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tical posture of our affairs, it will avail us nothing should she attempt it hereafter. We are at this hour suspended in the ba lance ; we cannot transport the provisions from the states ing which they are assessed to the army, because we cannot pay the teamsters, who will no longer work for certificates.- In a word we are at the end of our tether, and now or never our deliver ance must come.”
As soon as the rupture between Great-Britain and Holland I was known at Versailles, the king gave immediate orders that all the Dutch vessels in any of the French ports should be made acquainted with it; and accordingly a circular letter was written by the marquis de Castries on the 25th of last Decem ber, and sent to the several ports. The first material capture inade by the British, after the hostile manifesto against the Dutch was that of the Rotterdam of 50 guns and 300 nien-belonging to the States-General, by the Warwick, capt. Elphinstone, o the 5th of January.
On the 9th the Dutch council of state proposed, that the mast rine of the republic should consist of 94 ships and armed vessels, and 18,430 seamen. There were to be 11 ships of the line, 15 of 50 guns and 2 of 40. Three days after, the States-General published a placart, granting letters of marque against the Bri-* tish. This was followed after a time by an answer to the Brita? tish manifesto.
Notwithstanding the necessary increase of national expences in Great-Britain by the Dutch war, yet toward the end of Januaa; ry, the house of commons hearkened to the calls of humanity, and in consequence of different petitions, voted for the relief of the sufferers by the hurricane at Barbadoes 80,000l. and at Jamaica 40,000).
A second attempt has been made upon the isle of Jersey. The baron de Rullecourt, at the head of about 2000 men, conducted it. By the badness of the weather near half his troops were driv*
en back to France, and never joined him. He at length however
Meanwhile the alarm extended, and the nearest troops and militia advanced toward the point of danger, and formed on the heights near the town under inaj. Pierson, who instantly secured a hill of great advantage, which the enemy had overlooked. Rullecourt sent to the major, requiring his compliance with the terms of the capitulation; and received for answer, “ that of he and his troops did not lay down their arms within twenty minutes, and surrender themselves prisoners of war at the expira. tion of that time, they might be certain of an attack." . Piersoa was punctual to his word ; and made an assault on the town in all accessible parts with such impetuosity, that the enemy were driven rapidly upon the center of their force in the inarket-place, where the action was soon decided; for Rullecourt being mortaily wounded, the next in command seeing the hopelessness of their
situation, requested the lieutenant-governor to resume his author rity, and to accept of their surrender as prisoners of war. The satisfaction arising from so sudden a deliverance and so brave an exertion, was damped by the fall of maj. Pierson, who was shot through the heart in the instant of victory. The extraordinary military abilities displayed by so young an officer (for he was 01ly five and twenty) rendered his death an object of general regret. During the engagement the redoubt was retaken with fixed bayonets, and without firing a shot, by the grenadiers of the 83d regiment. Thus the whole French party, amounting to near 800, were either killed or taken.... . On the 24th of January, lord George Gordon was privately taken from the Tower to Westminster-hall, arraigned, and order ed to prepare for trial on Monday the 5th of February. When he came to be tried, though the croud was very large, order was observed, and there was no mischief or violence. About five the next morning he was acquitted. On the news of bis ac quittal, there were rejoicings and illuminations at Glasgow, Paisley, Dunbar, Montrose, Brechin, and a great number of other towns and villages in Scotland. The Protestant association at Glasgow, made a subscription of several hundred pounds, toward defraying his lordship's expences. It has been suggested, that government did not wish to convict his lordship for tear of offending too many of the Scots. : ,
. . * · The garrison and inhabitants of Gibraltar having received 20 supplies of provision from Great Britain since the beginning of the preceding year, nor from the Barbary shores, nor the most distant coasts of Africa, were reduced to extreme distress. The governor, ever since October, made a reduction of a quarter of a pound from each man's daily allowance of bread. Their peat was reduced to a pound and a half in the week, and at length was scarcely eatable. The inhabitants had to pay for bad ship biscuit full of worms, a shilling a pound; the same for flour in no better condition ; eighteen pence for salt, the sweeping of ships bottoms and store-houses ; half a crown for old Irish salt butter, and the same for the worst brown sugar.. When the arrival of the vessels from the Mediterranean opened a market for fresh provisions, turkies sold for 31. 125. a-piece; sucking pigs at two guineas; ducks at half a guinça; and small hens at nine shillings. A guinea was refused for a calf's pluck, and one pound seven shillings for an ox-head. The interest and honor of Great Britain were deeply engaged in the timely relief of that fortress. It was accordingly one of the first objects of government in the com mencement of the year, and the grand deet under the conduct of
admirals Darby, Digby, and Sir J. Lockhart Ross, was fitted put early for this service : but only 28 sail of the line could be spared. The French had, at the same time, a fleet little inferior either in number or force, nearly ready for sea at Brest. ;
The British fieet sailed [March 13.] with the great East and West-India convoys; but met with a delay on the coast of Irei land, in waiting for the victuallers from Cork, which were to proceed with them to Gibraltar, The East and West-India con voys 'having proceeded on their respective voyages, the British fleet, with 97 transports, store-ships and victuatlers, arrived off Cadiz the 12th of April. Don Cordova, with the Spanish fleet, had put into the harbor ; and adm. Darby having explored the same, forwarded the convoy to Gibraltar, with soine men of war and frigates to cover thein, while he cruised with the main body of the feet off the Straits mouth to watch the enemy. The Spá. niards had been for some time emploved in constructing a number of gun and bomb boats. The gun boats carried each a long 26 pounder, which threw shot further than any ships guns could reach. This force was rendered still more dangerous by the addition of the bomb boats upon a siinilar construction. With these they canonaded and bombarded the British ships every morning; till the wind, at its stated hour, began to spring up, when they fled, and were pursued in vain. But they failed in their grand object, and no material damage was done to any part of the shipping. - Nothing could be more grievous to Spain than this relief. She seems to have set her heart so entirely on the recoréry of Gibraltar, as not to have had another object in the war. The whole naval and military force of that kingdom, and its resources of every sort, appear to have been directed mainly to that single point. These various powers were called into action, and the unfortunate town, with its miserable inhabitants, were the victims of her indignation. One hundred and seventy pieces of 'cannon, of the heaviest metal, and eighty mortars, disgorged their tremendous torrents of fire all at once upon that narrow.spot. This dreadful cannonade and bombardment was continued night and day for a considerable time without intermission. Nothing could be more splendidly magnificent, or dreadfully sublime, than the view and report of this tremendous scene, to those who observ. ed them from the neighboring hills of Barbary and Spain during the night ; especially in the beginning, when the cannonade of the eneniy being returned by gen. Elliot, with stili superior power and greater fierceness; the whole rock seemed to vomit out fire, and all distinction of parts was lost in ilanle and soioke. VOL. III.
The artillery officers and engineers in the garrison computed, that during more than three weeks from the first attack, the Spaniards continued regular to expend at least a thousand bar. rels of gunpowder at a hundred weight each, and to fire from four to five thousand shot and shells in every 24 hours upon the fortress. After discharging 75,000 shot, and 25,000 shells in this course of firing, it was lowered to about 600 of both in the 24 hours. : When adm. Rodney returned from New York to St. Lucia toward the close of the last year, the reports of the dismantled state of St. Vincent through the hurricane, induced him and gen, Vaughan to undertake an expedition for the recovery of that island; but after landing a number of troops with the marines on the 16th of December, and continuing a day on the island, the French were found in such force, and their works in such condition, that the commanders were obliged to reimbark the troops without venturing upon an attack.
Not much more than a month after this attempt, the com. manders, in consequence of instructions from Great-Britain, directed their views.to the reduction of the Dutch island St. Eustatia. This island, though barren and contemptible in itself, had long been the seat of a lucrative and prodigious commerce ; and might be considered as the grand free port of the West-Indies and America, and as a general market and magazine to all natis ons. Its richest harvests, however, were during the seasons of warfare among its neighbors, owing to its neutrality and situation, with its unbounded and unclogged freedom of trade. The island is a natural fortification, and has but one landing place, which may be easily rendered impracticable to an enemy. The inhabitants, though not very numerous, included a portion of the natives of almost all trading countries. · The British fleet and army appeared (Feb: 3:] before and sur rounded St. Eustatia with a great force. Rodney and Vaughap sent a peremptory summons to the governor, to surrender theisland and its dependencies within an hour, accompanied with a threat, that if any resistance was made he must abide the consequences, Mr. de Graaff, totally ignorant of the rupture between Great Britain and Holland, could scarcely believe the officer who de livered the summons to be serious. But he returned for answer that being utterly incapable of making any defence, he must of necessity surrender, only recommending the town and inhabitants to the clemency of the British commanders. The wealth of the place excited the astonishment of the conquerors. The whole island seemed to be one vast magazine. All the store-houses were filled with variour commodities, and the very beach was.cover