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places of shelter and good winter fodder for his cattle. We have been constantly wet, notwithstanding which we have not suffered in our healths, with the exception of a few colds.

Feb. 1st and 2nd.--We encamped close by the side of a small canal, made for irrigation. This, although a very inconvenient place, being without wood or pasture, was the best we could obtain.

The Rancho of Don Erasmo Seguin is admirably situated on a rising ground, about 200 paces from the river San Antonio, and well surrounded by woods. They have made a species of fortification as a precaution against the Indians. It consists of a square, palisadoed round, with the houses of the families residing there forming the sides of the square. They have also three pieces of brass cannon, but not yet mounted. This may be made a beautiful place, but it is as yet in its infancy, having been planted only two years. It consists of two sitios of very fertile land. They have begun to sow cotton, which thrives very well: I procured a small quantity as a specimen.

Feb. 3rd.—I hired five yoke of oxen from the Rancho, to assist us as far as Bexar. We started early, and passed through some fine woods.

We were obliged, in some places, to make the road afresh, but generally we found it excellent, as the weather was delightful, and we appeared at length to have got into the climate of Mexico. We today passed a beautiful stream called Las Calaberas, which is really a most romantic spot, with high banks covered with magnificent timber. The carts all got over without trouble, so that we had no annoyances to interfere with ou admiration of the scene ; immediately after passing through the wood, on the western side, we encamped, having travelled about thirteen miles.

Feb. 4th.—We made an early start this morning, and proceeded to a brook called the “ Salado," where we encamped, having made about twelve miles. We formed our camp with great precaution, as this place is famous for the murders committed by the “ Tahuacanos," being one of


their usual resting-places. The night passed without any alarm.

Feb. 5th.—I went forward to Bexar, with four men well armed, in order to obtain permission from the Alcalde to encamp. The train started about ten o'clock, and arrived at Bexar about half-past twelve o'clock, and encamped at the entrance of the lake.

Feb. 6th.—We discharged the carts and waggons, and in the afternoon were visited by nearly all the women in Bexar, so that the camp had the appearance of a fair.

The approach to Bexar is very pretty, as you have the vale of the river with the town of Bexar on the opposite or western bank. Behind, the land rises, so as to form an agreeable background, while two churches of some ruined Missions, a short distance from each other, contribute to give a civilised and interesting appearance to the prospect. Bexar itself is a small town, now containing about 2,500 souls. It is most advantageously situated, the land around it exceedingly fertile, with canals already made for the purpose of irrigation. The river San Antonio is a beautiful stream, and would work machinery to almost any extent ; yet all these natural advantages are neglected, and Bexar is one of the poorest, most miserable places in this country. The Indians steal all their horses, rob their Ranchos, and, nearly every week, murder some one or two of the inhabitants. From want of union and energy, they tamely submit to this scourge, which all admit is inflicted by a few Tahuacanos.

A German man and woman of our expedition were here married. They had arranged everything with the priest before speaking to myself, otherwise I should have had it delayed till we arrived upon our own territory.

Feb. 16th and 17th.-Anxious but unable to proceed, for want of sufficient means of transport.

Feb. 18th.-We, to our great satisfaction, bade farewell to Bexar about one P.M., with fifteen carts and waggons. After travelling about eight miles, we encamped on a small brook called E Leon.


Feb. 19th.—We started about eight o'clock, and passed through a very fine country, consisting of a black loam, with an abundance of flint pebbles ; it is much more hilly, affording beautiful prospects, but it appears to be rather deficient in water. At five o'clock we encamped on the right bank of the Medina, a very beautiful stream, which empties itself into the San Antonio. We this day marched about fifteen miles.

Feb. 20th.-Began our march about eight o'clock, and at mid-day got to the Charcon, a very fine pool of water, where I had all the cattle taken out. After about an hour's rest, we again started, and proceeded to Francisco Perez, where we only found one small hole, with muddy water, barely enough for the people. To-day we travelled about eighteen miles, through a very hilly country, covered with scrubby trees and small brush.

Feb. 21st.We commenced our march this morning very early, as we were anxious to reach water for our cattle. About two o'clock we arrived at Arroyo Hondo, which was entirely dry. We proceeded on to the Tahuacano, about fifteen miles from our starting-place; but, to our great dismay, found no water. All this day we had been without water, either for the people or the cattle; we were therefore obliged to proceed about eight miles further, when, about nine o'clock in the evening, we came to a small pool at a place called Tierras Blancas. This water was so dreadfully bad that I could not touch it; however, such as it was, it was a great relief; as, although the Rio Frio was only distant about seven miles, the cattle could not have reached it.

Feb. 22nd.—We started about nine o'clock, and passed the Rio Frio at one o'clock without much difficulty. We encamped on the right bank, in a very good situation, except that there was but little pasture. In the evening nearly all hands turned out to shoot wild turkeys, and were fortunate enough to bring in twenty-three very fine ones. There was an immense quantity of fish in the river. We attempted to haul the seine, but, from there being a great quantity of stones and logs, we met with no success. Several of the people caught some with lines and hooks.

Feb. 23rd.—We remained to-day on the Rio Frio, in order to rest our cattle ; while at breakfast two Shawnee Indians arrived at the camp. They had been hunting on the Rio Grande, and were now returning to Natchitoches with beaver-skins. I bought three beaver-traps of them. In the evening, fourteen turkeys were obtained.

Feb. 24th.--About two A.M. a most violent squall of wind, accompanied by thunder, hail, and rain, came on suddenly. Our tent was carried away, and in a moment, we were completely deluged. The ground on which we were encamped, being level, was immediately flooded, and all the fires extinguished; the consequence was a scene of confusion such as we had seldom witnessed. Fortunately the storm passed away in a few minutes, and we then gradually began to get on dry clothes, light our fires, &c. This was a very cold windy day, but, being dry, we determined to remain in our encampment to air our tents, &c.

Feb. 25th. There being no water, we were obliged to go as far as La Leona. It is incorrect to say there is no water, as about two leagues from Rio Frio there is a small brook, where water can generally be found, distant 18 miles from our starting-place. We arrived just at dark, and had a great deal of difficulty in crossing. There is a bridge of branches over the stream, and Mr. Egerton (the surveyor) and myself went forward to repair it; notwithstanding which, we upset two carts into the water, owing to the darkness and carelessness of the drivers. We at length kindled large fires on each side of the bridge, and tied ropes to the horns of the leading cattle, by which precautions all the remainder were passed over without accident. This stream is small, but very beautiful, well timbered, and surrounded by rich fertile lands. The water is permanent; it empties itself into the Nueces.

Feb. 26th.-We started at nine o'clock, and proceeded through a fertile country which only wants inhabitants. We fell upon a trail of some nine or ten Indians, apparently about two or three days old. Soon after we met the Mexican post from Rio Grande; they saw some of us at a distance, and, taking us to be Indians, galloped off into the woods, and it was some little time before they rectified their mistake. We proceeded to Buena Vista, a distance of about 10 miles from La Leona, and there encamped.

Feb. 27th.—Started about nine o'clock, sent on a party to the Nueces to repair the bridge, hoping to be able to cross before night, but owing to the long journey, and one of the Mexican carts breaking its axle-tree, we did not arrive on the bank till dark. We accordingly encamped, after travelling about 20 miles. There is a stopping-place, called the Tortugas, about three leagues before you reach the river.

Feb. 28th.—We crossed the Nueces without accident, as we took a great deal of trouble. The banks are very steep, and still remained so in spite of all that had been done by the party yesterday. I, therefore, thought it necessary to take out the oxen, lower the carts by ropes on the bridge, drag them across, and then draw them up the opposite bank by the oxen.

As we this day entered into the Rio Grande Grant, the gentlemen and people made me pass the last; they then placed me in a light cart, and all hands drew me over the bridge, with the English and Mexican flags flying, and all the people cheering most enthusiastically. We afterwards cut out a tablet on the side of a large tree, and Mr. Little with a knife carved the following words :-"Los Primeros Colonos de la Villa de Dolores pasaron el 28 de Febrero, 1834."

We proceeded about a league through very rich land to “La Espantosa,” which is a pool of water about fifty yards wide and four or five miles long: it is full of fish, but, from the quantity of bushes and dead wood, we could do nothing with the seine.

March 1st.We started about nine o'clock, and proceeded through a most dreary sandy waste, where the wheels sank in as far as the axles, to a place called La Pina, a fine pool of water, which filters through a large bed of stone;

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