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seventy yards of such an army, at least double in number, intrenched, too, behind a breastwork impregnable to small arms, and protected by a long brass nine-pounder ;-to see them, I say, do all this, fearless and determined to save their country and their country's liberty or to die in the effort, was no ordinary occurrence. Yet such was their conduct, and so irresistible was that Spartan phalans, that it was not more than from fifteen to twenty minutes from our first fire until a complete rout of the enemy was effected ; and such slaughter on the one side, and such almost miraculous preservation on the other, have never been heard of since the invention of gunpowder. The commencement of the attack was accompanied by the watchwords, “Remember the Alamo, Goliad, and Tampico ! at the very top of our voices; and in some ten minutes we were in the possession of the enemy's encampment, cannon and all things else, while his veterans were in the greatest possible disorder, attempting by flight to save their lives. I happened to be so placed in the regiment to which I was attached that I was enabled to be the third man who entered the intrenchment, which I soon left in company with the balance of the regiment, in pursuit of the defeated enemy of Texan liberty. I feel confident that I do not exaggerate when I state that their loss in killed is nearly, if not quite, equal to the whole of our number engaged; whilst we had only six killed on the spot and some twelve or fifteen wounded, two of whom have since died. The number of our prisoners has not yet been officially announced, but I should suppose it to be nearly, if not quite, 600, many of whom are wounded. So complete has been our triumph and their defeat, that my antipathy to them has subsided, and I now commiserate their condition."

Some of the newspapers of the United States have asserted, that the men who fought and won the battle of San Jacinto were chiefly volunteers from the States: this is not the fact. The names of the officers and men engaged in the action were published, and in the list, which is before me, more than three-fourths of the whole are Anglo-American settlers. Among the exceptions I find the names of nineteen Mexicans and their captain (Juan N. Seguin); but these were natives of Texas-opponents of centralism and military rule.

If the Texan army fell off in numbers after retiring from the Colorado, and if the Colonists failed to take the field according to the expectations and wishes of the Commander-in-Chief, the circumstances of their situation supply a powerful plea in extenuation of their conduct.—They were farmers; they had property to remove; they had wives and children to protect. Before them appeared the fugitive families whom the war had already reduced from comfortable independence to houseless beggary :A large proportion of the population, from the Neuces to the Sabine, had abandoned their homes; and many of them in circumstances of Their stock was left to run wild, or be consumed by the enemy, or stolen by ruffians more destructive and abominable than the common foe. Their plantations were going to waste, and the planted crops bade fair to succumb to the rank luxuriance of weeds. In short, the country was verging upon general desolation !"* With many of the Colonists General Houston's plan of retreating, and luring the Mexicans towards the frontiers and far from supplies, was unpopular. They would have preferred giving battle to the enemy, for the protection of the settlements,

great distress.

* President Burnet's Statement of Affairs, addressed to the People of Texas, published in the Telegraph Newspaper at Columbia, on the Brazos, September 26, 1836.

on the Colorado. But the army displayed great constancy and fortitude, notwithstanding the disheartening nature of the movements dictated by military prudence. And its fatigues and privations were extreme: beef, without bread, and frequently without salt, formed its support for a considerable period, while many of the men were bare-footed, and most of them without a change of clothes.

Generals Santa Anna and Cos were captured on the day succeeding the battle of San Jacinto. A party despatched from the Texan camp took the former, alone, unarmed, and disguised in common apparel, on Buffalo Bayou, and were ignorant of his name and rank until they brought him to General Houston, to whom he announced himself as President of the Mexican Republic and Commander-inChief of the army. Houston had been wounded in the ankle, and was slumbering upon a blanket, at the foot of a tree, with his saddle for a pillow, when Santa Anna approached, squeezed his hand, and pronounced his name. By desire of the Texan commander he seated himself on a medicine chest, and seemed greatly agitated. Some opium having been supplied to him at his request, he swallowed it, and appeared more composed. He said to Houston, “You were born to no ordinary destiny: you have conquered the Napoleon of the West !” After some conversation respecting the slaughter of the garrison at the Alamo and the massacre at Goliad, which Santa Anna defended, Houston gave him the use of his camp-bed, and he retired for the night,—but not to sleep, for he dreaded the vengeance of the Texan troops, the majority of whom were anxious for his

execution, as the murderer of Fannin and his comrades. It was only by the exercise of extraordinary firmness on the part of General Houston and his officers, that his life was preserved. After due deliberation, the Texan general agreed upon a convention with his prisoner, who, in accordance with its provisions, ordered Generals Filisola and Gaona to retire to San Antonio de Bexar, and Urrea to Victoria. These officers, with the remainder of the Army of Operations, were posted at Old Fort, Columbia, and Brazoria, with the exception of Gaona's division, part of which had crossed the Brazos. By Filisola's orders the whole force was concentrated on the 25th of April, and commenced a countermarch (for the purpose of reorganising) on the 27th. before intelligence had been received of the armistice concluded between Santa Anna and Houston.* That intelligence reached Filisola on the 28th, at the San Bernard, whence General Woll, who understood the English language, was despatched to the Texan camp, with assurances that the conditions of the armistice would be fulfilled, and that the Mexican army was about to repass the Colorado. Deluging rains, which converted the rich loam of the district between the Brazos and the Colorado into a mass of mud, were the cause of much delay, heavy labour, and sore distress to the retiring invaders. By dint of the utmost exertion, they succeeded in dragging the artillery and waggons through the saturated soil. Filisola, in a despatch to the Secretary of War, represented the night of the 30th of April as “ horrible ;"* artillery, cavalry, sick, baggage-mules, everything that accompanied the army, was a chaotic mass “buried in mud.” There was not a splinter of wood, even for cooking, except with the baggage and arms; the provisions were reduced to a few bushels of beans and salt; the ammunition was wet, and not a musket capable of striking fire; dysentery was commencing its ravages, and there were neither means of cure nor medical attendants. “ Had the enemy,” observes the Commander-in-Chief, “met us under these critical circumstances, on the only road that was left, no alternative remained but to die or surrender at discretion." The Texans watched the retreat; and had they not been governed by fidelity to their engagements, not a man of the army that was mustered for their extermination would ever have recrossed the Colorado. The passage

* The dispositions of the Mexican army are given on the authority of Filisola, who succeeded to the chief command after Santa Anna's capture.

of this river was effected with difficulty; and, for the purpose of obtaining supplies by sea and opening a communication with the interior, Filisola established his headquarters at Goliad, while Urrea returned with his division to Matamoros. Texan cruisers, which had been active on the coast, having shut out the hope of maritime succour, Goliad was evacuated in ten days, and the retreat commenced for the Rio Grande.

The Government, ad interim, of Texas had removed, on the advance of the

from Washington to Harrisburg, and thence to the island of Galveston, where news of the victory at San Jacinto arrived in the afternoon of the 26th of April. The


* “ La noche fué horrorosa."

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