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not be required of the plaintiff, but that the truth, that when a ship arrives there all the judges should decide according as probabili- inhabitants are seized with a cold.” ty shall appear to preponderate, granting to Dr. John Campbell, the celebrated ? writhe defendant the presumption of filiation ter, took a great deal of pains to ascertain to be strong in his favour. And I think this fact, and attempted to account for it on too, that a good deal of weight should be physical principles, from the effect of eflluallowed to the dying declarations, because via from human bodies. Johnson, they were spontaneous. There is a great at another time, praised Macaulay difference between what is said without for his " magnanimity,” in assertour being urged to it, and what is said from ing this wonderful story, because it was well a kind of compulsion. If I praise a man's attested. A lady of Norfolk, by a book without being asked my opinion of it, letter to my friend Dr. Burney, has that is honest praise, to which one may favoured me with the following trust. But if an authour asks me if I like solution: “ Now for the explication of this his book, and I give him something like seeming mystery, which is so very obvious praise, it must not be taken as my real as, for that reason, to have escaped the penopinion."

etration of Dr. Johns and his friend, as "I have not been troubled for a long time well as that of the authour. Reading the with authours desiring my opinion of their book with my ingenious friend, the late works. I used once to be sadly plagued Rev. Mr. Christian of Docking—after ruwith a man who wrote verses, but who liter- minating a little, “ The cause,' says he,' is a ally had no other notion of a verse but that natural one. The situation of St. Kilda it consisted of ten syllables. Lay your knife renders a north-east wind indispensably neand your fork across your plate, was to cessary before a stranger can land. The him a verse:

wind, not the stranger, occasions an epiLay your knise and your förk, across your plate.

demick cold. If I am not mistaken, Mr.

Macaulay is dead; if living, this solution As he wrote a great number of verses, he might please him, as I hope it will Mr. sometimes by chance made good ones, Boswell, in return for the many agreeable though he did not know it.”

hours his works have afforded us." [Dr. Johnson did not like that his Johnson expatiated on the advantages of Piozzi,

friends should bring their manu- Oxford for learning. “ There is here, sir,”

scripts for him to read, and he liked said he, “such a progressive emulation. still less to read them when they were The students are anxious to appear well to brought: sometimes, however, when he their tutors; the tutors are anxious to could not refuse, he would take the play or have their pupils appear well in the college poem, or whatever it was, and give the peo- the colleges are anxious to have their stu ple his opinion from some one page that he dents appear well in the university; and had peeped into. A gentleman carried there are excellent rules of discipline in him his tragedy, which, because he loved every college. That the rules are some the authour, Johnson took, and it lay about times ill observed may be true, but i our rooms at Streatham some time. "What nothing against the system. The member answer did you give your friend, sir?” of an university may, for a season, be us asked Mrs. Thrale, after the book had been mindful of their duty. I am arguing fu called for. “I told him," replied he," that the excellency of the institution.” there was too much Tig and Tirry in it.” Or Guthrie, he said, “Sir, he is a man Seeing her laugh most violently, “Why; parts. He has no great regular fund what wouldst have, child ?” said he. “I knowledge; 'but by reading so long, a looked at nothing but the dramatis, and writing so long, he no doubt has picked there was Tigranes and Tiridates, or Teri- a good deal.” bazus, or such stuff. A man can tell but He said he had lately been a long w what he knows, and I never got any farther at Lichfield, but had grown very weary than the first page."]

fore he left it. BoswELL. “I wonder He renewed his promise of coming to that, sir; it is your native place.” Jo. Scotland, and going with me to the Hebri Why so is Scotland your na des, but said he would now content himself place.” with seeing one or two of the most curious His prejudice against Scotland appea of them. He said, “ Macaulay, who writes remarkably strong at this time. Whe the account of St. Kilda, set out with a pre- talked of our advancement in literat judice against prejudice, and wanted to be a “Sir," said he," you have learnt a little smart modern thinker; and yet affirms for a us, and you think yourselves very

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Hume would never have written [No doubt Mr. Murphy, in whose tragedy of Zenobia, acted in 1768, there are two personages named Tigranes and Teribazus.—ED.]

2 [See ante, July, 1763.-ED.]


tij, had not Voltaire written it before him. pion within a circle of burning coals; that it He is an echo of Voltaire.” Boswell. ran round and round in extreme pain; and * But, sir, we have Lord Kames." John- finding no way to escape, retired to the cen808. "You have Lord Kames. Keep him; tre, and like a true Stoick philosopher, dartha, ha, ha! We don't envy you him. Do ed its sting into its head, and thus at once you ever see Dr. Robertson?” Boswell. freed itself from its woes. This must “Yes, sir." JOHNSON. “Does the dog end'em.I said, this was a curious fact, as talk of me?" BoSWELL.“ Indeed, sir, he it showed deliberate suicide in a reptile. does, and loves you.” Thinking that I Johnson would not admit the fact. He now had him in a corner, and being solici- said, Maupertuis 3 was of opinion that it wus for the literary fame of my country, I does not kill itself, but dies of the heat; pressed him for his opinion on the merit of that it gets to the centre of the circle as thé Dr. Robertson's History of Scotland. But, coolest place; that its turning its tail in upto my surprise, he escaped. “Sir, I love on its head is merely a convulsion, and that Robertson, and I won't talk of his book.” it does not sting itself. He said he would

It is but justice both to him and Dr. be satisfied if the great anatomist MorgagRobertson to add, that though he indulged ni, after dissecting a scorpion on which the himself in this sally of wit, he had too good experiment had been tried, should certify taste not to be fully sensible of the merits that its sting had penetrated into its head. of that admirable work!.

He seemed pleased to talk of natural phiAn essay, written by Mr. Deane, a divine losophy 4. “ That woodcocks (said he) of the church of England, maintaining the fly over the northern countries is proved, future life of brutes, by an explication of because they have been observed at sea. certain parts of the scriptures, was men- Swallows certainly sleep all the winter. A tioned, and the doctrine insisted on by a number of them conglobulate together, by gentleman who seemed fond of curious Aying round and round, and then all in a speculation. Johnson, who did not like to heap throw themselves under water, and bear of any thing concerning a future state lie in the bed of a river.” He told us, one which was not authorised by the regular of his first essays was a Latin poem upon canons of orthodoxy, discouraged this talk; the glow-worm: I am sorry I did not ask and being offended at its continuation, he where it was to be found. watched an opportunity to give the gentle- Talking of the Russians and the Chinese, man a blow of reprehension. So, when the he advised me to read Bell's Travels 5. Í poor speculatist, with a serious metaphysi- asked him whether I should read Du Halde's cal pensive face, addressed him," But real Account of China. “Why yes (said he), ly, sir, when we see a very sensible dog, as one reads such a book; that is to say, We don't know what to think of him," consult it." Johnson, rolling with joy at the thought He talked of the heinousness of the crime which beamed in his eye, turned quickly round, and replied, " True, sir: and when 3 I should think it impossible not to wonder at we see a very foolish fellow, we don't know the variety of Johnson's reading, however desulwhat to think of him." He then rose up, tory it might have been. Who could have imstrided to the fire, and stood for some time agined that the high church of England-man laughing and exulting.

would be so prompt in quoting Maupertuis, who, I told him that I had several times, when in I am sorry to think, stands in the list of those Italy, seen the experiment of placing a scor

unfortunate mistaken men, who call themselves

esprits forts. I have, however, a high respect [It is to be regretted that Mr. Boswell should for that philosopher whom the Great Frederick of bere persisted in repeating these assertions. Dr. Prussia loved and honoured, and addressed paJohnson, on every occasion, seems to have ex

thetically in one of his poems pressed a great contempt for Dr. Robertson's

Maupertuis cher Maupertuis works very unjustly indeed ; but, however Mr.

Que notre vie est peu de chose." Boswell might lament Johnson's prejudice, he was There was in Maupertuis a vigour and yet a tenxe jestified in thus repeatedly misstating the fact. derness of sentiment, united with strong intellectSe ante, p. 237. See post, sub 19th April, 1772, ual powers, and uncommon ardour of soul. there Boswell suppresses, and 30th April, 1773, Would he had been a Christian ! I cannot help There be again misrepresents Johnson's opinions earnestly venturing to hope that he is one now:of Dr. Robertson.-ED.)

BosWELL. [Mr. Boswell seems to contemplate (An Essay on the Future Life of Brute Crea- the possibility of a post mortem conversion to teres, by Richard Deane, curate of Middleton. Christianity. -Ed.]; but Maupertuis died in 1759 This work is reviewed in the Gentleman's Mag- at the age of sixty-two, in the arms

the Ber ezwe før 1768, p. 177, in a style very like John- noullis, très chrétiennement.—BURNEY. son's, and a story of " a very sensible dog" is [Mr. Boswell means natural history.--Ed.] Dotiosi with censure. It is, therefore, not im- [John Bell, of Antermony, who published, probable that is may bave been written by John- | about 1763, “ Travels from St. Petersburgh, in 502 – Ep

Russia, to divers parts of Asia."-Ed.]



of adultery, by which the peace of families man if you can find such, out of a fancy was destroyed. He said, “ Confusion of that she will be less constant than an ugly progeny constitutes the essence of the crime; one; or condemn yourself to the society of and therefore a woman who breaks her coarseness and vulgarity for fear of the exmarriage vows is much more criminal than penses or other dangers of elegance and a man who does it. A man, to be sure, is personal charms, which have been always criminal in the sight of God; but he does acknowledged as a positive good, and for not do his wife a very material injury, if he the want of which there should be always does not insult her; if, for instance, from given some weighty compensation. I have, mere wantonness of appetite, he steals pri- however (continued Dr. Johnson), seen vately to her chambermaid.

Sir, a wife some prudent fellows who forbore to conought not greatly to resent this. I would nect themselves with beauty lest coquetry not receive home a daughter who had run should be near, and with wit or birth lest away from her husband on that account. A insolence should lurk behind them, till they wife should study to reclaim her husband by have been forced by their discretion to linmore attention to please him. Sir, a man ger life away in tasteless stupidity, and will not, once in a hundred instances, leave choose to count the moments by rememhis wife and go to a harlot, it his wife has brance of pain instead of enjoyment of not been negligent of pleasing.”

pleasure." But of the various states and Here he discovered that acute discrimina- conditions of humanity, he despised none tion, that solid judgment, and that knowl- more than the man who marries for a mainedge of human nature, for which he was tenance: and of a friend who made his alupon all occasions remarkable. Taking liance on no higher principles, he said once, care to keep in view the moral and reli- " Now has that fellow (it was a nobleman gious duty, as understood in our nation, he of whom they were speaking) at length obshowed clearly, from reason and good sense, tained a certainty of 'three meals a day, and the greater degree of culpability in the one for that certainty, like his brother dog in the sex deviating from it than the other; and, fable, he will get his neck galled for life at the same time, inculcated a very useful with a collar.” lesson as to the way to keep him.

He praised Signor Baretti. “ His account I asked him if it was not hard that one of Italy is a very entertaining book; and, deviation from chastity should so absolutely sir, I know no man who carries his head ruin a young woman. Johnson. Why higher in conversation than Baretti. There no, sir; it is the great principle which she is are strong powers in his mind. He has not, taught. When she has given up that indeed, many hooks; but with what hooks principle, she has given up every notion of he has, he grapples very forcibly." female honour and virtue, which are all in At this time I observed upon the dialcluded in chastity.”

plate of his watch a short Greek inscrip A gentleman talked to him of a lady tion, taken from the New Testament whom he greatly admired and wished to Nus galę 48Xetail, being the first words o marry, but was afraid of her superiority of our Saviour's solenn admonition to the in talents. “ Sir (said he), you need not be provement of that time which is allowed afraid; marry her. Before a year goes us to prepare for eternity ; “the night con about, you'll find that reason much weaker, eth when no man can work.” He sor and that wit not so bright.”. Yet the gen- time afterwards laid aside this dial-plat tleman may be justified in his apprehension and when I asked him the reason, he sa by one of Dr. Johnson's admirable sen- “ It might do very well upon a clock wh tences in his life of Waller: “He doubt- a man keeps in his closet; but to have less praised many whom he would have upon his watch which he carries about been afraid to marry; and, perhaps, married him, and which is often looked at by one whom he would have been ashamed to ers, might be censured as ostentatio praise. Many qualities contribute to do- Mr. Steevens is now possessed of the mestick happiness, upon which poetry has plate inscribed as above. no colours to bestow; and many airs and sal He remained at Oxford a consider lies may delight imagination, which he who time; (where he was for some flatters them never can approve.'

time confined to Mr. Chambers's [The general and constant advice apartments in New-inn Hall by Piozzi,

he gave too, when consulted about a fit of illness.] I was obliged to 193, 194.

the choice of a wife, a profession, go to London, where I received this i

or whatever influences a man's par- which had been returned from Scotla ticular and immediate happiness, was always to reject no positive good from fears [“ For the night cometh.” The inse of its contrary consequences.

“ Do not was, however, made unintelligible by the (said he) forbear to marry a beautiful wo- of writing veš for rožHawk. p. 461.–

Lett Pioz vol p.

p. 192,




this occasion; the slaves of power, and the "Oxford, 230 March, 1768. solicitors of favour, were driven hither from “MY DEAR BOSWELL, I have omitted the remotest corners of the kingdom, but a long time to write to you, without know- judex honestum prætulit utili. The viring very well why. I could now tell why I tue of Oxford has once more prevailed. should not write; for who would write to “ The death of Sir Walter Bagot, a little men who publish the letters of their friends, before the election, left them no great time without their leave? Yet I write to you to deliberate, and they therefore joined Sir in spite of my caution, to tell you that I Roger Newdigate, their old representative, shall be glad io see you, and that I wish you an Oxfordshire gentleman, of no name, no would empty your head of Corsica, which great interest, nor perhaps any other merit I think has illed it rather too long! But, than that of being on the right side; yet at all events, I shall be glad, very glad to when the poll was numbered, it produced, see you.—1 am, sir, yours affectionately, For Sir R. Newdigate

352 S.Sam. Johnson." Mr. Page

296 Mr. Jenkinson

198 I answered thus:

Dr. Hay


“Of this I am sure you must be glad; for, "TO MR. SAMUEL JOHNSON. without inquiring into the opinions or con

" London, 26th April, 1768. duct of any party, it must be for ever pleas"MY DEAR SIR, I have received your ing to see men adhering to their principles last letter, which, though very short, and against their interest, especially when you by no means complimentary, yet gave me consider that those voters are poor, and real pleasure, because it contains these never can be much less poor by the favour words, I shall be glad, very glad to see of those whom they are now opposing.”] you.'-Surely you have no reason to complain of my publishing a single paragraph TO MRS. LUCY PORTER, IN LICHFIELD, of one of your letters; the temptation to

“Oxford, 18th April, 1768. it was so strong. An irrevocable grant of “ My dear DEAR LOVE,-You your friendship, and your dignifying my have had a very great loss. To desire of visiting Corsica with the epithet lose an old friend, is to be cut off from a of a wise and noble curiosity,' are to me great part of the little pleasure that this life more valuable than many of the grants of allows. But such is the condition of our kings.

nature, that as we live on we must see " But how can you bid me empty my those whom we love drop successively, and head of Corsica?' My noble-minded find our circle of relations grow less and friend, do you not feel for an oppressed na- less, till we are almost unconnected with tion bravely struggling to be free? Con- the world; and then it must soon be our sider fairly what is the case. The Corsi- turn to drop into the grave. There is alcans never received any kindness from the ways this consolation, that we have one Genoese. They never agreed to be sub- Protector who can never be lost but by our ject to them. They owe them nothing, own fault, and every new experience of the and when reduced to an abject state of uncertainty of all other comforts should deslavery, by force, shall they not rise in the termine us to fix our hearts where true joys great cause of liberty, and break the gall- are to be found. All union with the inhabiting yoke? And shall not every liberal soul ants of earth must in time be broken; and be warm for them? Empty my head of all the hopes that terminate here, must on Corsica. Empty it of honour, empty it of (one) part or other end in disappointment. bumanity, empty it of friendship, empty it “I am glad that Mrs. Adey and Mrs. of piety. No! while I live, Corsica, and Cobb do not leave you alone. Pay my rethe cause of the brave islanders, shall ever spects to them, and the Sewards, and all employ much of my attention, shall ever my friends. When Mr. Porter comes, he interest me in the sincerest manner. will direct you. Let me know of his arri

val, and I will write to him. "I am, &c. “JAMES BOSWELL." “ When I go back to London, I will take

care of your reading glass. Whenever I "DR. JOHNSON TO MRS. THRALE. can do anything for you, remember, my

« Oxford, 24th March, 1768. dear darling, that one of my greatest plea"Our election was yesterday. Ev- sures is to please you. molt

ery possible influence of hope and “ The punctuality of your correspondence P. 11. fear was, I believe, enforced on I consider as a proof of great regard. When 1 (Mr. Boswell, in his “ Journal of a Tour in us often think on each other, and think

we shall see each other, I know not, but let Corsica," had printed the second and third para- with tenderness. Do not forget me in your grapia of Jokerison's letter to him of the 14th Jaruary, 1766. See ante, p. 224.-ED.)

prayers. I have for a long time back been 32

TOL. 1.


p. 347.


very poo ly; but of what use is it to com- | itself, would not suffer me to take any na plain?

tice of it. “ Write often, for your letters always give [Johnson's silence, with regard to great pleasure to, my dear, your most affec- Kenrick's attacks, proceeded not more tionate and most humble servant,

from his contempt of such an adver“ Sam. Johnson." sary, than from a settled resolution he had

formed, of declining all controversy in deUpon his arrival in London in May, he fence either of himself or of his writings. surprised me one morning with a visit at Against personal abuse he was ever armmy lodging in Half-moon-street, was quite ed by a reflection that I have heard him satisfied with my explanation, and was in utter :-" Alas! reputation would be of the kindest and most agreeable frame of little worth, were it in the power of every mind. As he had objected to a part of one concealed enemy to deprive us of it;" and of his letters being published, I thought it he defied all attacks on his writings by an right to take this opportunity of asking him answer of Dr. Bentley to one who threatened explicitly whether it would be improper to to write him down, that “no authour was publish his letters after his death. His an- ever written down but by himself.” swer was, “ Nay, sir, when I am dead, you His steady perseverance in this resolution may do as you will."

afforded him great satisfaction whenever he He talked in his usual style with a rough reflected on it; and he would often felicicontempt of popular liberty. “They make tate himself that, throughout his life, he a rout about universal liberty, without con- had had firmness enough to treat with considering that all that is to be valued, or in- tempt the calumny and abuse as well of deed can be enjoyed by individuals, is pri- open as concealed enemies, and the maleve vate liberty. Political liberty is good only olence of those anonymous scribblers whose so far as it produces private liberty. Now, trade is slander, and wages infamy.) sir, there is the liberty of the press, which His sincere regard for Francis Barber, his you know is a constant topick. Suppose faithful negro servant, made him so deyou and I and two hundred more were re- sirous of his further improvement, that he strained from printing our thoughts: what now placed him at a school at Bishop Stortthen? What proportion would that re- ford, in Hertfordshire 2. This humane atstraint upon us bear to the private happi- tention does Johnson's heart much honour. ness of the nation 1?»

Out of many letters which Mr. Barber reThis mode of representing the inconve- ceived from his master, he has preserved niencies of restraint as light and insignifi-three, which he kindly gave me, and which cant was a kind of sophistry in which he I shall insert according to their dates. delighted to indulge himself, in opposition to the extreme laxity for which it has been " TO MR. FRANCIS BARBER. fashionable for too many to argue, when it

* 28th May, 1768. is evident, upon reflection, that the very “ DEAR FRANCIS,I have been very essence of government is restraint; and much out of order. I am glad to hear that certain it is, that as government produces you are well, and design to come soon to rational happiness, too much restraint is you. I would have you stay at Mrs. better than too little. But when restraint Clapp's for the present, till I can determine is unnecessary, and so close as to gall those what we shall do. Be a good boy. who are subject to it, the people may and “ My compliments to Mrs. Clapp and to ought to remonstrate; and, if relief is not Mr. Fowler." I am yours affectionately, granted, to resist. Of this manly and spir

“Sam. Jourson." ited principle, no man was more convinced than Johnson himself.

Soon afterwards, he supped at the Crown About this time Dr. Kenrick attacked and Anchor tavern, in the Strand, with a him, through my sides, in a pamphlet, en company whom I collected to meet him. titled “ An Epistle to James Boswell, Esq. occasioned by his having transmitted the ? [The sending his negro servant, now probamoral writings of Dr. Samuel Johnson to bly little short of thirty years of age, to a board. Pascal Paoli, General of the Corsicans.” Iing school, seems a very strange exercise of his was at first inclined to answer this pam- good-nature. It was a very unpopular one with phlet; but Johnson, who knew that my some of Johnson's inmates—when Mrs. Williams doing so would only gratisy Kenrick, by and Francis quarrelled, as was very frequent, the keeping alive what would soon die away of lady would complain to the doctor, adding, “ This

is your scholar, on whose education you have (Would Johnson have talked in this way in spent 3007." Dr. Johnson, in the conclusion of the days of the Marmor Norfolciense? ante, the letter, calls him 3. boy," but sixteen years p. 55.) If we lost the liberty of the press, what had already elapsed since be entered Johnson's accurity could we have for any other right?- En.) | own service.--Ev.)

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