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300; San Patricio, 600 ; total 4,000. Deducting 600 for the municipality of San Patricio (an Irish settlement), the Mexican population had declined from 6,400 to 3,400 between 1806 and 1834. This is the only district of Texas in which there are no negro labourers.
Of the various colonies introduced into it, only two have prospered ; one of Mexicans, on the river Guadalupe, by the road which leads from Goliad to San Felipe; the other of Irish, on the river Nueces, on the road from Matamoros to Goliad. With the exception of San Patricio, the entire district of Bexar is peopled by Mexicans. The greater part of the lands of Bexar can easily be irrigated, and there is no doubt that so soon as the Government, compassionating the lot (suerte) of Texas, shall send a respectable force to chastise the savages, the Mexicans will gladly hasten to colonise those valuable lands which court their labour.
“ Extensive undertakings cannot be entered on in Bexar, as there is no individual capital exceeding 10,000 dollars. All the provisions raised by the inhabitants are consumed in the district. The wild horse is common, so as rarely to be valued at more than 20 rials (about 10 shillings British) when caught. Cattle are cheap; a cow and a calf not being worth more than 10 dollars, and a young bull or heifer from 4 to 5 dollars. Sheep are scarce, not exceeding 5,000 head. The whole export trade is confined to from 8,000 to 10,000 skins of various kinds, and the imports to a few articles from New Orleans, which are exchanged in San Antonio for peltry or currency (peleteria y metálico).
“ There is one school in the capital of the Department supported by the municipality, but apparently the funds are so reduced as to render the maintenance of even this useful establishment impossible. What is to be the fate of those unhappy Mexicans who dwell in the midst of savages without hope of civilization ? Goliad, Victoria, and even San Patricio, are similarly situated, and it is not difficult to foresee the consequences of such a state of things. In the whole department there is but one curate (cura); the vicar died of cholera morbus in September last.
“ The capital of the Department of the Brazos is San Felipe de Austin, and its principal towns are the said San Felipe, Brazoria, Matagorda, Gonzalez, Harrisburg, Mina, and Velasco. The district containing these towns is that which is generally called · Austin's Colony.'
“ The following are the municipalities and towns of the Department, with the population :-San Felipe, 2,500; Columbia, 2,100; Matagorda, 1,400; Gonzalez, 900; Mina, 1,100: total, 8,000. Towns: Brazoria, Harrisburg, Velasco, Bolivar. In the population are included about 1000 negroes, introduced under certain conditions guaranteed by the State Government (introducidos bajo ciertas condiciones, garantizadas por el gobierno del estado); and although it is true that a few African slaves have been imported into Texas, yet it has been done contrary to the opinion of the respectable settlers, who were unable to prevent it. It is to be hoped that this traffic has already been stopped ; and it is desirable that a law of the General Congress and of the State should fix a maximum period for the introduction of negroes into Texas, as servants to the empresarios, which period ought not, in my opinion, to exceed 10 or 12 years, at the end of which time they should enjoy absolute liberty.
“ The most prosperous colonies of this Department are those of Austin and Dewitt. Towards the north-west of San Felipe there is now a new colony under the direction of Robertson; the same that was formerly under the charge of Austin.
“ In 1833, upwards of 2,000 bales of cotton, weighing from 400 to 500 lbs. each, were exported from the Brazos; and it is said that in 1832 not less than 5,000 bales were exported. The maize is all consumed in the country, though the annual crop exceeds 50,000 barrels. The cattle, of which there may be about 25,000 head in the district, are usually driven for sale to Natchitoches. The cotton is exported regularly from Brazoria to New Orleans, where it pays 21 per cent. duty, and realises from 10 to 101 cents. per lb. for the exporter, after paying cost of transport, &c. The price of cattle varies but little throughout Texas, and is the same in the Brazos as in Bexar. There are no sheep in this district; herds of swine are numerous, and may be reckoned at 50,000 head.
“ The trade of the Department of the Brazos has reached 600,000 dollars. Taking the estimate for 1832 (the settlements having been ravaged by the cholera in 1833), the exports and imports are estimated thus : 5,000 bales of cotton, weighing 2,250,000 lbs., sold in New Orleans, and producing at 10 cents. per lb. 225,000 dollars net; 50,000 skins, at an average of 8 rials each, 50,000 dollars. Value of exports, 275,000 dollars (exclusive of the sale of live stock). The imports are estimated at 325,000 dollars.
“ In this Department there is but one school, near Brazoria, erected by subscription, and containing from 30 to 40 pupils. The wealthier colonists prefer sending their children to the United States; and those who have not the advantages of fortune care little for the education of their sons, provided they can wield the axe and cut down a tree, or kill a deer with dexterity.
“ The Department of Nacogdoches contains four municipalities and four towns. Nacogdoches municipality has a population of 3,500; that of San Augustine, 2,500; Liberty, 1,000; Johnsburg, 2,000; the town of Anahuac, 50; Bevil, 140; Teran, 10; Tanaha, 100 : total population, 9,000, in which is included about 1,000 negroes, introduced under special arrangements (convenios particulares).
“ Until now it appears that the New York Company are only beginning to interest themselves in settling their lands, bought or obtained by contract with Messrs. Zavala, Burnet, and Vehlein, empresarios, who first undertook the colonization of the immense tracts which they obtained of the State of Coahuila and Texas, and which are laid down in the maps
of the North as lands of the Galveston Bay Company. In consequence of that transaction, the Company are proprietors of nearly threefourths of the Department of Nacogdoches, including the 20 leagues of boundary from that town to the Sabine. Of the contracts of Zavala, Burnet, and Vehlein, some expired last year, and others will
expire during the present year. The Supreme Government, if at all anxious to do away with a system of jobbing so ruinous to the lands of the nation, at the hands of a few Mexicans and foreigners, ought, without loss of time, to adopt means to obviate the confusion daily arising out of contracts with the speculators, which create a feeling of disgust among the colonists, who are dissatisfied with the monopoly enjoyed by companies or contractors that have acquired the lands with the sole object of speculating in them.
“ The settlements of this district have not prospered, because speculators have not fulfilled their contracts, and the scattered population is composed of individuals who have obtained one or more leagues of land from the State, and of others who, in virtue of the law of colonization inviting strangers, have established themselves wherever it appeared most convenient. But the latter have not even the titles to their properties, which it would be only fair to extend for them, in order to relieve them from that cruel state of uncertainty in which some have been placed for several years, as to whether they appertain to the United States or to Mexico. And as these colonists have emigrated at their own expense, it seems just that the contractors on whose lands they have settled, and who were not instrumental to the introduction of their families, should not receive the premium allowed by law. In stipulating with those contractors (empresarios) both the General and State Government have hitherto acted with too much negligence, and it