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arrive soon from Philadelphia. N. Greene." Fish-kill, May a* Yesterday was the third day our army [under Washington} has been without provision. Every department is without money and without credit. The army couW not make a march of one day* as they are without every necessary as well as provisions. Officer* and soldiers are exceedingly discontented. You have doubtlessheard of the premeditated revolt of theCoimecticut line, happp. Jy discovered the day previous to that in which it was to have beea put in execution.. The ringleader was punished with death. Wherever I go, I hear complaints which make me dread, the most fatal consequences. The distresses of our army have arrived to the greatest possible degree.. Steuben:"' ** May 28. I am under anxiety from the want of/the necessary deposits of provisions in the garrison of West-Point.. This is an alarming circumstance. Were the enemy to know our situation, and make a sudden attempti what is there to save these important posts? G. JVashing~ ton."' "Aug. 12. For upward of two months more than onethird of our men (of the -southern army) were entirely naked, with nothing but a breach-cloth about them, and never came oat of their tents; and the rest were as ragged as wolves. Our condition was little better in the article of provision. Our beef was. perfect carrion; and even bad as it was, we were frequently without any. An army thus clothed and thus fed^ may be considered in a desperate situation.. However,, we have struggled through it. Gur supplies' of provision are better, but scanty and uncertain. Some clothing'is arrived, and added to what the governor procured, renders the troops pretty comfortable,., and the army very contented and easy, especially as we have it now in our power to issue rum eight timesra month* North-Carolina hath had few-other soldiers than non-jurors anddisaffected, and those for different terms of service.. N. Greene." (Mr. Joshua Lockwoodi under the direction of governor Matthews» brought out of Charleston a large quantity of the articles which were most needed in the camp. They were furnished-by some of the inhabitants, who wished to make their peace with their eoustrymen. j "■ Sept. 22; When I found the supplies of money firen* the states, would prove so inadequatei I determined to check all other expences, and to think only of feeding the army. Wehave lately had an arrival of linens* which the clothier says are suffiei'entto make thirty thousand shirts;- but he is so indebted totiie poor people who have worked for him, and who are starving for want of their wages, that he cannot procure credit to <§et them made. Money I have none. And could he run in debt still further, it would only increase the mischief, for t-see nofj
prospect oCpayment. R. Moms"—" Oct. 2. Only conceive the mortification, that even the general officers are under, when they cannot invite a French.officer,.a. visiting friend, a travelling .acquaintance, to a better repast, than stinking whisky, (hot from the still) and not always that, and a bitof beef without vegetables^ will afford them. I could give anecdotes of patriotism and distress which have scarcely ever been parallelled,never surpassed in 4he history of mankind : but you may rely upon it j, the patience aad long sufferance, of this [the northern] army .are almost exhausted, and that there never was so great a spiuitof discontent as at this instant. Jt is high time for a .peace. Our troops have been, and still are obliged to perform services foreign to their -proper-duty, without gratuity or-reward, more than the soldiers of any other army—for example, the immense labours-expended i£1 -doing the duties of artificers, in erecting fortifications and military works; the fatigue of building themselves barracks and huts annually; and cutting and transporting wood for the use of all our; posts and garrisons, without any exjaence whatever to .the .public. G. Washington."—" Oct. 17. We were upon the point of trying our hands at how we could live without subsistence,, as the superintendant was no longer able .torfulfil his contract with /the victuallers of the [northern] armyrand as they relinquished it: -till fortunately for us, we met with gentlemen, who for an ad-•vanced price per ration, have saved us from starvation or-iisband■jment by giving a credit,"—:" Oct. 2.4. For want of money wo -.have been obliged to relinquish a contract for subsisting tire army at ten peace a ration, and give thirteen pence, for the sake of -theee months credit." Even in July the demand for rnoney was «0 great as to raise interest to five ,per cent, per month
On the 2d of August, Sir Guy Carleton and admiral Digby, < sent out a joint letter to gen. Washington, wherein they said—
• « We are acquainted, Sir, by authority, that negociations for a •/general peace have already commenced at Paris, and that Mr.
<yrenville is invested with full powers to treat witli all the parties
at war, and is now at.Paris in the execution of this commission.
■%Tfr-With respect to Mr. Laurens, we are to acquaint you, that he
has been enlarged and discharged from all engagements without
• any condition whatever'; after which he declared of his own ac
- .cord, that he considered lord Cornwallisas free from his-parole.
- Wee are-further acquainted, that transports have.been prepared in England, for conveying all tire American prisoners to this coun
. 4ry to be exchanged here; and we are dicectcd to urge, by every
. consideration of humanity, the most speedy exchange." When
• ^*hisjiew*;Was known by the loyalists, such a scene of distress raged
•„ , through
through the city of New-York, as is not easily described. Thosd 5n the army tore their lappels from their coats, stamped them under their feet, and exclaimed that they were ruined for evert Others cried out, that they had sacrificed every thing to prove their loyalty, and were now left to shift for themselves, lost both to the friendship of their king and country. On the 7th, ft was earnestly recommended in the New-York paper to the loyalists every where, to suspend their opinion on the present important occasion, and each to continue firm to the professions he had made of loyalty and zeal for the reunion of the empire, and \& wait the issue. By such a conduct, is was observed, they woirio\ preserve a claim to national regard and protection, which it would be madness to forfeit; since by giving way to the suggestions of impatience they could only disgrace themselves in the eyes d£ their enemies^ without a shadow of advantage.
A part of the news was soon confirmed by the arrival of twd> cartel ships at Marbleheadr with 583 Americans. By the 21st of the month a third arrived with 116 more- Your friend-em* braced the opportunity of talking with several as they passed by his house. The substance of what they related follows, Frora the beginning of the war till they left Froton prison at Gosporf, near upon 1400- had been committed, out of the whole only 1-20 died, and of these more by the small-pox than any othetf disorder. Before*gen. Burgoyne was taken, persons were not allowed t» visit or relieve them. After that event the treatment was different, and former severities were mitigated. When sick they were taken exceeding good care of; and had Americans employed-to nurse them. Had not agents, clerks, &c. deducted from the king'* allowance, they should have done pretty well r though having no more than criminals allowance of provision, they had a very scanty support, beside which the provision was often exceeding bad. When the change of ministry took place, they were considered as prisoners of war, and had an allowance accordingly. They mentioned, that before they were sent off", the duke of Richmond, gen. Conway, and some other gentlemen visited them; expressed a concern for their sufferings showed them much kindness, gave them money very condescendingly shook hands with them, and said they were brethren. They related that the Rev. Mr. Wren of Portsmouth was extremely kind to them ; was like a father j procured them clothes, money, and many articles to help thera, under their confinement; and frequently visited and prayed wid* the sick. Mr. Laurens visited them ; encouraged them to remain firm to their country's cause ; and told them how he had suffered tinder Ids confinement. One of them wUo had hee&a prisoner aft
New-York, to express the difference between 'toe places, &£> Glared that he had rather be imprisoned, months in Erigland thafit weeks at New-York. They stated the number of persons wh'ct came away upon the exchange at 303* the rest having made tUe'itr escape at different periods. • '- ''J*
A few acts of Congress shall be now related.
On the 13th of May-, the minister of France was admitted to a public audience, and after addressing cohgrfess in a speech^ delivered to them a letter from his most Christian majesty* Itm forming them of the birth of his sort the Dauphin. A suitable? answer was given to the Chevalier de-Ia Luzerne. They then! ordered a letter to be written to the commander in chief, and to the commander in the southern department,- informing them of the said event, and directed that it should be published iri both armies with proper demonstrations of joy. The secretary for foreign affairs was also to inform the governors and presidents of the respective states, that the people of each state might partake in the joy.—When the minister had withdrawn, thd birth of the Dauphin was announced to the public by a discharge^ of cannon and a feu-de-joie of musketry. In the afternoon a dinner was provided by congress for the Ghevalier arid his suit; and the evening was closed with a brillant display of fire-work* in die state-house yard. The official notification of the Dau* phin's birth was received in all places of the United States, with every mark of joy and token of respect to their great and generous ally, and to the French nation.
"On the 2©th of June it was concluded, that the device for aiv armorial achievement -urtd reverse for the great seal for the Unit*. ed States in congress assembled should be as follows—ARMS— Paleways of thirteen pieces, argent arid guleS; a chief, azure; the escutcheon on the breast of the American eagle displayed, proper, holding in his dexter talon an olive-branch, and in his sinister a bundle of thirteen arrows, all proper, and in his beak a scroll inscribed with this motto—" Epluribus Unum."— For the CREST—Over the head of the eagle, which appears above the escutcheon, a glory, Or; breaking through a cloud, proper, and Surrounding thirteen stars forming a constellation, argent, on ah azure field.—REVERSE—A pyramid unfinished. In the zenith an eye in a triangle, surrounded with a glory, proper. Over the eye, these words—" Annuit C;eptis." On the base of the pyramid the numerical letters MDCCLXXVI. And underneath, the following motto—" Novus Ordo Secloium." '«':. [Sept. 14.] They resolved that the sum of four millions of dolIferSj exclusive of the money which-Mr. Adams- may ob«aia- bjf
the loan now negociatingin Holland, be borrowed in Europe on the faith of the United States. Nine days after, they resolved, that Dr. Franklin should be informed, that notwithstanding the contents of the letters of the 25th of jnne, it is the direction of congress, that he use his utmost endeavors to effect the aforesaid loan. ":5 On the 4th of October, they resolved unanimously, that they would inviolably adhere to the treaty of alliance with his most Christian majesty, and conclude neither a separate peace nor truce with Great-Britain; nor enter into the discussion of any overtures for pacification, but in confidence and in concei t with his'most Christian majesty.
'We pass on to the southward as far as Georgia, with some abucount of which my last letter closed. f>u*
The British garrison at Savannah consisted of about 1000 regulars, beside a considerable number of militia, and'was under the command of brigadier Clarke. This superiority of force did aot prevent gen. Wayne's appearing often before the British lwe% and insulting their picquets. Three different attempts were made to surprise an advanced party of the Americans without succeeding. About the same tirae the American governor with hisrouSicil removed from Augusta to Ebenezer. Soon after his arrival be issued a proclamation offering to every British or Hessian soPdier, who should desert from Savannah, 200 acres of land and some stock; which had the desired effect in a certain degree.
On the 2ist of May, col. Brown, at the head of a considerable party, marched out of the garrison of Savannah, with the apparent intention of attacking the Americans. Wayne, by a bold ma* nceuvre, got between Brown and the garrison, attacked hirflv® twelve o'clock at night, and routed his whole party. The varsguard of the Americans, consistingof 60 horse and 40 infantry, was Jed on by col. White, of the cavalry, and capt. Parker, of the hfcfantry, to a spirited charge .; in which 40 of Brown's men we*e killed or wounded, about 20 taken prisoners, and the remainder obliged to shelter, themselves in the sw'ainps under cover of tffft night. The advantage was gained by the liberal use of the sword and bayonet. Orders had been previously given to depend ees tirely on these Weapons; and to secure a punctual compliance, the flints were taken out of the musketry of the infantry. The Americans had only five privates killed and two wounded.—Though Brown proved unsuccessful, yet gen. Greene reckons him orie of the best officers belonging to the British troops.
On the 24th of June, a large body of Creek Indians, headed by a number, of their most celebrated chiefs and warriors^ and a Bri