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In 3 Charles I. the Earl of Arundel obtained an act of parliament, intituled “ An Act concerning the title, name, and dignity of Earl of Arundel, and for annexing the castle, honor, manor, and lordship, of Arundel, in the county of Sussex, with the titles and dignities of the baronies of Fitz-Alan, Clun, and Oswaldestre, and Maltravers, with divers other lands, tenements, and hereditaments in the act mentioned, being then parcel of the possessions of Thomas, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl Marshal of England, to the same title, name, and dignity of the Earl of Arundel.” *
The castle stands close to the town, on a steep and lofty circular knoll, partly natural, and commands an extensive prospect over the flat country towards the sea, and as far as the Isle of Wight. It has been supposed that the sea once washed the castle walls, as anchors and other marine implements have been found near it. Arundel Castle is mentioned as early as the time of King Alfred, who bequeathed it to his nephew Adhelm. After the Norman conquest, it was given by William I. to his kinsman Roger de Montgomeri, Earl of Arundel and Shrewsbury. Afterwards the castle passed to the family of Albini, from them to the Fitz-Alans, and at last, by the marriage of the heiress of that race with Thomas Duke of Norfolk (in the reign of Elizabeth), to the family of the Howards, by whom it is still retained.
In the reign of Stephen the castle was held by Queen Adeliza, relict of Henry I. When the Empress Maud was about to contest with Stephen the crown of England, she landed at Little Hampton, and proceeding to Arundel was received into the castle and hospitably entertained by Adeliza, who does not, however, appear to have taken part with her. She had been but a short time in the castle, when Stephen suddenly appeared with a strong army before it, and demanded that she should be given up to him. This Adeliza resolutely refused, pleading the rites of hospitality and kindred ; and Stephen generously permitted Maud to depart unmolested. In the war between Charles I. and his parliament, Arundel Castle was held and garrisoned by the latter. It was, however, taken by Lord Hopton in 1643, surrendering to him at the first summons; and two months after was as suddenly retaken by Sir William Waller. From that time it continued little better than a mass of ruins, until it was restored by the late Duke of Norfolk to its ancient magnificence. A considerable portion of the old building was demolished on this occasion. The modern parts are in an imitative Gothic style, intended to accord with the remains of the ancient fabric. Looked at with the eye of an architect or an artist, the building has but little that will command praise : but its great extent gives to it an air cf grandeur, and its position renders it from many points a very striking object. On the north and west sides of the castle is a deep ditch. The entrance gateway, originally defended by a drawbridge and portcullis, was built by Richard Fitz-Alan in the reign of Edward I. This, with some of the walls and the keep, is all that remains of the ancient castle. The keep is a circular stone tower 68 feet in diameter, and perhaps the most perfect in England. In the middle of it is the dungeon, a vault about 10 feet high, accessible by a flight of steps, and about 154 feet by 94 feet in extent. The keep has been long and is still tenanted by some owls of large size and beautiful plumage, sent over from America, as a present to the late duke. Among the interior apartments of the castle may be mentioned the magnificent library, built in imitation of the aisle of a Gothic cathedral; the ornamental parts are copied from the cloisters at Gloucester, and St. George's, Windsor. It is 122 feet long, and 30 feet wide. The ceilings, columns, and presses, are entirely of mahogany. The great hall, called the Baron's Hall, was begun in 1806; it is 70 feet
GENERAL RAILWAY IRECTIONS.
by 34 feet, and 36 feet high. The roof is of Spaish chestnut, curiously wrought, and the plan is taken from Westminster, Eltham, anl Crosby Halls. There is at one end a window of stained glass, representing King John signing Magna Charta. In a series of thirteen stained-glass windows are portrayed the figures of the barons from whom the late duke was descended; and tlere are also portraits of his family. Several other rooms are very splendid, and contain many valuable pictures and articles of taste. It is needless to name these pictures, however, or to enter into further details respecting the castle, for the publicare not permitted to view the interior. The park, however, is, we believe, still open. It is of great extent and of the most varied beauty. In it are trees of majestic size ; sunny glades, and pleasant dells, with herds of deer dotted about them; and hills vhich afford prospects of astonishing extect and richness. Some of these views, inded, are of surprising beauty: the eye wanders over a wide expanse of country-through which wind the rivers Arun and Adur to the ocean, which stretches far away to the horizon—the Isle of Wight lying like a light cloud upon it. In other directins the wide South Downs extend, in wave-like undulations, far as the eye can reach.
Just under the castle, on an arm of the Arun, stood, till within the last few years, a water-mill of singularly picturesque appearane. Perhaps hardly another watermill in all England was so often sketched and printed as Swanbourne Mill. Artists of every grade delighted to depict it; and scarcely an Exhibition, wherever held, whether of oil or water-colour painters, was withat its Old Mill at Arundel." It had become quite a classic structure. Yet neithe its age nor its associations could save it. It was pulled down to make way for the tawdry “ Dairy” (belonging to the castle above) which now occupies its site.
We must not quit Arundel without mentioning that the river Arun is famous for the gray mullets which in summer come up to Arundel in large shoals, in quest of a particular weed, the feeding on which renders them a great delicacy. The tasteful excursionist will of course, therefore, if he have opportunity, avail himself of his visit, to partake of the delicacy. We hope he will not neglect, moreover, if he have time, to explore the beautiful scenery which he will find for the next few miles up the banks of the Arun.
GENERAL RAILWAY DIRECTIONS.
The London terminus of the London, Brighton, and South-Coast Railway, is on the south or Surrey side of London Bridge. Until recently the station belonged jointly to the South-Eastern or Dover, with which the Greenwich is united, and the Brighton and Croydon lines. A new and very much larger station is, however, now in course of erection, to meet the requirements of the greatly increased traffic arising from the extension of the various lines. The new station promises to afford much greater facility than the old one; but, at present at least, it by no means appears likely to equal it in elegance of architecture. It is somewhat imposing from its size, but plain, bald, and characterless. The large central semicircular building will, it is understood, be appropriated by the South-Eastern Company,—the station of the Brighton Company being placed on the right, or south side. The inside, or shed-part of the station, instead of being, as formerly, devoted indiscriminately to both Companies, is
now divided by a wall; the Southĉastern, with its connected lines, taking the lefthand half, and the Brighton and south-Coast, with its satellite, the Croydon, taking the right-hand portion. These shels tre some 300 feet long, and the central parts of the roofs, which are of iron, are covered with sheet glass, which gives to the whole interior area of the station an unusually light and cheerful appearance.
Into more particulars respecting thestation, it is not consistent with our plan, nor does it seem in any way desirable, to ater. A few words respecting the trains may not, however, be out of place. The nuaber of trains which run daily between London and Brighton varies somewhat accordirg to the time of year ; but this winter (1850-51) not a train has, we believe, been discoitinued. Two of the daily week-day trains are Express, and perform the distance in ne hour and a quarter, and one hour and twenty minutes. The morning mail-train is dso an express, but takes an hour and a half to perform the journey. By these train the fares are 13s. by the first, and 10s. 6d. by the second class. By the Ordinary tains, first-class passengers pay 10s. 6d. ; secondclass passengers, 8s. One train each day carries Third-class open-carriages ; passengers by which are charged 58. 4d. The Parliamentary train conveys passengers every morning, in covered carriages, at 4s. 2d. each. First and second-class passengers may take day or return-tickets by any tran, which entitle them to return on the same day, at little more than a fare and a half The return-tickets issued on Saturdays or Sundays are available on the Sunday or Monday following. These are the ordinary every-day trains. On Sundays there are fewer trains, but most of them convey thirdclass passengers, and one at least is during summer, an excursion-train.
It is to the Brighton Railway Ompany that (at least, of the London Companies) the credit is due of commencing the Excursion-train system; and by them, on the whole, it has been most steadily csrried out. At first, passengers were conveyed to Brighton and back for 5s., but during 1850 the charge has been reduced to 38. 6d. ; and during the summer, passengers were taken to Brighton and back, at that low rate, very frequently on week-days, and regularly every Sunday. These excursion-trains stop at very few stations on the wiy, and accomplish the journey in about two hours. The carriages (at 3s. 6d.) are third-class open carriages; but first and second-class carriages, at proportionate fares, are attached to the train.
It only remains for us to explain briefly the Table we append of the route. It is intended merely to indicate the more noteworthy objects which lie in the vicinity of the several stations. The excursionist is often tempted by the appearance of any locality or object near a station, to mark it down for a future visit. Our Table will tell him what he may expect to find there. The stations are placed in the centre column, with the distance from the two termini on the sides. In the outer columns is given the place or object, as it occurs, either on the right or left hand of the passenger, as he journeys towards his destination. Thus the Croydon station is 101 miles from London, 404 miles from Brighton. The town lies on the right hand of the railway (in going to Brighton), and contains, among other things, the ruins of the ancient archiepiscopal palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and a fine old church ; while 2} miles further to the right, is Beddington, where is the seat of the Carews. On the left of the station is Addington (3} miles), the present seat of the Archbishops of Canterbury, and Addiscombe (2 miles), the East India Company's College for Cadets.
Ouse. Ouse Vinduct, 14 miles)
from station; one of the finest works of the kind in the kingdom. It consists of thirty - seven arches, of thirty feet span, and one hundred feet above the surface of the Frater. It is only excelled by the viaduct over the Dee, on the Chester and Shrewsbury Railway
( St. Leonard's Forest. Many
beautiful walks. In this forest the rivers Adur, Arun, and Ouse, and a feeder of the Mole, have their source, within a circle of three or four miles' diameter.
...... Goring ....
Kingston : harbour and
wharfs. A place of a gool deal of business ...
Village on right.
New Shoreham: Church
Old Shoreham, 1 mile.
Lancing-by-Sea, or South
Lancing, in some repute as a quict bathing-place.
Lancing, a pretty rural vil.
lage. Sompting, 1 mile. Tower
Goring: village on left...
Goring Lodge, 1 mile.
Angmering: handsome new
. Angmering ...