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CHAPTER IV.

Government of Texas-Civil List – Post-office--Judicial System

-Customs Regulations-Revenue—Tariff-Mexican Tariff Texan Finances-Slavery- Population-Morals and ReligionEducation-Army and Navy-Press and Public AmusementsInternal Improvements—— Agriculture—Land and Colonization Laws since the Revolution-Towns and Corporations-Law and Medicine Commercial Position of Texas.

The first division of this work has exhibited the physical characteristics of Texas ;-the origin and progress of the Republic have been detailed down to the period of the establishment of commercial relations between it and Great Britain. The institutions and policy of the country, with its general condition and prospects, remain to be noticed. For the sake of clearness, I shall arrange the several subjects of explanation under formal heads—beginning with the GOVERNMENT. The Constitution of Texas resembles in its

general features that of the United States-the main distinction between them being that Texas is an integral, and the United States a Federal Republic. In this respect the Texans deem themselves more advantageously situated than their neighbours, whose government is necessarily one of compromise between conflicting interests. The operation of these interests is seen in the Presidential elections, and the policy of the future administration may be easily determined by ascertaining the amount of support the successful candidate may have received in the several States, and the predominant interests in those States, in their relations to the Federal Government. There is another important particular in which the Texan and American governments differ. The President of the United States is elected for four years, and is eligible to re-election; the President of Texas is elected for three years, and is not eligible to re-election until after the lapse of at least one Presidential term.

CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEES.- In the commencement of the session, the Speaker in each branch of the Legislature appoints the following standing Committees, to consist of five members each :

A committee on Foreign Relations.
A committee on Ways and Means.
A committee on Claims and Accounts.
A committee on the Post Office.
A committee on the Judiciary.
A committee on Public Lands.
A committee on Indian Affairs.
A committee on the State of the Republic.
A committee on County Boundaries.
A committee on Roads, Bridges, and Ferries.
A committee on Naval Affairs.
A committee on Military Affairs.

Civil List.—The following is the compensation allowed to public officers on the Civil List of Texas :

President, with house furnished, ten thousand dollars.
Vice-President, three thousand dollars.
Secretary of State, three thousand five hundred dollars.

Secretary of Treasury, three thousand five hundred dollars.

Secretary of War, three thousand five hundred dollars.
Secretary of Navy, three thousand five hundred dollars.
Attorney-General, three thousand dollars.
Postmaster-General, two thousand dollars.

Commissioner-General of the Land Office, three thousand dollars.

Chief clerks of departments, one thousand five hundred dollars.

Treasurer, two thousand five hundred dollars.
Auditor, two thousand five hundred dollars.
Chief Justice, tive thousand dollars.
Associate or District Judges, three thousand dollars.
Members of Congress, per diem, five dollars.

Speaker of the House of Representatives, per diem, seven dollars.

President, pro tem., of the Senate, while acting as such, per diem, seven dollars.

Milage for Members of Congress, for erery twenty-five miles going and coming, five dollars.

Chief Clerks of both Houses, per diem, six dollars.

Foreign Ministers, four thousand five hundred dollars outfit; tive thousand dollars salary per annum.

Consuls, paid by fees. No charge to be made for certificates of character and intentions.

Secretary of Legation, two thousand dollars.
Assistant Clerks, per dien, six dollars.
Reporter, per diem, eight dollars.
Sergeant-at-Arms, per diem, five dollars.
Translator for Congress, per diem, five dollars.
Door-keeper, per diem, five dollars.

The heads of departments to be furnished with offices, stationery, fuel, lights, &c., at the expense of

government. Congress appoints a Chaplain, but his salary, if is not specified.

No alien can be appointed to any public office, except a Consulate.

if any,

Post Office. This department is under the Superintendence of a Postmaster-General, as in the United States. The following list (for 1840) shows the number of Post-offices in the Republic, the names of the towns and counties, and the distance of each Post-office station from the seat of Government.

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Austin

Travis Aransas

Refugio Bustrup

Bastrop Beaumont

Jefferson Big Creek

Fort Bend Bolivar

Brazoria Brazoria

Brazoria Belgrade

Jasper Ballards

Red River Caney Crossings Matagorda Cedar Creek Washington Centre Hill Austin Crockett

Houston Columbia

Brazoria Carolina

Montgomery Coffee's Station Fannin Comanche

Travis Clarkesville Red River Cochran's Retreat Jasper Columbus

Colorado Colorado City Fayette Dunn's

Robertson Douglas

Nacogdoches De Kalb

Red River Egypt

Colorado Eperson's Ferry Red River Fanthorp's Montgomery Fair Hill

Travis Franklin

Robertson Franklin

Red River Fort Houston Houston Fort Oldham Washington Fort Bennett Houston Fort English Red River Gaine's Ferry

Sabine Groce's Retreat Montgomery Gonzalez

Gonzalez Gay Hill

Washington Galveston

Galveston Goliad

Goliad Huntsville Montgomery Hodge's Bend Red River Hardman's Nacogdoches Hibbetville Liberty Holme's

Jasper Hamilton

Shelby Houston

Harris Hickory Grove Bastrop Johnson's

Red River Independence Washington Jonesboro

Red River Jasper

Jasper Jones

Fayette La Baca

Jackson
Lamar

Refugid
La Grange Red River
Lynchburg Harris
La Grange Fayette
Liberty

Liberty
Lexington

Fannin

Austin

Names of P.O.

Miles.

Lowell 156 Mustang Prairie 30

Mount Sterling 235 Montgomery 170 Mount Pleasant 185 Matagorda 190 Mount Holland 377 Myrtle Springs 208 Montague 220 Menard's Mills 157 Myrtle Turf 112 Mount Vernon 195

New Cincinnati
210 Nashville
250 Nacogdoches
672 Orozimbo

13 Oak Grove
490 Pattillo's
215 Palo Gacho
100 Peach Creek

70 Potter's Creek
107 Pine Island
262 Plum Grove
475 Preston
130 Primm's
110 Quintana
128 Quairo

15 Richardson's
105 Richmond
550 Rutersville
230 Rusk
118 San Luis
200 Salem
600 Spilman's Island
356 San Antonio
138 Spring Hill

57 Swartwout
107 Smithfield
255 Spring Creek
230 Sabine City
229 San Augustine
190

San Felipe
296 Slate Bank

Smithfield
195 Shelbyville
380 Sabine Town
175 Shelton's

11 Seguin
285 Tenoxtitlan

98 Texana
520 Tuscumbia
185 Tellet's Prairie

87 Velasco
137 Victoria
150 | Udolpho
395 Wooton's
205

Warsaw
72 Washington
230

Ward's
618 | Zavala

Miles Gonzalez

82 Houston

248 Nacogdoches 263 Moutgomery 148 Bastrop

40 Matagorda 175 Jefferson

264 Red River 456 Fannin

993 Liberty Harris

153 Montgomery Montgomery

215 Milam

85 Nacogdoches 280 Brazoria

200 Washington 98 Jefferson

250 St. Augustine 370 Colorado

155 Harrison Jefferson

275 Fayette

55 Matagorda 165 Bastrop

56 Brazoria

232 Gonzalez

78 Jasper

215 Fort Bend

160 Fayette

78 Montgomery

138 Brazoria

200 Jasper

225 Harris

215
San Antonio 140
Shelby
Liberty

285
Liberty
Harris

153 Jefferson

335 Sau Augustine 360 Austin

120
Red River
Red River 390
Shelby

390 Sabine

217 Red River 510 Gonzales

67 Milam

103 Jackson

147 Harrison Red River 530 Brazoria

232 Victoria

107 Montgomery 183 Nacogdoches 300 Harrisou Washington 130 Red River 500 Jasper

202

Letters from Texas to Europe are forwarded through the United States, but hitherto European emigrants have had reason to complain of great irregularity in their transmission.

Unclaimed letters are periodically advertised in the newspapers, with the names of the parties to whom they are addressed.

NatiunAL Arms, SEAL, AND Flag.–The arms of the Republic are a White Star of five points, on an azure field, encircled by an olive and live oak branches. The Great Seal bears this device, and the letters “Republic of Texas.” The National Flag consists of a blue perpendicular stripe, of the width of one-third of the whole length of the flag, with a white star of five points in the centre, and two horizontal stripes of equal width of two-thirds the length of the flag. The upper, white; the lower, red. The National Standard is a golden star on an azure field.

ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. The common law of England, "so far as it is not inconsistent with the Constitution and the acts of the Congress,” has,

together with such acts," been adopted in Texas, as the general law of the land. The act of 20th January, 1840, providing for its adoption, repealed all laws in force prior to the 1st of September, 1836, with the exception of the laws of the Consultation and the Provisional Government in force at the time of passing the act, and the laws relating exclusively to grants and colonization of lands in the State of Coahuila and Texas, together with such laws of the General and State Government as related to the reservation of islands and lands, and also of salt lakes, licks and springs, and every description of

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