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High-street is the eastern and principal entrance to the city. The northern entrance is also very fine; the part called St. Giles's being a sort of place, some two hundred and fifty feet broad and two thousand feet long, planted with noble trees, and having on one side the extensive buildings of St. John's College, and the University Galleries on the other, while Magdalene Church and the Martyrs' Memorial are directly in front. The southern entrance—that by which travellers on the Great Western Railway enter the city over Folly Bridge-is the least imposing. The western entrance to the town has rather a singular appearance, from the road being carried across the meadows on a raised causeway. This road is known as the Seven Bridges, from its passing over the seven streams into which the Thames here separates. The immediate approach to the town in this direction is very mean; and it is singularly unfortunate, that the station of the North-Western Railway should be placed in this direction. The site of Rewley Abbey is appropriated for the station.

It may be as well, in looking a little more particularly at the principal buildings, to commence with those belonging to the University. Of these the largest and most important is that called the SCHOOLS, which was so named from its being originally intended as the place in which the University lectures in the various faculties should be given. The names of these still remain in gold letters over the several doorways; but the building itself has long been applied to other purposes, only natural philosophy and medicine being now taught in it. The chief part of the upper story is appropriated to the Bodleian Library and Picture Gallery: the lower part is used for the exhibition of the Arundel Marbles, the preservation of University records, and for examination for degrees, and the transaction of University business. The building consists of a very large quadrangle, the external front of which is one hundred and seventy-five feet in length. The first stone was laid in 1613; and the style is rather fanciful than elegant. If, however, the visitor should feel little inclined to linger over the exterior of the building, he will find treasures inside enough to occupy the longest time he can devote to them. A doorway at the left corner of the quadrangle is the entrance to the BODLEIAN LIBRARY. This noble library owes its foundation, towards the end of the sixteenth century, to the munificence and zeal of Sir Thomas Bodley. In subsequent times, additions have been made by various benefactors, on a scale worthy of the prince-like founder. Whole collections, often of a most costly character, have been presented; and endless have been the gifts of a lesser grade, both in printed books and manuscripts. The University, too, has, for the last sixty-seven years, annually set aside a considerable sum for the purchase of books; while, by Act of Parliament, a copy of every new work has to be forwarded to the library by the publisher. By all these means the Bodleian Library has grown to be one of the finest public libraries in existence; and in some departments—that of Oriental Literature, for example—it is probably unrivalled. The management of the library is creditable to the liberality of the University. Literary men, whether belonging to the University or not, are freely admitted to the use of the books, upon proper introduction ; while the rooms are open to the public every day in the week. Some of the most curious articles are exposed to general view in glass cases, and will be found interesting-else, perhaps, the mere outsides of books are not commonly very attractive. Still, even in the rooms appropriated to books, there will be found much that will repay the visit; to say nothing of the portraits of eminent literary men that hang upon the walls, or the curious ceilings of the rooms, or the arrangement of the presses which contain the books, and which, to those not accustomed to college libraries, have an air of novelty.

From the Library we ascend the stairs to the PICTURE GALLERY, which occupies the three upper stories of the quadrangle. The pictures consist for the most part of portraits, the chief interest of which arises from their representing men of literary eminence, or benefactors to the University. Some of them, however, are valuable as works of art. Several are by Holbein ; one or two are attributed to Jansen ; Vandyke, Lely, Kneller, Reynolds, Phillips, and Wilkie are the painters of others. Among those by Holbein, the portraits of Henry VIII., as well of his noble victims, the Earl of Surrey and Sir Thomas More, will attract attention; as will also those of Luther and Erasmus, of Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell, though a connoisseur would, perhaps, hesitate before he acquiesced in every instance, either in the authenticity of the portrait or the genuineness of the master. Among the more interesting of those which bear the name of Vandyke, are those of Charles and his Queen, of Laud, and of the Earls of Strafford, Falkland, and Pembroke. Ben Jonson, Dryden, Cowley, Addison, Swift, Prior, and Locke, may be taken as samples of the literary men whose likenesses adorn the walls. The portrait of Handel is said to be the only one for which he sat. •Paine, the Architect, instructing his Son,' is a very pleasing example of the genius of Sir Joshua Reynolds. The two full-length portraits of William IV. and Queen Adelaide, are by no means favourable specimens of Wilkie's powers. One of the latest additions to the gallery is the large portrait, by Lucas, of the Duke of Wellington in his robes, as Chancellor of the University. In the centre room are a few casts from Grecian statues, and also some original busts. One of the best of these is Chantrey's bust of the Duke of Wellington : there is another, by the same artist, of the late Dean of Westminster, Dr. Ireland. Those of Newton and Sir Christopher Wren are by Wilton and Bacon. One of the most striking objects in this room is a brass statue of the Earl of Pembroke, Chancellor of the University from 1616 to 1630. It is the work of Le Soeur, but is traditionally said to have been designed by Rubens. Along the centre of the rooms are numerous models of ancient temples of Greece and Italy; a very curious one of a subterraneous palace in Guzerat ; an elaborate model of the Cathedral of Calcutta; and two, of extremely beautiful execution, of the Eleanor Cross at Waltham, and the Martyrs' Memorial at Oxford. Among the rarities' in the room are a chair made out of the ship in which Drake sailed round the world, and the veritable lantern of Guido Fawkes !

In a room on the basement story are the celebrated Arundel Marbles. They consist of inscribed stones, brought mostly from Smyrna, and were part of the collection made by the Earl of Arundel in the seventeenth century. Their chief value is, of course, for students of classic antiquities; but they are otherwise interesting, as being a part of the earliest collection of ancient sculpture brought to this country, and as having done much to excite the study of antiquity in England. Selden wrote a description of the Earl's collection ; his own stores are now deposited along with them.

Close by the Picture Gallery is the DIVINITY SCHOOL, wherein the exercises for degrees in divinity are performed. It is a large and noble room, and in its original state, before the elaborate carvings were defaced, or the painted windows broken, must have had a splendid appearance. It was built in 1480, and was one of the richest specimens of the architecture of that age. The upper room, which was used for Duke Humphrey's library, now contains a portion of the Bodleian. From the Divinity School a door leads into the CONVOCATION HOUSE, where the members of Convocation meet for the transaction of the University business, and the conferring of degrees. The building itself has nothing remarkable about it-only at a convocation would it be worth seeing

The buildings we have been noticing are all united with each other, and most of

the other University buildings are close at hand. The THEATRE will of course be visited. It is a large semi-classic structure, of the style that Jones and Wren made so popular in England. It was erected under the superintendence of Sir Christopher Wren, who is said to have taken the ground-plan from the theatre of Marcellus at Rome. The interior area is eighty feet by seventy; and the roof which spans it, unsupported by a single pillar, is one of the largest roofs in existence which is borne merely by the walls. This roof had to be rebuilt in 1802. The Theatre is sometimes called Sheldon's Theatre, from having been built at the expense of that prelate, who paid £15,000 for its construction, and endowed it with £2000 for keeping it in repair. It is used for the public ceremonials of the University, for which it is admirably adapted. It will contain about three thousand persons; and the vast space being entirely unobstructed, permits all the proceedings to be freely seen. The room, too, is a very splendid one. On great occasions the area is occupied by Masters of Arts and strangers, the latter, perhaps, in brilliant uniforms; on the semicircle at the northern end sit the University magnates and noblemen, in their robes of scarlet or purple, and gold : the lower galleries are filled with ladies, in all the glory of beauty and full dress ; while the upper galleries are crowded by undergraduates—as will be conceived, a brave sight. Some senior fellows love yet to talk of its appearance when the allied monarchs were entertained in it in 1814. The most memorable of its latest gala days is the visit of the Queen and Prince Albert in 1841, and the installation of the Duke of Wellington as Chancellor in 1834, on which occasion the recitation of congratulatory addresses, &c., occupied three days; to which may perhaps be added the entertainment of the savans in 1847, on occasion of the meetings of the British Association at Oxford, and of the Archæological Institute in 1850. For many years after the erection of the Theatre the University press was worked in the roof, and long after the printing was done in the building called the Clarendon, all books printed by the University bore the words, “E Theatro Sheldoniano." The CLARENDON PRESS stands just by the Theatre : it is a neat building, which was erected out of the profits of the University edition of Clarendon's History, whence its name. Vanbrugh was the architect. It was used as the University printing-office for above a century; but when the present large building was erected, the old Clarendon was of course applied to other uses. The Museums of Geology and Mineralogy collected by Drs. Buckland and Simmons, are now deposited in it: they are open to the public. At a little distance from the Clarendon is the ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, so called after that odd compound of learning and quackery, Elias Ashmole, who presented his museum to the University. In its former state it was a choice collection of * rarities ;' including all kinds of marvellous relics, from the head of the dodo down to a very curious shoe made of more than a thousand pieces of leather.' Ashmole's collection was the Tradescant Museum, so famous in its day, swelled by the addition of coins, manuscripts, and all sorts of oddities accumulated by himself. The library of Lilly, the notorious astrologer, is among its treasures. Within these few years it has undergone a careful re-arrangement; the worthless rarities are dismissed or removed out of sight; judicious selections have been made of new objects of natural history; and without becoming a mere dry and formally arranged collection of scientific display, it is now rendered instructive to the naturalist and antiquary, and interesting to the general visitor.

In the centre of the square, of which the Schools form one side, stands the RADCLIFFE LIBRARY, a building which presents a curious contrast to the surrounding edifices. The building itself is supported upon arches and surmounted by a dome. The basement consists of a double octagon; the upper part is round, and has attached Corinthian columns. Gibbs was the architect, and the building occupied from 1737 to 1749. It was founded by the eccentric but eminent physician, Dr. Radeliffe, who bequeathed the sum of £40,000 for the purpose ; to which he added an endowment of £350 a year for the purchase of books, the salary of a librarian, and the repairs of the building. I The library and collections are to be especially connected with the study of natural philosophy. On no account should the stranger omit to visit the Radcliffe ; if only for the view from the summit. The interior of the library is light and graceful, though perhaps not very appropriate. A gallery, supported by Ionic pilasters, is carried round the room. The dome, which is forty-six feet in height from the floor, is divided into compartments, and, like the walls, elaborately ornamented in stucco. The contents of the room deserve a leisurely examination. Among the works of art are casts of some of the most celebrated antique statues, which are so arranged as very considerably to heighten the general effect of the room ; but of more value to the visitor are the few original antiquities, such as the marble candelabra found in the ruins of the Emperor Adrian's villa. There are also some busts of eminent naturalists, the first place among which is due, perhaps, to that of Cuvier, by the younger David. Among the more generally interesting of the objects connected with the particular purpose of the library, are the large and choice collections of Italian and other marbles, which display a variety that not a little surprises a novice; and some excellent models, illustrative of geology and physical geography. From the interior you pass to the balustrade, which surrounds the dome on the exterior, from whence you may obtain an excellent view of the city. The building stands nearly in the centre of the city, and from it you have a panoramic view of Oxford, such as should not be missed. The marvellous assemblage of academic architecture can here be fairly understood ; the extent and variety are perceived, and their positions and connection become clear ; while the height, although quite sufficient to let the whole of the city, and a good portion of the suburbs, be seen, is yet not so great as to produce that very unsatisfactory appearance common in what are called bird's-eye views.

The buildings we have been noticing are placed close together; the other University buildings are situate some distance from them. The Radcliffe Observatory stands a short distance north of the city; the University Press is only just within the limits. Neither of these need we visit. The former has nothing in its exterior to attract the stranger, who is, of course, not admitted inside. The University Printing-office is a very large building, having a frontage of 250 feet, and projecting wings 288 feet long; and it has some architectural pretensions. The erection of it was commenced in 1826. A press-room in the south wing is 288 feet long and 33 feet wide, being, it is said, the largest in the kingdom. One other building belonging to the University remains, which must not be passed unnoticed,—the UNIVERSITY GALLERIES. This is the last building of importance that has been erected in Oxford, and the most important that has been erected there for many years. Sir Robert Taylor and Dr. Randolph bequeathed sums of money, the one "for erecting a proper edifice, and for establishing a foundation for the teaching and improving the European languages" -the other for erecting galleries for the reception of the Pomfret Statues belonging to the University, "and for paintings, engravings, and other curiosities, which may occasionally be left to that learned body.” It being found difficult to procure ground suitable for these two buildings, the authorities determined to unite them in one; and C. R. Cockerell, Esq., R.A., was the architect appointed to carry out the intentions of the founders. The central building is about 150 feet long, and has a tetrastyle Corinthian portico rising above the building itself to a level with the wings. The

wings, which project about 70 feet beyond the centre, have Ionic columns, and very large arched windows, which cut through the entablature—a feature not unusual in Mr. Cockerell's works. The east wing is the Taylor building; the west, the Randolph building. The front of the Taylor building in St. Giles's-street has an unusual richness and piquancy of character, from the capitals of the four columns being surmounted by statues of France, Germany, Italy, and Spain-the nations whose languages are taught in the institution. Internally, the rooms seem well adapted for their several purposes. Visitors will, of course, only be attracted by the Galleries. They consist of galleries for ancient and modern sculpture; and for paintings, drawings, and engravings. Already they contain many noble specimens of art. In ancient sculpture, there is the Pomfret collection, which, though of but meagre interest compared with the collections in the British Museum, is yet of much value. The modern sculpture includes the “munificent gift," as the University well termed it, of the original models of the entire series of Sir Francis Chantrey's busts, the greater part of his monumental figures, and also his studies from the antique, which his widow presented to the University. It is not easy to overrate the value of this collection. Probably no sculptor ever equalled Chantrey in the execution of a bust. Almost invariably he seized the most characteristic expression, and he always represented the features with fidelity, and in a masterly breadth of style. His chisel perpetuated, as is well known, a large proportion of the most eminent of his contemporaries; and these invaluable records, in all their original freshness of conception, are here brought together in one gallery.

But valuable as is this collection, it is far surpassed by the drawings of Michael Angelo and Raffaelle, which are in the rooms above. These formed a part of the matchless collection of drawings which belonged to Sir Thomas Lawrence. After his decease, the entire collection, upon the Government declining to purchase it, passed into the hands of the Messrs. Woodburn, the picture-dealers. Eventually, the drawings of Michael Angelo and Raffaelle were purchased by the University for the sum of £7000, towards which the Earl of Eldon subscribed no less than £4150. There are here fifty-three drawings by Angelo, and one hundred and thirty-seven by Raffaelle. Some of them are questionable, but the greater part are undoubted originals. They are framed, and shown in the new gallery to considerable advantage, Michael Angelo's drawings are marked with the grandeur and force of conception and daring execution that distinguish his completed works; often they show, what might less be looked for, a delicacy and gracefulness not to be surpassed even by Raffaelle, The drawings of Raffaelle have all the characteristics of his genius. Some of them are exquisitely beautiful; and in his drawings, as in those of his great rival, it is very instructive to observe the scrupulous pains taken to arrive at correctness, and the earnestness with which even the most trifling of the accessories are studied. The lesson may be profitably considered by other students besides those of art.

The picture-gallery is a handsome room, 96 feet long by 28 wide. Its contents are not very valuable. The most noticeable feature, perhaps, here, is the series of copies, in oil, of Raffaelle's Cartoons, made by Henry Cooke, who was employed by William III. to repair the originals. A superior work is á copy of Raffaelle's School of Athens, which has been attributed, apparently without sufficient reason, to Julio Romano. Among the original pictures may be mentioned half-a-dozen portraits of painters, of their own painting: the rest are nought. Mr. Hope's valuable Entomological Collection has been recently placed in the Taylor building.

We may commence our visits to the colleges with the chief of them—CHRIST

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