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“At seven o'clock," says the official report of Colonel Johnson, “a heavy cannonading from the town was seconded by a well-directed fire from the Alamo, which for a time prevented the possibility of covering our lines, or effecting a safe communication between the two divisions. In consequence of the twelve-pounder having been dismounted, and the want of proper cover for the other gun, little execution was done by our artillery during the day. We were, therefore, reduced to a close and well-directed fire from our rifles; which, notwithstanding the advantageous position of the enemy, obliged them to slacken their fire, and several times to abandon their artillery within the range of our shot. Our loss during the day was one private killed; one colonel and one first-lieutenant severely wounded; one colonel slightly, three privates dangerously, six severely, and three slightly. During the whole of the night (of the 5th) the two divisions were occupied in strengthening their positions, opening trenches, and effecting a safe communication, although exposed to a heavy cross-fire from the enemy, which slackened towards morning. I may remark that the want of proper tools rendered this undertaking doubly arduous.
“At day-light of the 6th the enemy were observed to have occupied the tops of the houses in our front, where, under cover of breast-works, they opened through loopholes a very
brisk fire of small arms on our whole line, followed by a steady cannonading from the town, in front, and from the Alamo on the left flank, with few interruptions during the day. A detachment of Captain Crane's company, under Lieutenant W. McDonald, followed by others, gallantly possessed themselves, under a severe fire, of the house to the right, and in advance of the first division, which considerably extended our line; while the rest of the army was occupied in returning the enemy's fire and strengthening our trenches, which enabled our artillery to do some execution, and complete a safe communication from right to left. Our loss this day amounted to three privates severely wounded and two slightly. During the night the fire from the enemy was inconsiderable, and our people were occupied in making and filling sand bags, and otherwise strengthening our lines.
“ At day-light on the 7th it was discovered that the enemy had, during the night previous, opened a trench on the Alamo side of the river, and on the left flank, as well as strengthened their battery on the cross street leading to the Alamo. From the first, they opened a brisk fire of small arms; from the last, a heavy cannonade, as well as small arms, which was kept up until eleven o'clock, when they were silenced by our superior fire. About twelve o'clock Henry Karnes, of Captain York's company, exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy, gallantly advanced to a house in front of the first division; and, with a crowbar, forced an entrance, through which the whole company immediately followed him, and made a secure lodgment. In the evening, the enemy renewed a heavy fire from all the positions which could bear upon us, and at about half-past three o'clock, as our gallant commander, Colonel Milam, was passing into the yard of my position (the house of Berimendi) he received a rifle shot in the head, which caused his instant death-an irreparable loss at so critical a moment.* Our casualties otherwise, during this day, were only two privates slightly wounded.
“At a meeting of officers, held at seven o'clock, I was invested with the chief command, with Major Morris as my second. Captains Llewellyn, English, Crane, and Landrum, with their respective companies, forced their way into, and took possession of, the house of Don J. Antonio Navarro, an advanced and important position close to the Square.
* Milam was buried in the doorway of Berimendi's house, within six feet of the place where he fell, without a stone to mark the spot. It was resolved by the Provisional Government that the President, officers, and members of the General Council of Texas, should, “ in testimony of heartfelt sorrow and mourning for his death,” wear crape upon the left arm for thirty days; and that the Governor, the officers of the Executive Department, the Commanding-General, and all the officers of the Army, should unite in wearing this symbol of regret.
The fire of the enemy became interrupted and slack during the whole night, and the weather exceedingly cold and wet.
" The morning of the 8th continued cold and wet, and but little firing on either side. At nine o'clock, the same companies who took possession of Don J. Antonio Navarro's house, aided by a detachment of the Grays, advanced and occupied the Zambrano Row, leading to the Square, without any accident. The brave conduct on this occasion of William Graham, of Cook's company of Grays, merits mention. A heavy fire of artillery and small arms was opened on this position by the enemy, who disputed every inch of ground, and after suffering a severe loss in officers and men, were obliged to retire from room to room, until. they evacuated the whole building. During this time, our men were reinforced by a detachment from York's company, under the command of Lieutenant Gill. The cannonading was exceedingly heavy from all quarters during the day, but did no essential damage. Our loss consisted of one captain seriously wounded and two privates severely. At seven o'clock, P.M., the party in Zambrano's Row were reinforced by Captains Swisher, Alley, Edwards, and Duncan, and their respective companies.*
“This evening we had undoubted information of the arrival of a strong reinforcement to the enemy, under Colonel Ugartechea. At half-past ten o'clock, P.M., Captains Cook and Patton, with the company of New Orlean's Grays and a company of Brazoria Volunteers, forced their way into the Priest's house in the Square, although exposed to the fire of a battery of three guns and a large body of musqueteers. Before this, however, the division was reinforced from the reserve by Captains Cheshire, Lewis, and Sutherland, and their companies.
“Immediately after we got possession of the Priest's
* On the evening of the 8th, a party from the Alamo, of about fifty men, passed up in front of the Texan camp and opened a fire; but without effect, returning precipitately before the play of a sixpounder.-General Burleson's Despatch to the Provisional Governor of Texas.
house, the enemy opened a furious cannonade from all their batteries, accompanied by incessant volleys of small arms, against every house in our possession, and every part of our lines, which continued unceasingly until half-past six o'clock, A.M., of the 9th, when they sent a flag of truce, with an intimation that they desired to capitulate. Our loss in this night's attack, consisted of one man only, dangerously wounded, while in the act of spiking a cannon.”
The loss of the Colonists was trifling, but that of the Mexicans, of which I have been unable to procure a return, must have been severe, * as the rifle brought them down as often as they showed their faces at a loop-hole. The Texans advanced by breaking a passage through the stone walls of the houses, and throwing up a ditch where they were otherwise unprotected, while every street was raked by the enemy's artillery. Their entrance into the Square decided the contest, as it exposed the bulk of the garrison to their deadly fire. Of this the Mexicans proved themselves conscious by surrendering, before the occupants of the Priest's house had the benefit of day-light for rifle practice. During the four days of the assault, a black and red flag, in token of no quarter, had been waving at the Alamo.
On the 11th of December, 1835, the Commissioners on each side met and agreed upon terms of capitulation, which were ratified and approved by the respective Commanders-in-Chief, Generals Burleson and Cos. The former deemed the terms highly favourable, considering the strong position and large force of the enemy, which could not be less than 1,300 effective men--1,101 having departed with General Cos, besides three companies and several small parties that separated from him, in consequence of the fourth article of the treaty, of which the following are the principal stipulations :—The retirement of General Cos and his officers, with their arms and private property, into the interior of the Republic; under parole of honour that they would not in any way oppose the re-establishment of the Federal Constitution of 1824. The retirement, with the General, of the 100 infantry lately arrived with the convicts, the remnant of the battalion of Morelos and the cavalry; taking their arms and ten rounds of cartridges. The removal beyond the Rio Grande of the convicts brought in by Colonel Ugartechea. The troops to be free to follow their General, or to remain, or to go to such point as they might think proper; but, in case all or any of them separated, they were to have their arms, &c. All public property, money, arms and munitions of war, to be inventoried and delivered to General Burleson. All private property to be restored to its owners. In the remaining articles it was stipulated, that General Cos should remove within six days, and that, during the interval, he should occupy the Alamo, while the Texans occupied the town of Bexar. The citizens were to be protected in their persons and property, nor was any person to be molested on account of political opinions previously expressed. The sick and wounded Mexicans were to be allowed to remain with a surgeon and attendants, and General Cos was to be furnished with provisions at ordinary prices, to maintain his troops to the Rio Grande.
* I have seen it estimated at 200 killed and 390 wounded, but this seems to be an exaggeration.