. 44.

American academy of arts and _ impression, the first,of

sciences, incorporated in the Mas- the bible in English, printed at
sachusetts, iii. 76. Philadelphia by Mr. Aitken, iii.

American army, the general re- 334.
turn of it, at Cambridge in the Amsterdam, the pensionary of,
Massachusetts,!. 367. they take directs the signing of an eventual
possession of the Plowed-hill, 405. treaty between Holland and the
■are visited from neighboring and United states of America, iii. 94.
distant colonies, 414. many sick- Andre, major, the affair of, iii.
en and die, and others suffer much, '130.

ib. they take possession of Cob- Arethusa and Belle Poule fri-
blehill, 415. break ground at gates engage, ii. 344.
Lechmere's point, 417. They are Armed neutrality, iii. 79.
changtd by a new inlistment, ii. Army, royal, to be employed a-
14. A scheme for destroying the gainstthe Americans, the strength
army when at New-York, 79. of it, ii. 60.
They are defeated on Long-Island, Arnold, Benedict, colonel, mar-

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