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AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA:

Popular Dictionary

OF

D. Α Ρ Ρ Ι Ε Τ Ο Ν
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BRITAIN.

THE NEW

A

EDITED BY
GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA.

VOLUME IV.
BROWNSON-CHARTRES.
NEW YORK :

AND COMPANY,
346 & 348 BROADWAY.

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.

-

M.DCCC.LVIIL

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of

New York.

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BROWNSON, ORESTES AUGUSTUS, LL. D., an ments efficient in society, and give to faith, love, American author, born at Stockbridge, Vt., and union the supremacy over disbelief, uncerSept. 16, 1803. His early life, passed chiefly tainty, and individualism. In 1836 he organizwith old people in a lonely locality, was without ed, in Boston, the “society for Christian union the sports and charms which usually belong to and progress, of which he retained the pastorchildhood. He was taught the assembly's cate- ate till he ceased preaching, in 1843. Immedichism, the apostles' creed, and the Lord's ately after removing to Boston, he published praser; and, with a fondness for reading, had his “New Views of Christianity, Society, and for books almost nothing but the Scriptures and the Church,” remarkable for its protest against a few religious treatises. Hence his thoughts Protestantism; and in which, by speculations took a deeply religious turn; and at 9 years aki to those of Benjamin Constant and the St. of age, having been permitted to witness a gen- Simonians, he looked to the immediate future eral military master, and being asked what he for a transformation of religious and social ideas had seen to interest him, his answer was, that and institutions. In 1838 he established the he had seen two old men talking on religion. In “Boston Quarterly Review," of which he was fart, he had forgotten the soldiers to listen to a proprietor, and almost solo writer, during the 5 debate on election and free-will, in which he years of its separate existence, and to which he himself took part. One of his earliest aspira- contributed largely during the first year after tions was to become a clergyman. In his 19th it was merged into the “Democratic Review," year, he joined the Presbyterian church at of New York. It was designed not to support Ballston, N. Y., where he was attending an acade- any definite doctrine, but to awaken thought on my, but soon meeting with men of various re- great subjects, with reference to speedy and ligious opinions, he changed his views after much radical changes. To this end also he pubarzumentation and a period of perplexity, and lished, in 1840, “Charles Elwood, or the becaine, in 1825, a Universalist minister. He Infidel Converted, a philosophico-religious preached in different villages of Vermont and treatise, in the form of a novel. This book New York, and wrote for and edited various re- has passed through several editions in Engligions periodicals, disseminating a confused med- land, but as the author soon afterward ley of bold thoughts. His ecclesiastical position changed his views on the subjects treated in it, had grown into disfavor with him, when, mak- he declined to have more than one edition issuing acquaintance with Robert Owen, he was ed in this country. In his sermons, essays, and fascinated by schemes of social reform; and in books, he had pushed abstract principles to 1:28 he was prominent in the formation of the speculative results, and, as he afterward said, workirg-men's party in New York, the design had accepted and vindicated nearly every error of which was to relieve the poorer and more into which the human race has ever fallen. numerous classes by political organization. Of Having gone in one direction about as far as was the effectiveness of this movement he presently possible, and meeting with little either of symdespaired, when the writings of Dr. Channing pathy or success, he began to suspect that man drew his attention to the Unitarians, and in was not made for a church-builder, but that God 1532 he became pastor of a Unitarian congrega- himself had founded a church centuries since, tion. He now enjoyed the acquaintance of fully adapted to the nature and destiny of humany cultivated persons; was introduced to man beings. This reactionary tendency in his the French and German literatures; and began thoughts was encouraged by a course of reasonthe methodical study of philosophy and theol- ing; and the ultra iconoclast in institutions, and ogy. His chief advisers were the works of the “ chartered libertine” in doctrine, began to look French philosophers, and the most important to the Roman Catholic church as the organizaToult of his study was a conviction of the ne- tion which he had vainly endeavored to conGessity of a new religious organization of man struct for the redemption of humanity. With kind, which should render the religious senti- his entrance into the Roman communion, in

1844, the romance of his intellectual career was incorporated in 1815, and contained in terminates, and he has since been laboring 1853 about 4,500 inhabitants, who are extenstrenuously for the doctrines of that church. sively engaged in various manufactures, and in His course as a metaphysical thinker runs par- steamboat building. allel with his ecclesiastical career At one BROWNSVILLE, formerly Fort Brown, a time a sensationalist, he passed to the senti- post town, capital of Cameron co., Texas, 'on mental or intuitional philosophy, and was one the left bank of the Rio Grande, opposite Mataof the earliest admirers of Cousin in this coun- moras, and about 40 miles from the gulf of Mextry. Two articles which he published on ico. It is easily accessible by steamboats, and eclecticism in the " Christian Examiner," in its advantageous situation and trade with Mex1837, were noticed and applauded by Cousin in ico have rendered it one of the most prosperous the preface to the 3d edition of his Fragments and populous towns of the state. The value of Philosophiques. After devoting more atten- its imports in 1852 was estimated at $5,000,000. tion to philosophy, he embraced rationalism. It contains a custom-house, 2 newspaper offices, A later persuasion of the necessity of what may and 3 churches; pop. in 1854, about 5,000.-At be called the traditional element, made him a the commencement of the war with Mexico, in Catholic in religion, and produced in his philoso- 1846, the U. S. troops under Gen. Taylor occuphy a union of the two systems of traditional- pied this place, threw up a strong work, and, ism and rationalism, which is substantially his leaving in it a small garrison, marched to the present doctrine. The method which he adopts relief of Point Isabel, on the coast, where their in his system is the distinction between intuition supplies were threatened. In the mean time (direct perception) and reflection (indirect or re- the Mexicans, under cover of the guns of Mataflex knowledge). The mind is unconciously in- moras, erected batteries, and on May 4 comtuitive; it does not, in intuition, know that it has menced a bombardment of the fort, which intuition of this or that truth, because as soon lasted 160 hours. The Americans defended as it knows or is conscious of the intuition it themselves with spirit and success, maintaining has reflex knowledge. Reflection can contain their position until the surrender of the city to nothing which is not first in intuition. In or- Taylor, but losing their commander, Major der to reflect on that which we know intuitive Brown, who was killed by a shell on the 6th. ly, we must have some sensible sign by which It is in honor of this officer that the town was the mind may apprehend or take hold of it. named. It has of late years been the starting Such a sign is language, both in the ordinary point of several unsuccessful fillibuster expediand figurative sense of the word, which thus tions into the Mexican territory. holds in the metaphysics of Mr. Brownson a place BROWNSVILLE, the capital of Haywood corresponding to that which tradition holds in co., Tenn., is situated in the midst of å rich, his religious system. The knowledge of God, level country, is surrounded by cotton and he maintains, is intuitive. The ideal element maize plantations, and is the centre of an acof every intellectual act is God creating crea- tive trade. It contains a female college under tures, ens creat existentias. The later publica- the direction of the Baptists. Pop. 1,000. tions of Mr. Brownson are the “Spirit Rapper," BRUAT, ARMAND JOSEPH, a French admiin 1854, and the “Convert, or Leaves from my ral, born at Colmar, 1796, died in 1855. In Experience," in 1857. Since 1844 he has sup- 1843 he was governor of the Marquesas islands. ported almost single-handed, in Boston and New In 1848, after having, under the administration York, “Brownson's Quarterly Review," devoted of Cavaignac, officiated for a short time as prefect especially to the defence of Catholic doctrines, of the port of Toulon, he was appointed governor but also discussing the questions in politics and of Martinique and commander of the naval depot literature with which the public mind is occu- in the Antilles, of which he became governorpied. An attempt was made by Dr. John H. general, March 12, 1849. In 1852 he became & Newman and others to persuade him to accept member of the board of admiralty, and in the a chair in the new Irish university in Dublin, following year commander-in-chief of the ocean but he preferred to continue his labors in his squadron. In 1854 he served in the fleet in the native country. Translations of several of his Black sea as vice-admiral, under Admiral Hame- 1 works and essays have been published and fa- lin, and took an active part in the first bom- ? vorably received in Europe, and his “Review" bardment of Sebastopol. On Dec. 8 he took is regularly republished in London simultane. the place of Hamelin, and was on the point of ously with its appearance in this country. returning to France when, after leaving the

BROWNSVILLE, a post borough of Fayette port of Messina, he died of the cholera. co., Penn. It is situated on the Monongahela BRUCE, a noble family of Scotland, 2 memriver, where it is crossed by the national road. bers of which occupied the throne, after one had A bridge over the river has been erected here pretended to it in vain.-ROBERT, 7th lord of at a cost of $50,000, and a 2d bridge, of cast- Annandale, was one of the 13 claimants of the iron, over Dunlap's creek, connects Browns- crown in 1290, when, by the demise of Margaville with the neighboring borough of Bridge- ret, the "maiden of Norway," the posterity of port. In the vicinity are rich mines of bitu- the 3 last kings of Scotland had become exininous coal. The Monongahela is navigable to tinct, and the succession reverted to the poster this point for large steamboats. The borough ity of David, earl of Huntington, and younger

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