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ed with hogsheads of sugar and tobacco. The value was estimated considerably above three millions sterling* But this was only apart; for above ISO vessels--of all denominations, many of them richly laden, were captured in the bay, exclusive of-a Dutch frigate of 3S guns and five smaller. ■ .
- The neighbouring small'isles of St. Martin and Saba were reduced in the same manner; and-Rodney being informed, that a fleet of about SO large ships, richly laden with sugar and other West-India commodities, had sailed from Eustatia for Holland just before his arrival, under convoy of a flag ship of 60 guns, fee -dispatched the Monarch and Panther, with the Sybil frigate; in pursuit of'them. These soon overtook the convoy - and ths Dutch admiral refusing to strike his-colours, and all remonstrances proving ineffectual,, a short engagement took place between his ship the Mars and the Monarch. He died bravely in*defence of his ship, when she instantly struck, and the whole convoy was taken, ■ ■..•••
This is one of" the severest blows that- Holland could have received* The Dutch West-India company, with the magistracy and citizens of Amsterdam, are great sufferers upon-the occasion* Bat the greatest weight of the calamity seems to have fallen on the British merchants, who confiding in the neutrality of the place, Sand in some acts ofparJiament made to ensourage their bringing their property from the islands lately taken by the French, had •accumulated a great quantity of West-India produce, as well as European goods,, in the place f for all the property was indiscriininately seized, inventoried, and declared to be confiscated. • The keeping of Dutch colours flying at Eustatia, rendered H ftx Some time a decoy to French, Dutch, and American vessels, a considerable number of which fell accordingly into the hands wf the-Conquerors without trouble.
The indiscriminate seizure and confiscation- of property mth* island, induced the merchants of St. Christopher (or St. Kitt's} *o-present two memorials to adm. Rodney and gem Vaughan, ibr themselves, and as agents and factors for many of the most commercial houses in Great-Britain and Ireland, They stated, 4Jiat their connections with St. Eustatia, and the property that had lodged there, were all in pursuance to, and under the sanction of repeated acts of the British parliament; and that their Commerce had beside been entirely founded on the fair principles of merchandise, and conducted according to the rules and raaxims adopted by all trading nations. The second memorial was carried and delivered to Rodney by Mr. Glanville the 11th of March. The admiral in a line te him answered, that " their Vnf -.. ■ • effect*
effects at St. Eustatia could only be lodged as a deposit to suppty the necessities of their king and their country's enemies, Tiitf island was Dutch, every thing in it was Dutch, every thing .was v under the protection of the Dutch flag, and as Dutch it shall be treated." Mr. Glanville made a sensible reply on the i3th of March, and observed—" That if the king's enemies were supplied by the trade of his subjects through St. Eustatia, they were likewise supplied through the same.channel, by the sate of pris* es captured by his majesty's ships of -war. The one fact is as no*, torious as the other, and equally.criminal." ;.: .:•» c»>d
After the surrender of Eustatia, the Jews who were numerons and wealthy were the first sufferers. Several of them were toia from their habitations with many indignities, and banished without knowing the place of their destination; and were,, in that state of wretchedness which followed the seizure of their proper* ty, transported as outlaws, and landed at St. Kitt's. The assembly, to their great honor, instantly passed an act for their pre* sent relief and future provision, until they-should have time to tecover from their calamitous situation. The Jews were soaa followed by the Americans, >ome.of whom had been obliged to fly-their native country through the part which they had takea in support of the British cause. These also were sent toiStj Kitt's, in much the same state with the former; and were'received and entertained with the same humanity and liberality by the people and legislature of that island. The French merchants and traders were next banished; and at length the Amsterdammers met with the same fate. - Meanwhile public sales were ad» •Vertised, invitation given, and protection afforded to purchasers of all nations and classes; and the island exhibited one of th« greatest auctions that ever was opened in the universe. Never was a better market for buyers. The goods were sold for a trifling proportion of their value; and, by report, the French agents made the greatest and most lucrative purchases. Most of the goods were conveyed to French and Danish islands; and left to find their way to those enemies, for having supplied whom, in the ordinary commerce, Eustatia suffered so severely. Thiswhole business, from beginning to end, has brought upon GreatsBritain the odium of all Europe. ..".'. ..,;-.•
A squadron-of privateers, mostly belonging to Bristol, upon hearing of the rupture with Holland, boldly entered the rivers of Demarara and Issequibo, and with no small degree of couragetmd enterprise, brought out from under the Dutch forts and batteries almost all the vessels of any value 'in either river. The prizes were considerable; but adm. Rodney, in his official letter frit
. . . the-
the 17-th of March, observed in the postcript-—" The Dutch ships seized by the privateers at Demarara are droits to the ad-' miralty, the privateers having no commission to take them.'*, lie mentioned also the surrender of the French island of St. Bartholomew on the 16th. '. .
• The inhabitants of the two Dutch colonies of Demarara and Issequibo, sensible of their defenceless situation, had already made a tender of their submission to the governor of Barbadoes, requiring no other .terms but a participation of those which had been granted to Eustatia and its dependencies, A deputation was sent to admiral Rodney and gen. V a ugh an, to learn what were these terms. The deputies found that the colonists had made an improvident demand, as in effect, the terms which they teqoired, were, that they might be despoiled of dll their goods, and banished from their habitations. But a nice line of distinc*. tion was drawn between the honesty and ;good properties of Dutchmen inhabiting the continent and of those living in Eustatia; and the continental colonists were accordingly fully secured in their property, and had every indulgence granted which could have been fairly expected. However their countrymen, theEustatian islanders, have been obliged to undergo the opprobrium of having the attrocious crime of perfidiousncss publicly charged and recorded against them in the London Gazettes; and therefore of being unworthy of any degree of protection, much less of indulgence. > .' >
The Dutch war prevented the sending of the second French, naval division to the assistance of the United States of America, As.at first intended; and put the court of Versailles upon the plan of augmenting their fleet in the West-Indies, so as to. sescure it a superiority over the British. Accordingly count de Grasse sailed from Brest the 22d of March, with a fleet of 25 sail of the line, the Sagittaire, of 54 guns, 6000 land forces, and a prodigions convoy, amounting to between 2 and 390 •htps; the wholecomposing one of the largest and richest fleets that ever sailed from France.- Of this -formidable armament, five ships of the line, under Mr. de Suffrein, with part of the land forces, were destined for the East-Indies,, with a view likewise of intercepting commodore Johnstone's squadron and cc^i•voy on their way; the last sailed from Spkhead on the 13th of the same month, in company with the British grand fleet, undeir ■admiral Darby. • .
•The East-India company received advice about the.middle of April, that in July of last year, Hyder Ally entered the Cajnatic :in different places ;■ that -some of their troops were utter wards attacked and defeated; that Sir Eyre Coote left Calcutta and sailed
cd with a reinforcement to Fort St. George, where he aniveJ the 5th of November, two days after Arcot had surrendered-"^ Hyder. Their affairs in that quarter have but a threatening gect; bift. Sir Eyre is attempting all in bis-power to retrieve thertft Mr. John Adams presented to their high mightinesses the states general of the United Provinces of the Low Countries," % memorial, dated Leyden, April 19, n81. In which he inform^ ed them, that the United States of America had-lately thought fit to send him a commission (with full powers and instructions); to confer with them concerning a treaty of amity and commerce -r and that they had appointed him to be their minister plenipoten" tiary to reside near them- Similar information was communis eated at the same time to the stadtholder, his serene higbnes» the prince of Orange. ■ Mr. Adams meant to conciliate the af» fections of all parties, that so they might unite in supporting thai measure he wished to obtain.
Roxbury, Sept. 15, 1781. V
LORD Cornwallis having crossed the Deep-River, gen. Greens resolved on carrying the war without delay into South-Caroiina; thereby to oblige the enemy to follow him, or to endan-* ger their posts in that state. He expected that if the former took place, North-Carolina would not continue the seat of war? if the latter, that they would lose more than they could gain in this last state; and that, did he remain in it, they would hold their possessions in both. He discharged all his militia, refreshed his regular troops, collected a few days provision, marched on the 5th of April toward Camden, and in the morning of the 20th, encamped at Log-town, within sight of the enemy's works. On this march lieut. col. Lee, with his partizan legion, wari detached to join gen. Marion, with a few volunteer South-Corotf Jina militia, on a secret expedition. To secure the provisions that grow on the banks of the Santee and Congaree rivers, the British had erected a chain of posts in their vicinity. One of the most important was on Wright's Bluff, and called Fort Watson. To the surprise of the Biitish it was closely invested on the 15th. Neither Lee nor Marion had any other means of
annoyance or defence but musketry. The ground on which the fort stood was an Indian mount 30 or 40. feet high : the besiegers however erected, in a few days, an an unusual plan, a work much higher. From, thence the American riflemen fired into the fort with such execution, that the besieged durst not show themselves. On the 23d, the garrison of 114 men surrendered by capitulation.
- Camden was covered on the south an east sides by the Wateree, anda.creek which empties itself into that river: on theWestern and northern by six strong redoubts. It was defended by lord Rawdon with about 800 men. The American army consisted of 843 continental infantry, beside 36 cavalry and 31 dismounted dragoons, together with 254 North-Carolina militia who had joined them by the 25th. It was unequal to the task of carrying the place by storm, as, also of completely investing it. On the 21st Greene received intelligence, that lieut. col_ Watson, who had madean incursion to Pedec, was on his return; to Camden with 4 or 500 men ; upon, which he sent his baggage and artillery,, which could not follow him, under a guard of militia, to a secure position, and threw ail his regular troops below the town, where appearances indicated more forcible hostilities against the garrison, and frequent skirmishes evinced the enemy's apprehensions of danger from that quarter; but the principal design of Greene to intercept Watson, was prevented, by his delay, and a report of his having crossed the Santee.
On the 24th the army returned to the north side of the town,-ordrrs being previously sent for the artillery and baggage to rejoin it at Hobkirk's-hill,. about a mile from Camden. The army took post on the hill, tire better to improve the opportunity that any sortie might afford ; and by its being more remote than the position formerly occupied, to impress the enemy with an idea of the Americans beginning to be. apprehensive of their own danger. The precaution of calling the rolls often was taken ; notwithstanding which, one Jones a drummer eluded the attention of the officers and the, vigilance of the guards, and got safe into town. But nothing was apprehended from that circumstance, as the army was well posted, and desired nothing more than a field action. , . . . N .
. On the morning of the 25th of April this, order was issued— ".The troops are to be furnished with two days provision, and agili of spirits per man as soon as the stores arrive." The pro-, visions were issued ; but the spirits being in the rear of the baggage-train, did not arrive at the moment when they were most; necessary. Lord.Rawdon concluding that gen. Greene was ni%