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- Thus fell col. Isaac Hayne in the bloom of life, furnishing that example in death, which extorted a confession from his enemies that though he did not die in a good cause, he must at least have acted from a persuasion of its being 30.* The world will judge whether his death was strictly according to lavr; and if so, whether the legality was not of that kind to which the maxim is to be applied---sunnum jus sumi ma injuria. 5 The operations in Virginia shall now be related. . . ..The junction of gen. Phillips's force to gen. Arnold at Ports mouth, greatly increased their power of distressing the state, which they failed not to improve as far as possible. In April, the troops to the amount of about 2500, embarked and proceeds ed to James-river. By the 24th they ran up to City Point; belew Petersburghi, where baron de Steuben was with a number of militia. Their whole force landed at six in the evening, and the next day marched at ten in the morning. The baron was fully convinced that Petersburgh was their first object, Having been obliged to send away large detachments, he had not more than 1000 men to oppose their advance. He had many reasons. against risking a total defeat, the loss of arms was a principal ones on the other hand, to retire without some show of resistance, would intimidate the inhabitants, and encourage the British to further incursions. He therefore determined to do what he could without hazarding too much. He made choice of Blanford (2bout a mile distant) for the place of defence, and a neighboring bridge for a retreat. The Americans passed the night under arms. Toward noon of the 25th.thie British came in sight, forma ed, and extended their line to their left. It was near three O'H clock before the firing commenced, which continued from post to post till past five, when the superiority of the enemy, and want of ammunition, obliged the baron to order a retreat, and the bridge to be taken up, which were executed with great regulanity, notwithstanding the fire of the British cannon and musket sy. The Americans disputed the ground inch by inch, and exécuted their mancuvres with much exactness: The baron retii. ed to Chesterfield court-house, ten miles from Petersburgh. The next day the British destroyed at Petersburgh 400 hogsheads of tobacco, a ship, and a number of small vessels. On the 27th Ar, zold marched to Osborn's, four miles above whiclıplace the Vir ginians had a considerable marine force with which they meant to oppose him. Arnold sent a flag to treat with the commandi er, who declared that he would defend his fleet to the last Arnold advanced with some artillery, and at length overpowered bim. The seamen took to their boats and escaped, but not be ** Dr. Ramsay's Hiftory, Vol. II. p. 277---284.


fore they had scuttled and set fire to several of their ships. The militia were driven frorn the opposite shore. Two ships and ten smaller vessels loaded with tobacco, cordagė, flour, and other articles, fell into Arnold's hands. Four ships, five brigantines, and a number of small vessels, were either burnt or sunk. The whole quantity of tobacco taken or destroyed in this fieet, ex ceeded 2000 hogsheads. The British by the 30th reached Maze chester, where they destroyed 1200 hogsheads of tobacco ; the marquis de la Fayette with his troops, who arrived at Richmond on the opposite side the preceding evening, being spectators of the contlagration. The royal army on their return måde great havock at Warwick. Beside the ships on the stocks and

in the river, a large range of rope-walks, a magazine of four, a anumber of warehouses containing tobacco and other commodis

ties, tan-houses full of hides and bark, and several fine mills, were destroyed or consumed in one general conflagration.' The arıny then returned to the shipping, and the whole fell down toward the mouth of the river. While this force was sufficient for destroying every species of property to an almost incredible amount, and for accumulating a great deal of spoil for the parties commanding it, the main purpose was not answered ; it was incapable of bringing matters to any decisive conclusion.' Here and in the Carolinas, the veteran battalions were worn down and consumed, without producing any permanent advantage..

The marquis de la Fayette has been mentioned as present in Virginia. When he had marched back to the head of Elk, ha received an order from gen. Washington to go on to Virginia that he might oppose gen. Phillips. His troops were in wanto almost every thing, however they proceeded to, and arrived. Baltimore on the 17th of April. Here he was under the greatest embarrassment for want of shoes, there not being a pair in his whole command.. But the love and confidence he had excited enabled him to borrow of the merchants two thousand guineas upon his own credit, with which he procured such necessàries as were wanting for the forwarding of his detachment. The marquis, being jealous that Richmond was Phillips's object, made a forced march of 200 miles, and arrived at that place the evening. before the latter reached Manchester. During the night, whici was spent in making dispositions of defence, the inarquis was joined by some militia under baron Steuben: His presence with such a body of troops secured Richmond from the hostile attack of the British, and saved the military stores with which it was then filled, The marquis, with a very inferior force, kept on the north side of James-river, and acted so cntirely on the defensive.

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and atthe same time made so judicious a choice of posts, and showed such vigor and design in his movements, as prevented any kadvantage being taken of his weakness. Upon the falling down of the British forces to the mouth of the river, with a view of collecting contributions at Williamsburgh, and in the neignbora hood, the marquis discovered no sinall activity in counteracting them. On their sudden return up James-river, he conceived their object to be the forming a. junction with lord Cornwallis, of whose marching through North Carolioa he had received some faiat intelligence. He therefore inade a rapid movement, that he might get before then to Petersburgh ;, but wiis fuiled in his design, through the vigilance of the British commanders. The last act of gen. Phillips was the taking possession of this place late in the night of May the 9th : on the isch he died. *Lord Cornwallis after the action with Greene near Guilford court-house, crossing Deep-river, marched for Wilmington, and arrived in the neighborhood on the 17th of April. He concluded opon marching to Virginia, and endeavoring a junction with Phillips. The troops were now to encounter a new march of 300. miles; while so destitute of necessaries, that the cavalry night be said to want every thing, and the infantry every thing but shoes, Néither were in any suitable condition to move, even the day before marching. His lordship provided for every possible con* tiagency as far as in his power; and then began his march on the 25th of April. He arrived at Petersburgh on the 20th of May. Here he received the unwelcome news of Poillips' death; but liad the consolation of meeting with a fresla reinforcenrent of atquí 1800 men, whom Sir Henry Clinton had sent to support the war with vigor.' Lord Cornwallis, on taking the command, feit binself so superior to the American force, that he exulted in the prospect of success; and despising the youth of his opponent, unguardedly wrote to Great-Britain---- the boy cannot escape me.+ The marquis's litile arnay consisted of 1000 continentals, 2000 militia, aud 60 dragoons. Cornwallis proceeded from Petersburgh to janies-river, which he crossed in order to dislodge Fayette froni Richmond: it was evacuared on the 27th. His lordship then marched through Hanover county, and crossed the South Anna-river. Fayeite constantly, following his naotions, but at a guarded distance in every part of his progress. His lordship at one time planned the surprisal of the marquis, while on the same side of James-river with himself; but was diverted from his inlention by, a spy, whom Fayette had sent into his camp. The marquis was very desirous of obtaining full intelligence concerning lis lordship: and concluded. upon prevailing; if possible, upon VOL. III.



one Charles (generally called Charly) Morgan, a Jersey soldiers of whom he had entertained a favorable opinion, to turn deserter, and go over to the British army, in order to his executing the bus siness of a spy more effectually. Charly was sent for, and agreed to undertake the hazardous employ; but insisted, that in case he should be discovered and hanged, the marquis, to secure his reputain tion, should have it inserted in the Jersey paper, that he was sent upon the service by his commander. Charly deserted, and when be had reached the royal army, was carried before his lordship who inquired into the reason of his deserting, and received for an. swers I have been, my lord, with the Anierican army from the beginning,and while under gen. Washington was satisfied; but being put under a Frenchman, I do not like it, and have left the service.” His lordship commended and rewarded his conduct Charly was very diligent in the discharge of his military duty, and was not in the least suspected; but at the same time careful ly observed all that passed. One day while on particular duty with his comrades, Cornwallis, in close conversation with some efficers, called Charly to him, and said "How long time will it take the marquis tocross James-river?" Charly paused a moment, and answered "Three hours, my lord.” His lordship exclaimett

"Three hours ! why it will take three days.” “No, my lord, 1) said Charly, “the marquis has so many boats, and each boat will carry so many men. If your lordship will be at the trouble ob calculating, you will find he can.cross in three liours." His lord. ship turned to the officers, and in the hearing of Charly remark. ed “The scheme will not do." Charly concluded this was the moment for his returning to the marquis. He, as soon as possible, plied his comrades with grog,* till they were well. warmed, and then opened his masked battery. He complained of the wants that prevailed in the British camp,commended the supplies with which the American abounded, expressed his inclination to return, and. then asked " What say you, will you go with me?" They agreed. It was left with him to manage as to the sentries. To the first he offered, in a very friendly manner, the taking a draught of rum out of his canteen. While the fellow was drinka

· * A mixture of rum and water, which gained its name in the following way. When admiral Vernon commanded in the Weh-Indies, to preserve the health and lives of the sailors, he ordered their allowance of rum to be mixed with a proper quantity of water, and the liquor to be put upon deck for their use. The Tailors resented the alteration ; but the resolution of the admiral obliged them, to drink the mixture or go without. Ii so happened that he generally wore on board an old grogram coat; the failors took occasion from theace to file the mixture that was imposed upon them.Grog.


äng, Charly secured his arms, and then proposed his deserting

with them, to which he consented through necessity. The ses 'cond was served in like manner. Charly Morgan, by his manages

mient, carried off seven deserters with him. When he had reached the American arıny, and was brought to head-quarters, the maigais upon seeing him cried out, “ Ha ? Charly, are you got back?!* Yes and please your excellency, and have brought set ven more withme,” was the answer, When Charly had related the reason of his returning, and the observations he had made, the narquis offered him money; but he declined accepting it, and onsky desired to have his gun again. The marquis then proposed to promote him to the rank of a corporal or sergeant. To this. Morgan replied"I will not have any pormotion. I have abi Sities for a common soldier, and have a good character, should I be promoted, my abilities may not answer, and I may lose my character.” He however nobly requested for his fellow-soldiers who were not so well supplied, with shoes, stockings, and cloth ing as himself, that the marquis would promise to do what he could to relieve their distresses, which he easily obtained in in Lord Cornwallis, meeting with a plentiful supply of fine hors ses in the stables of private gentlemen, mounted a considerable body of troops, Colonels Tarleton and Simcoe were dispatched from the South-Anna with separate detachnients to scour the interior country. They penetrated into the recesses, which had. been hitherto free from spoilers, and might have done considera able more mischief to the inhabitants. They destroyed a num. ber of arms under repair, seme cannon, a quantity of gunpowder, salt, harness, and other matters, designed for, or capable of being applied to military geryices. Had their destructive operations of this. nature been ever so considerable, instead of trifling, they maust have escaped all censure, and the Americans would have had nu just ground of complaint.; but it was otherwise in varis ous instances. Baron Steuben, who was at the Point of Forki with:500 regulars of the Virginia new levies and a few militia, getired upon the approach of Simcoe. He had been separated from the marquis, in consequence of an order from Greene for the baron to come and join him. The baron had proceeded to: the borders of North Carolina. This left the marquis so weak, that he was obliged to fall back as Cornwallis advanced, till he should be reinforced. His lordship's march to Virginia made the revocation of Greene's, order necessary. Tarleton penetrated, by a forced march, as far as Charlotte-ville, and had nearly surprised and taken the whole assembly of Virginia prisoners. They kad removed from Richmond to Charlotte-ville to be out of the


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