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Jan. 1783. Articles of Peace with Spain and America.

$ ther pretence whatsoever, except that of fame as those with France, XX. Xx1. debts and criminal prosecutions. And XXII. XXIII.] his Britannic Majefty shall have power to In witness, &c. Done at Versailles, cause all the effects that may belong to the 20th day of January 1783, him in Eaft Florida, whether artillery, ALLEYNE FITZ HERBERT. (L.S.) or others, to be carried away.

LE COMPTE D'ARANDA. (L.S.) Art. IV. His Catholic Majesty fall not for the future fuffer the subjects of Articles agreed upon by and between Richard his Britannic Majesty, or their workmen,

Oswald, Esq; the Commissioner of his Bria to be disturbed or molested, under any

tannic Majesty, for treating of Peace with pretence whatsoever, in their occupation

The Commiffioners of the United States of of cutting, loading, and carrying away

America, in behalf of his faid Majesty, on logwood, in a diftri&t of which the

the one part; and John Adams, Benjaboundaries thall be fixed; and for this

min Franklin, John Jay, and Henry purpose they may build without hind. Laurens, four of the Commissioners of the rance, and occupy without interrup

faid States, for treating of Peace with the tion, the houses and magazines necef

Commissioner of his faid Majesty, on their sary for them, for their families, and for

behalf, on the other part; to be inserted their effects, in a place to be agreed up

in, and to constituse the Treaty of Peace, on, either in the definitive treaty, or

proposed to be concluded between the within fix months after the exchange of

Crown of Great Britain and the said Uni. the ratifications; and his faid Catholic

sed Sintes; but which Treaty is not to be Majefty assures to them, by this article,

concluded until terms of a Peace Ball be the entire enjoyment of what is above agreed upon between Great Britain and ftipulated, provided that these ftipula

France, and his Britannic Majesty mall tions Mall not be considered as deroga

be ready to conclude fuch Treaty accordo tory in any respect from the rights of his

ingly. fovereignty:

WHEREAS reciprocal advantages and Art.

V. His Catholic Majesty shall re. mutual convenience are found by expe• ftore to Great Britain the islands of Pro. rience to form the only permanent foun. vidence and the Bahamas, without ex- dation of peace and friendship between cepion, in the same condition in which States; it is agreed to form the articles they were when they were conquered by of the proposed Treaty on such printhe arms of the King of Spain.

ciples of liberal equity and reciprocity, Art. VI. All the countries and terri- as that partial advantages (those seeds of tories which may have been or may be discord) being excluded, such a benefi. conquered in any part of the world what. cial and satisfactory intercourse between soever, by the arms of his Britannic Ma. the two countries may be established, as jefty, or by those of his Catholic Majefty, to promise and secure to both perpetual and wbich are not included in the present peace and harmony. articles, shall be restored, without dif- Art. I. His Britannic Majesty acknow. ficulty, and without requiring compen. ledges the said United States, viz. New sation.

Hamphire, Maffachufet’s Bay, RhodeArt. VII. By the definitive treaty, all Inand and Providence Plantations, Conthose which have exifted till now between necticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennthe two high contracting parties, and sylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, which shall not be derogated from either North Carolina, South Carolina, and by tbe faid treaty, or by the pretent pre. Georgia, to be free, fovereign, and in. liminary treaty, shall be renewed and dependent States; that he treats with confirmed ; and the two courts shall them as fuch; and for himself, his heirs Dame commissioners to inquire into the and successors, relinquishes all claims to Rate of commerce between the two na. the government, propriety, and territotions, in order to agree upon new ar. rial rights of the same, and every part rangements of trade on the footing of thereof: And that all disputes which reciprocity and mutual convenience; and might arise in future on the subject of the two said courts shall together ami. the boundaries of the said United States cably fix a competent term for the dura• may be prevented, it is hereby agreed tion of that business.

and declared, that the following are and (Art. VIII. IX. X. XI. are exactly the fall be their boundaries, viz.

Art. II,

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Vol. 45

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Provisional Articles of Peace with America. Art. II. From the north-west angle of United States, and lying between lines Nova Scotia, viz. that angle which is to be drawn due east from the points formed by a line drawn due north from where the aforesaid boundaries between the source of St. Croix river to the High- Nova Scotia on the one part, and East lands, along the said Highlands which Florida on the other, shall refpectively divide those rivers that empty themselves touch the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlaninto the river St Lawrence, from those tic ocean; excepting such ilands as now which fall into the Atlantic Ocean, to are, or heretofore may have been, withthe north-westernmost head of Connectic in the limits of the said province of Nocut river; thence down along the middle ya Scotia. of that river, to the forty-fifth degree of Art. Ill. It is agreed, That the people north latitude ; from thence, by a line of the United States Mhall continue to endue west on said latitude, until it strikes joy, unmolested, the right to take fish, the river Iroquois, or Cataraquy; thence of every kind, on the Grand Bank, and along the middle of said river into Lake on all the other banks of Newfoundland ; Ontario, through the middle of said lake, also in the Gulph of St Lawrence, and until it strikes the communication by at all other places in the sea, where the water between that lake and Lake Erie: inhabitants of both countries used at any thence along the middle of said commu- time heretofore to filh; and also, that nication into Lake Erie, through the the inhabitants of the United States shall middle of the said lake, until it arrives at have liberty to take filh, of every kind, the water communication between that on such part of the coast of Newfoundlake and Lake Huron ; thence along the land as British fishermen shall use (but middle of said water communication, to not to dry or cure the same on that the Lake Huron ; thence through the island); and also on the coasts, bays, middle of said lake to the water commu• and creeks, of all other of his Britannic nication between that lake and Lake Su- Majesty's dominions in America; and perior; thence through Lake Superior, that the American fishermen shall have northward of the isles Royal and Pheli. liberty to dry and cure fish in any of the peaux, to the Long Lake; thence through unsettled bays, harbours, and creeks, of ihe middle of said Long Lake, and the Nova Scotia, Magdalen ihands, and Lawater communication between it and the brador, so long as the same Mall remain Lake of the Woods, to the faid Lake of unsettled; but fo soon as the same, or the Woods; thence through the said either of them, shall be settled, it shall lake to the most north-western point not be lawful for the said fishermen to thereof, and from thence, on a due west dry or cure fish at such settlement, withcourse, to the river Miffiffippi; thence out a previous agreement for that purby a line to be drawn along the middle pose with the inhabitants, proprietors, of the said river Misliflippi, until it shall or possessors of the ground. intersect the northernmost part of the 31. Art. IV. It is agreed, That creditors on degree of north latitude ;-south, by a either side shall meet with no lawful imline to be drawn due cast from the de- pediment to the recovery of the full vatermination of the line laft mentioned, in lue, in Sterling money, of all bona fide the latitude of 31 degrees north of the debts heretofore contracted. equator, to the middle of the river Apa- Art. V. It is agreed, That the ConJachicola, or Catahouche ; thence along gress shall earnestly recommend it to the the middle thereof, to its junction with Legislatures of the respective States, to the Flint River; thence strait to the provide for the restitution of all estates, head of St Mary's River, and thence rights, and properties, which have been down along the middle of St Mary's Ri. confiscated, belonging to real British fubver to the Atlantic ocean ;-east, by a jects, and also of ihe estates, rights, and line to be drawn along the middle of the properties, of perfons resident in districts river St Croix, from its mouth in the Bay in the poflession of his Majesty's arms, of Fundy to its fource, and from its and who have not borne arms against the source dire&tly north, to the aforesaid said United States ; and that persons of Highlands which divide the rivers that any other description thall have free lifall into the Atlantic ocean from those berty to go to any part or parts of any of which fall into the river St Lawrence, the Thirteen United States, and therein comprehending all islands within twenty to remain twelve months unmolested in leagues of any part of the thores of the their endeavours to obtain the reftitution

of

(L.S.)

of such of their estates, rights, and pro- fallen into the hands of his officers, to be perties, as may have been confiscated; forthwith restored and delivered to the and that Congress shall also earneftly re- proper States and persons to whom they commend to the several States, a recon• belong. fideration and revifion of all acts or laws Art. viii. The navigation of the Misregarding the premisses, so as to render fiffippi, from its source to the ocean, the said laws or acts perfe&ly confiftent, shall for ever remain free and open to the not only with justice and equity, but subjects of Great Britain, and the citi. with that spirit of conciliation, which, zens of the United States. on the return of the bleffings of peace,

Art. IX. In case it should so happen, should universally prevail ; and that Cone that any place or territory belonging to gress shall also earnestly recommend to Great Britain, or to the United States, the several States, that the estates, rights, thould be conquered by the arms of eiand properties, of such laft mentioned ther from the other, before the arrival persons, shall be restored to them, they of these articles in America, it is agreed, refunding to any persons who may be that the same fall be restored without now in poffeffion, the bona fide price difficulty, and without requiring any com(where any has been given) which such pensation. perfons may have paid on purchasing any Done at Paris, the 30th day of Noof the said lands, rights, or properties, vember, in the year 1782. lince the confiscation.

RICHARD OSWALD. (L. S.) And it is agreed, That all persons who

JOHN ADAMS, (L.S.) have any interest in confiscated lands, B. FRANKLIN,

L., S. either by debts, marriage-settlements, or

JOHN JAY,

L. S.) otherwise, thall meet with no lawful im.

HENRY LAURENS. pediment in the prosecution of their juft Witness, Caleb Whitefoord, British Sec. rights.

W. T. Franklin, American Sec. Art. VI. That there shall be no future confiscations made, nor any prosecution

On the Culture of SIBERIAN BARLEY. commenced againft any person

or persons, A Small quantity of Siberian Barley for or by reason of the part which he or being some years fince presented to they may have taken in the present war; the Society for the encouragement of and that no perfon Mall, on that account, Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, it Toffer any future loss or damage, either was distributed among such of the memin his person, liberty, or property; and bers as were desirous of making experithat those who may be in confinement on ments respecting its culture, produce, such charges at the time of the ratifica. and utility. tion of the treaty in America, Mall be In consequence of these laudable inimmediately set at liberty, and the pro- tentions, the original quantity foon befecutions fo commenced be discontinued. came greatly increased; and the result

Art. VII. There shall be a firm and of such inquiries as have from time to perpetual peace between his Britannic time been communicated to the society, Majesty and the said States, and between uniformly tend to prove, that considera the subjects of the one and the citizens able advantages might be derived to the of the other; wherefore all hoftilities, public from a more general cultivation both by sea and land, shall then imme- of this promising grain. diately cease ; all prisoners on both sides Gen. Elliot, Mr Hallidy, of Annfield, mall be set at liberty, and his Britannic near Liverpool; Mr Widdens, of the last Majesty shall, with all convenient speed, mentioned place; Mr Reynolds of Adiand without causing any destruction, or Mam; Mr John Ramey; Mr Hay, of carrying away any negroes, or other pro- Eggie, near Aberdeen; Mr Webster, of perty of the American inhabitants, with. Dean, in Northamptonshire ; Arthur draw all his armies, garrisons, and feets, Young, Esq; Mr Jones, of Halstone; from the said United States, and from Mr Anderdon ; and a gentleman in cvery port, place, and harbour within Shropshire, who figns himself a Shepthe same, leaving in all fortifications the herd; are the principal persons who have American artillery that may be therein; made these communications: and from and fall also order and cause all archives, their united accounts it appears, that it records, deeds, and papers, belonging to is of so hardy a nature as to thrive on any of the said States, or their citizens, almost any land; however poor or clayey ; which in the course of the war may have that the increase from the root is lo

much Five

8

much more considerable than that of summer, but in winter much soaked Norfolk, Duck's bill, and other barley, with mineral springs, which in many that near a bushel an acre may be saved parts break out on the surface : by this in the article of feed; that it may be description of the soil, it will be easily fowed a full month later, and will never- supposed, that common barley can hardtheless ripen sooner; that its produce ly succeed upon it. This field, the preboth in straw and corn, is greater, in an ceding summer, had borne a crop of almost incredible proportion ; that it has winter vetches mowed for soiling; after the peculiar property of not taking with which, the land was ploughed with an inthe wind, and can therefore receive no tention to sow wheat on ridges under injury from tempestuous weather ; that, furrow from the flat: but the autumn as the skin or bark of this grain peels off rains came so suddenly, and continued in threshing, the flour in dresling yields so long, that the wheat season was loft ; only three or four pounds of bran to the and the land left the whole winter in a bushel, whereas the common barley has deplorable condition. Laft fpring, the cight or nine at least; that the little bran field was fown, upon one ploughing, with there is, is fuperior even to wheaten; oats and clover, reserving the headlands that the first sort of flour, forty pounds for Siberian barley; which were maof which, with twenty of an inferior nured with yard-dung, at the rate of fort, and the bran, have been produced 800 bushels, or twenty loads, to the acre. from a single bushel, makes an excellent

NUMBER I. Sweet bread, sufficiently fair and light, April 23. Drilled by hand, at ten-inch yet fo retentive of moisture, as to gain intervals, five quarts of seed, on 7722 double the increafe of wheaten four square feet, nearly two elevenths of an equally fine, kneaded and baked at the acre. May 5. The blade appeared. fame time, and to continue as fresh when June 2. Came into ear. - June 19. Was twelve days old, as the wheaten ar four hand-hoed.- Aug.27. Reaped.

Prodays; that the flour in general mixed duce, Five bushels one peck; each bu. with that of wheat, in equal quantities, thel of nine gallons weighed fixty-four makes excellent family-bread; and that, pounds. when converted into malt, it pofTefles

NUMBER II. an uncommon degree of strength and April 29. Drilled by hand, at tenfpirit, and is of course well calculated inch intervals, two quarts of feed, on for brewing and distillation.

2000 square feet.-May 10. Blade ap. After most heartily recommending the peared. – June 7. Came into ear. culture of this very promising grain to June 24. Crop was hand-hoed.- Aug. 28. such as have inclination and opportu- Reaped. Produce, Three pecks : nity to promote the practice of agri. weight in proportion as Number I.culturean inquiries, undoubtedly of the Some of the above Number I. has been first importance to a nation, we Mall ground, and bread made of it, which conclude with extracting verbatim the was very light and good; but had a parletter from Gen. Elliot, on this subject; ticular acid taste, resembling (as one of not only because his observations have my friends observed) that of malt. I heen made with much judgement and think this may possibly be owing to a precision, but becaufe this circumstance small proportion of common barley in the furnishes a trait in the character of that original seed, and overlooked in the grift. illustrious chief, at present not generally British Mag. known, Experiment on Siberian Barley; communio Account of a MONSTROUS BIRTH. By cated by Gen. ELLIOT, to the Society

Julin Torlefe, Esq; Chief of Anjingo. for the encouragemeur of Arts, Manu

[From the Philosophical Transactions, faltures, and Commerce.

vol. 72. for the year 1782. part 1.] RECEIVED five quarts of Siberian bar. This was a child of a Nair woman. ley with an ear of two rows.-This ! It had but one body, at the extre. call Number 1.

mity whereof were two heads, one lar. Received two quarts of the fort with ger than the other. It had four hands an ear of four rows. - This I call Num. and arms perfect, three legs, &c. One

head would seep whilst the other was The land upon which both forts were awake; or one would cry and the other fown is a fandy loam, very poor, dry in not. It lived three days.

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ber 2.

Five Letters published in the Edinburgh as truly called, “ My Lord,” or “Mr

newspapers in the months of September such an one's members." I fay again, and Odober 1782, upon the subject of What have we to expect from members Fictitious Votes.

of parliament fo chofen? [As these Letters are upon a subject of ge

Hitherto, fo far as I recollect, none of peral concern, and a bill is intended to be these mean persons have been put upon brought into parliament to remedy the evil us for members of parliament. That complained of, we trust they will not be un- would be too bold a step as yet. But acceptable to our readers.]

every thing comes on by degrees : Step Obfcurata diu populo bonus eruit, atque

by step we are led off our feet. Being Proferet in lucem fpeciofa vocabula rerum ;

once admitted to vote, there is nothing Que priscis memorata Catonibus atque Cethegis, in law that hinders these forry electors Nunt fitus informis premit et deferta vetuftas.

from being chosen members : there is Horat. Epist.

nothing hinders them, but some rer L E T T E R I.

maining sense of the former condition To the Real FREEHOLDERS of Scot. however, will soon be extinguished ; and;

and rank of a freeholder. This sense, LAND.

after we are thoroughly accustomed to My dear Friends and Brethren,

eat and drink with these nominal er. BY advertisements in the newspapers, ! quires, these barons of fhreds and patch:

observe some of you are giving at. es, old as I am, I fear I may live to seç tention to a very important object, pampered serving men, who have got in, namely, the supprefling these nominal to easy circumstances by Aattering and votes, which, of late years, have been so cheating their masters, chosen to be our greatly multiplied, and have determined representatives in parliament; - our re. many elections.

presentatives ! the representatives of freeIt was our ancient constitution, that born gentlemen! of Scots gentlemen! gentlemen of real property, refident in Have you patience for that idea ? Yet their respective Mires, fhould be elected, undoubtedly to that pass it will come at and have a title to elect, members of par: laft. liament. In the days of our forefathers, My dear Friends and Fellow Freehold. it did not enter into any person's mind, ers, you are the descendents of the ana that any freeholder mould have more cient Scottish barons, who attended their than one vote, either in elections or in Kings to the field, and advised them in parliament; far less that any peer should council; or you are men of liberal eduhave a vote in the elections for shires. cation, who, by your laudable industry, These propositions I am ready to prove, have acquired land estates, and are the from divers acts of our Scots parliaments. founders of families which you hope may,

But of late it has crept into fashion, that become ancient. Suffer me to rouse you ) men, without a rood of land of their from that lethargy which has become so

own, have got themselves dubbed free- universal. Permit not our excellent and holders by the names of lands belonging virtuous King to have the pure gold of to some great lord or rich commoner, his great council debased by such mean whose dependents they are, and who alloy, when, by uniting, as one man, in thus vote by their voices as effectually as proper resolutions, you have it in your

if he were to vote by his own so many power to cure this distemper in the con1 times over.' Many of these esquires are ftitution.

mean men, and of dependent condition, Above all things, let me warn you to such as our forefathers would not have take the management of this business into admitted to stand in their presence ço- your own hands, and not to devolve it upvered, far less to sit down in their com. on this or the other great man, who, you pany, or in any assembly with them, as will be told, has a great deal to say with their compeers, What have we to ex. those commonly called the folks above. pect from members of parliament chosen. These are the very people you Mould by such electors ? Can they have a free have nothing to do with; for it is their voice? No body understands they have, interest to oppose you, and they will opAnd as these voters in the county are pose you, whatever fair speeches they may called " My Lord,” or “ Mr such an iry to put you off with. Be not afraid of one's voters, so the members in the them: Unite firmly among yourselves : House fo chofen, are as commonly and Shew your strength and your resolution VOL. XLV.

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