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little huts: all were exceedingly well satisfied with the location. I have set the carpenters to work to build me a temporary store-house.

March 19th.—Mr. Egerton busily occupied in striking out the lines for the streets; the people still engaged in clearing away round the “fort.” The Shawnees, who are encamped a short distance from us, brought in four turkeys and a deer. Self engaged in drawing plans for my house and garden. (Thermometer 80° ; cool, refreshing breezes.)

March 20th.—(8 A. M., 65°). The equinoctial gale blowing fresh from the N. E. gave us a painful sensation of cold, although the positive difference of temperature by the thermometer was not nearly so great as our feelings would lead us to believe.-Wind fresh from N. E.

Clear day ; noon. The people employed as yesterday. This is my thirtieth birth-day. We had intended to have celebrated it, and at the same time to have laid the foundation-stone of the church, but we delayed on account of the absence of some of the party.

In the evening, Fortunato Soto returned from Monclova, with his appointment to the office of Commissioner to the Colony. He also brought an official letter from the Governor to myself, assuring me of the interest felt by the government in our colony; and promised that he would apply to the Federal Government for a detachment of troops. To our great dismay, Fortunato had not been able to cash any of my drafts on New Orleans, and as we had previously ascertained that no money could be obtained in Bexar, we found ourselves reduced to the absolute necessity of sending to Matamoras, as the colony had not pecuniary means sufficient to obtain the necessary supplies. After long and serious consideration, it was unanimously determined that no one could ensure the requisite funds but myself ; thus obliging me to quit the colony before hardly anything could be regulated !

March 21st.-—The people employed some in clearing, and others in building themselves huts; self occupied in arranging different affairs preparatory to my departure. March 22nd.—Every person employed the same as yesterday.

March 23rd. This morning, Messrs. Power, Paulson, Soto, and myself, with the Mexican guard, made an excursion to the head of the stream. We passed over most beautiful lands for about eight miles, when we arrived at the springs. These form large pools of very clear water, in the midst of a large grove of very fine timber, consisting principally of live and white oak, elm, pecan, and hickory. (Thermometer 99° in the tent.) This timber continues on both sides of the stream all the way down to the Villa. The springs are full of fish, and are crossed in various directions by beaver-dams. The magnolia and other beautiful shrubs were in full blossom; altogether forming one of the prettiest spots I have seen anywhere. After resting a short time in the shade, we proceeded on to a hill which rises from the middle of the plain, to the height of about six hundred feet. We mounted to the top of it, and beheld the country spread out before us like a map. We could distinctly see the hills which give origin to the Nueces and Rio Frio, to the E. N. E. of us; the Moras, our own stream, running nearly due south and west of us, the Piedras Pintas and Sequete. The hill is composed of a very compact dark granite, and a fine species of soft limestone. It is situated about four miles from the head waters of Las Moras, and twelve from our Villa.

After making our observations, we returned to the Villa highly gratified with our excursion. We found two new Shawnees, who had brought us three deer and two turkeys.

March 24th.-People still employed in clearing, self in arranging affairs for my departure, and the rest of the gentlemen in laying out the streets, &c. (Thermometer 96o.) In the evening a chief of the Shawnees, with three of his tribe, arrived. The chief is a very fine


about six feet and a half in height.

March 25th.To-day was perhaps the most interesting we have passed since our leaving New York.

Immediately after breakfast, every thing being previously prepared, we marched in procession to the site

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of the church. The Commissioner and myself, with the
Mexican flag, leading the way; next to us were two master
masons, one carrying a stone and the other a portion of
mortar. On arriving at the place, we found that a small
part of the foundation of the church had been dug; one
of the masons prepared the bed, and I then laid the first
stone of the Villa de Dolores: a bumper of wine all round
was then tossed off to the prosperity of the new town,
amidst cheers and repeated firing of guns. We now pro-
ceeded to swear allegiance to the Mexican Republic,
which was done first by myself, and then by all the rest
of the colonists. We next proceeded to the election of
magistrates, when the following officers were declared duly

1st Regidor

2nd ditto

V. Pepin.

These names were received by cheering, &c.; a bumper
of rum was drunk to my health, this being the celebration
of my birth-day. We now sat down to dinner, which I
commemorate, as we dined off turkey and “ Paté de foies
gras aux truffles," from Paris, while our wines were Ma-
deira and Champagne! After dinner, the Chief and other
Shawnees came to the tent, and danced, and sang their
war-song.-I should have stated that the day began by
a religious ceremony, which, to say the least of it, was
equally interesting with the remainder. One of the fami-
lies named Page had a little girl aged six months, which
they wished me to christen, as there was no clergyman near
the place. I accordingly did so; my little daughter,
Anita, being its godmother, and through Mr. Egerton, be-
stowing her name upon it. The day was beautifully fine,
and everything passed off with the greatest order and good

March 26th.Everybody employed in laying out the streets and clearing them—the day exceedingly hot. (Thermometer 90°.)

March 27th.-The Shawnees left us ; the chief having

given me the name of his “ friend,” while I gave him a pipe. All hands employed as yesterday.

March 28th. - Got a plough to work, and a blacksmith's shop employed repairing another plough ; most of the people writing letters; self very busy in placing all my goods in my new storehouse, which is completed, with the exception of the roof.-Thermometer 100.

March 29th. This morning most of the people idle, or writing letters ; self concluding my affairs, and taking a farewell stroll “ about the town.About one o'clock, every thing being ready, I had the pleasure of seeing the first stone of my house laid. After dinner, the animals were brought out, and a farewell address was made to me, and I left the “ Villa” accompanied by Messrs. Egerton, Paulson and Addicks. We went as far as the “ Sauz,” where we passed the night. Although I had been so short a time in the place, it was like leaving home, and would have caused me real regret, had it not been that I was returning to my family.

March 30th.-Mr. Egerton returned to the Villa, and the rest of us continued our journey; but we soon turned off from the road, as I understood there were some veins of coal among the hills. We passed over some beautiful land, and saw several large pools of fine water. After a long search, we were fortunate enough to meet with the coal; I took several specimens of it, and then made for the river, which we found with much less difficulty than when we last saw it. We crossed at the Paso de las Adjuntas del Rio Escondido, and I took leave of my lands for this trip.

The settlement at Dolores did not prosper, owing to a variety of causes; of which the principal apparently was the absence of proper qualifications in the colonists themselves. Mr. Power, who accompanied the Empresario, disapproved of the site of Dolores, on the various grounds that the stream Las Moras was insignificant; the settlement too remote from the nearest town, San Fernando, which was seventy

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miles distant; and the soil, though of the best quality, not productive without irrigation, which was troublesome and expensive. Mr. Power preferred the lands on the Rio Grande; the flats being a deep rich loam, containing sufficient moisture to produce any crop without irrigation, and the highest bank of the river (there being three) affording the very finest pasture. The settlers, unacquainted with the agriculture of the country, were disappointed in their first crop, which failed for want of irrigation. They became discontented with their location, and, with the exception of eight persons, determined to leave it on the 17th of June. They withdrew accordingly, and Mr. Power and the remainder removed, for safety, to San Fernando, to await the arrival of another expedition. Political occurrences in succeeding years interrupted colonization in the district of the Rio Grande; and although Dolores obtained a place on the map, it had no pretensions to the name of a successful settlementsupplying farther evidence of the superiority of the Anglo-Americans in forming colonies. The North Americans are the only people who, in defiance of all obstacles, have struck the roots of civilization deep into the soil of Texas. Even as I trace these lines, I reflect upon their progress with renewed wonder and admiration. They are, indeed, the organised conquerors of the wild, uniting in themselves the threefold attributes of husbandmen, lawgivers, and soldiers.

From this episode in Texan history, I turn, to resume the narrative of general events during the

year 1834.

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