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ed with hogsheads of sugar and tobacco. The value was estima. ted considerably above three millions sterling But this was only a part ; for above 150 vessels of all denominations, many of them richly laden, were captured in the bay, exclusive of a Dutch frigate of 38 güns and five smaller.
The neighbouring small isles of St. Martin and Saba were rea duced in the same manner; and Rodney being informed, that á Heet of about 30 large ships, richly laden with sugar and other West-India commodities, had sailed from Eustatia for Holland just before his arrival, under convoy of a flag ship of 60 guns, he dispatched the Monarch and Panther, with the Sybil frigate, in pursuit of them. These soon overtook the convoy; and the Dutch 'admirał refusing to strike his colours, and all remonstrances proving ineffectual, a short engagement took place between his ship the Mars' and the Monarch. He died bravely in defence of his ship, when she instantly struck, and the whole convoy was taken:
This is one of the severest blows that Holland could have reEeived. The Dutch West-India company, with the magistracy and citizens of Anisterdam, are great sufferers upon the occasion But the greatest weight of the calamity seems to have fallen on the British merchants, who confiding in the neutrality of the place, and in some acts of parliament made to encourage their bringing their property from the islands lately taken by the French, had accumulated a great quantity of West-India produce, as well as European goods, in the place ; for all the property was indiscrim. minately seized, inventoried, and declared to be confiscated. * The keeping of Dutch colours flying at Eustatia, rendered it for some time a decoy to French, Dutch, and American vessels, a considerable number of which fell accordingly into the hands of the conquerors without trouble. .
The indiscriminate seizure and confiscation of property in the island, induced the merchants of St. Christopher.(or St. Kitt's) to present two memorials to adm. Rodney and gen. Vaughan, for themselves, and as agents and factors for many of the most commercial houses in Great Britain and Ireland. They stated, that their connections with St. Eustatia, and the property that had lodged there, were all in pursuance to, and under the sanction of repeated acts of the British parliament, and that their commerce had beside been entirely founded on the fair principles of merchandise, and conducted according to the rules and maxims adopted by all trading nations. The second memorial was carried and delivered to Rodney by Mr. Glanville the 11th of March. The admiral in a line to him answered, that “ their
effects at St. Eustatia could only be lodged as a deposit to supply: the necessities of their king and their country's enemies. The Island was Dutch, every thing in it was Dutch, every thing was under the protection of the Dutch flag, and as Dutch it shall bei treated.” Mr. Glanville made a sensible reply on the 13th of March, and observed" That if the king's enemies were supplied by the trade of his subjects through Št. Eustatia, they were likewise supplied through the same.channel, by the sale of priza és captured by his majesty's ships of war. The one fact is as notorious as the other, and equally.criminal.” . . .
After the surrender of Eustatia, the Jews who were numerous and wealthy were the first sufferers. Several of them were torn from their habitations with many indignities, and banished withk out knowing the place of their destination ; and were, in that state of wretchedness which followed the seizure of their propert ty, transported as outlaws, and landed at St. Kitt’s. The asserbly, to their great honor, instantly passed an act for their pres sent relief'and future provision, until they should have time to recover froin their calamitous situation. The Jews were 3000 followed by the Anericans, some of whom had been obliged to fiy their native country through the part which they had taken in support of the British cause. . These also were sent to Sto Kitt's, in much the same state with the former; and were're ceived and entertained with the sanie humanity and liberality by the people and legislature of that island. The French merhants and traders were next banished, and at length the Amsterdammers met with the same fate. Meanwhile public sales were ade vertised, invitation given, and protection afforded to purchasers of all nations and classes ; and the island exhibited one of the greatest auctions that ever was opened in the universe. Never was a better market for buyers. The goods were sold for å trifling proportion of their value; and, by report, the French agents made the greatest and most lucrative purchases. Most of the goods were conveyed to French and Danish islands; and left to find their way to those enemies, for having supplied whom, in the ordinary commerce, Eustatia suffered so severely. This whole business, from beginning to end, has brought upon Great
Britain the odium of all Europe. " · A squadron-of privateers, mostly belonging to Bristol, upon hearing of the rupture with Holland, boldly entered the rivers of Demarara and Issequibo, and with no small degree of courage and enterprise, brought out from under the Dutch forts and batteries alınost all the vessels of any value in either river. The prizes were considerable ; but adm. Rodney, in his official letter of
. .. the.:
the: 17th of March, observed in the postcriptThe Dutch
ships seized by the privateers at Demarara are droits to the ad ! miralty, the privateers having no commission to take them.”
He mentioned also the surrender of the French island of St. Bartholomew on the 16tli. ;*, «nt
. , . The inhabitants of the two Dutch colonies of Demararà and Issequibo, sensible of their defenceless situation, had already made a tender of their submission to the governor of Barbadoes requiring no other terms but a participation of those which had been granted to Eustatia and its dependencies. A deputation was sent to admiral Rodney and gen. Vaughan, to learn what were these terms. The deputies found that the colonists had made an improvident demand, as in effect, the terms which they required, were, that they might be despoiled of all their goods, and banished from their habitations. : But a nice line of distinction was drawn between the honesty and good properties of Dutchmen inhabiting the continent and of those living in Eustatia , and the continental colonists were accordingly fully secured in their property, and had every indulgence granted which could bave been fairly expected. However their countrymen, the Eustatian islanders, have been obliged to undergo the opprobrium of having the attracious crime of perfidiousness publicly charged and recorded against them in the London Gazettes; and there. fore of being unworthy of any, degree of protection, much less of indulgence.js! • The Dutch war prevented the sending of the second French naval division to the assistance of the United States of America, as. at first intended; and put the court of Versailles upon the plan of augmenting their fleet in the West-Indies, so as to ser cure it a superiority over the British. Accordingly count de Grasse sailed from Brest the 22d of March, with a fieet of 25 sail of the time, the Sagittaire, of 54 guns, 6000 land forces, and a prodigions convoy, amounting to between 2 and 300 ships; the whole composing one of the largest and richest fleets that ever sailed from France. Of this formidable armament, five ships of the line, under Mr. de Suffrein, with part of the land forces, were destined for the East-Indies, with a view likewise of intercepting commodore Johnstone's squadron and convoy on their way; the last sailed from Spithead on the 13th of the same month, in company with the British grand fleet, under admiral Darby.
The East-India company received advice about the iniddle of April, that in July of last year, Hyder Ally entered the Carnatic in different places;- that some of their troops were afterwards attacked and defeated; that Sir Eyre Coote left Calcutta and sail
ed with a reinforcement to Fort St. George,' where he arrived the 5th of November, two days after Arcot had surrendered to Hyder. Their affairs in that quarter have but a threatening ass pect; but Sir Eyre is attempting all in his power to retrieve thenia
Mr. John Adams presented to their high mightinesses the states general of the United Provinces of the Low Countries, a memorial, dated Leyden, April 19, 1781. In which he inform ed then, that the United States of America had lately thougbt fit to send him a commission (with full powers and instructions to confer with thein concerning a treaty of amity and commerce and that they had appointed him to be their minister plenipotene tiary to reside near them. Similar information was communicated at the saine time to the stadtholder, his serene highness the prince of Orange.' Mr. Adams meant to conciliate the afo fections of all parties, that so they might unite in supporting the measure he wished to obtain.
LE TT ER VIII. ...in
Roxbury, Sept. 15, 1781, 1 T ORD Cornwallis having crossed the Deep-River, gen. Greens ha resolved on carrying the war without delay into South-Carolina ; thereby to oblige the enemy to follow him, or to endan: ger their posts in that state. He expected that if the forner took place, North Carolina would not continue the seat of war; if the latter, that they would lose more than they could gain in this last state; and that, did he remain in it, they would hold their possessions in both. He discharged all his militia, refresh ed his regular troops, collected a few days provision, marched on the 5th of April toward Camden, and in the morning of the 20th, encamped at Log-town, within sight of the enemy's works, On this march lieut. col. Leę, with his partizan legion, was detached to join gen. Marion, with a few volunteer South-Corou Jina militia, on a secret expedition. To secure the provisions that grow on the banks of the Santee and Congaree rivers, the British had erected a'chain of posts in their vicinity. One of the most important was on Wright's Bluff, and called Fort Watson. To the surprise of the British it was closely invested on the 15th. Neither Lee nor Marion had any other means of
annoyance or defence but musketry, The ground on which the fort stood was an Indian mount 30 or 40 feet high: the besieger ers however erected, in a few days, on an unusual plan, a work much bigher. From thence the American riflemen fired into the fort with such execution, that the besieged durst not show themselves. On the 23d, the garrison of 114 men surrendered by capitulation. .
Camden was covered on the south an east sides by the Wa. teree, and a.creek which empties itself into that river: on the western and northern by six strong redoubts. It was defended, by-Jord Rawdon with about 900-men. The American army con. sisted of 843 continental iqi fantry, beside 36.cavalry and 31 dismounted dragoons, together with 254 North-Carolina militia who had joined them by the 25th. It was, unequal to the task of carrying the place by storm, as also of completely investing it. On the 21st Greene received intelligence, that lieut. col. Watson, who had made an incursion to Pedee, was on his return to Camden with 4 or 500 men ; upon which he sent his baggage and artillery, which could not follow him, under a guard of militia, to a secure position, and threw all his regular troops below the town, where appearances indicated more forcible hostilities against the garrison, and frequent skirmishes evinced the enemy's apprehensions of danger from that quarter ; but the principal design of Greene to intercept Watson, was prevented by his delay, and a report of his having crossed the Santee...
On the 24th the army returned to the north side of the town, orders being previously sent for the artillery and baggage to res join it at Hobkirk's-hill, about a mile from Camden. The army took post on the hill, the better to improve the opportunity that any sortie might afford ; and by its being more remote than the position formerly occupied, to iinpress the enemy.with an idea of the Americans beginning to be apprehensive of their own danger. The precaution of calling the rolls often was taken ; notwith standing which, one Jones a drummer eluded the attention of the officers and the vigilance of the guards, and got safe into town. But nothing was apprehended from that circumstance, as the army was well posted, and desired nothing more than a beid action. . - On the morning of the 25th of April this order was issued.--« The troops are to be furnished with two days .provision, and a gill of spirits per man as soon as the stores arrive.”. The provisions were issued; but the spirits being in the rear of the bag., gage-train, did not arrive at the moment, wlien they were most necessary. Lord Rawdon concluding that gen. Greene was nos