« ZurückWeiter »
MEXICAN UNITED STATES
The Supreme Executive Power, provisionally appointed by the general Sovereign Congress of the Nation, to all who shall see these presents, Know, and understand, That the same Congress has decreed and sanctioned the following FEDERAL CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED
MEXICAN STATES. In the name of God, all powerful, Author and supreme Legislator of society. The general constituent Congress of the Mexican Nation, in the discharge of the duties confided to them by their constituents, in order to establish and fix its political Independence, establish and confirm its Liberty, and promote its prosperity and glory, decree as follows:
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED MEXICAN
Title lst. ONLY SECTION.-Of the Mexican Nation, its
Territory and Religion.
Article 1. The Mexican Nation is for ever free and independent of the Spanish Government, and every other power.
2. Its Territory consists of that which was formerly called the vice-royalty of New Spain, that styled the captain generalship of Tucaton, that of the commandant generalship formerly called the Internal Provinces of East and West, and that of Lower and Upper California, with
the lands annexed, and adjacent islands in both seas. Ву a constitutional law, a demarcation of the limits of the Federation will be made as soon as circumstances will permit.
3. The Religion of the Mexican Nation is, and will be perpetually, the Roman Catholic Apostolic. The Nation will protect it by wise and just laws, and prohibit the exercise of any other whatever.
Title 2nd. ONLY SECTION.- Form of Government of the
Nation, of its integral parts and division of Supreme Power. 4. The Mexican Nation adopts for its Government the form of Republican representative, popular Federal.
5. The parts of this Federation are the States and Territories as follows, &c. :
6. The supreme power of the Federation will be divided, for its exercise, into Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Title 3rd. Section 1st.-Legislative Power, of its
nature and the mode of exercising it. 7. The legislative power of the Federation shall be disposed in a General Congress ; this is to be divided into two houses, one of Deputies (Representatives), and the other of Senators.
Section 2nd. Of the House of Representatives. 8. The House of Representatives shall be composed of representatives elected totally every two years, by the citizens of the States.
9. The qualifications of the electors shall be constitutionally prescribed by the Legislatures of the States; to whom, likewise, appertains the regulation of the elections, in conformity with the principles established by this Constitution.
10. The general basis for the appointment of representatives shall be the population.
11. For every 80,000 souls one representative shall be appointed, or for a fraction which passes 40,000. The State which may not contain this population shall, not with. standing, appoint one representative.
12. À census of the whole Federation, which shall be formed in five years and renewed every ten, shall serve to designate the number of Deputies corresponding to each
State ; and in the mean time it shall be regulated agreeably to the basis established in the former Article, by the census which governed in the election of Deputies in the present Congress.
13. In the same manner shall be elected in each State the necessary number of supernumerary representatives, in the ratio of one for every three full representatives, or for a fraction amounting to two; the States which may contain less than three full representatives shall elect one supernumerary.
14. The Territory which may contain more than 40,000 inhabitants shall appoint a full representative and one supernumerary, who shall have a voice and vote in the formation of laws and decrees.
15. The Territory which may not contain the foregoing number of population shall appoint one full representative and one supernumerary, who shall be entitled to a voice in all matters. The election of Representatives for the Territories shall be regulated by a special law.
16. In every State and Territory of the Federation, the appointment of Representatives shall be made on the first Sunday in October previous to its renovation. The election to be indirect.
17. The election of Representatives concluded, the electoral College shall remit through their President to the Council of Government a legal return of the election, and notify the elected of their appointment by an official letter, which shall serve as a credential of election.
18. The President of the Council of Government shall give to the returns, referred to in the preceding Article, the direction prescribed by the regulations of said Council.
19. To be a Representative it is required— First, To be at the time of the election, twenty-five years of age, complete. Second, to have been a resident of the State, from which elected, at least two years, or born in the State, although a resident in another.
20. Those not born in the Territory of the Mexican Nation, to be Representatives, must have, besides eight years' residence in it, 8000 dollars of real estate in any part of the Republic, or an occupation that produces them 1000
dollars per year.
21. Exceptions to the foregoing Article—First, Those born in any other part of America, that in 1810 appertained to Spain, and has not united itself to another nation, nor remains subject to the former, to whom three years' resi. dence in the Territory of the Federation is sufficient, in addition to the requisites prescribed in the 19th Article. Second, for the military not born in the Territory of the Republic, who, with arnis, sustained the independence of the country, eight years' residence, complete, is sufficient, and the requisites prescribed in the 19th Article.
22. In the election of Representatives, actual residence shall have preference over birth and non-residence.
23. Those cannot be Representatives — First, Those deprived or suspended from the rights of citizenship. Second, The President and Vice-President of the Federation. Third, The members of the Supreme Judicial Court. Fourth, Secretaries of the Cabinet and the officers of their departments. Fifth, Those employed in the Treasury, whose functions extend over the whole Federation. Sixth, Governors of States and Territories, Commandant Generals, Archbishops and Bishops, Governors of Archbishoprics and Bishoprics, Provisors and Vicar Generals, Circuit Judges, Commissary Generals of treasury and war, for the States and Territories over which they exercise their functions.
24. In order that any persons enumerated in the foregoing Article may be eligible, it is necessary they should have ceased their functions six months previous to their election,
Section 3d.- Of the Senate.
25. The Senate shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by an absolute majority of the votes of the Legislatures, and renewed by one-half every two years.
26. The seats of the Senators appointed in the second place, shall be vacated in two years, and the first appointed in four years, and so on in succession.
27. When a vacancy occurs by death, resignation, or other cause, it shall be filled by the corresponding Legislature in session ; if not, as soon as it meets.
23. To be a Senator, it is necessary to possess all the qualifications required by the former Section to be a Representative, and moreover, to be at the time of election Thirty years of age.
29. No person can be a Senator who is disqualified from being a Representative.