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fishery was stopt, the foreign markets would gain no share in it more than they might be supplied with fish from Great have, as their fisheries are bounded: that Britain alone in future, and in part this it would increase the number of British year : that the principal ports in England and Irish fishing vessels, and consequently from whence the Newfoundland fisheries increase the number of British seamen: are carried on, are Pool and Dartmouth, that the best-dried fish are best for the that 400 sail are sent from Great Britain, markets, and there are different markets the tonnage of which amounts to 36,000 for all the different sorts of fish; the tons, and 2,000 shallops, making 20,000 Italian market is for small fish: that in tons more: that 20,000 men are employed, time the British fishermen would be able 12,000 of which return to Great Britain to equal the New England fishermen, in and Ireland : that they are obliged to curing fish for the Bilboa market : that in carry out every year one man in every | 1773 there was more fish caught than was five, who is what they call a green man, wanted, and that the markets were glutor one who has never been at sea before, ted: that England can supply half of the by which means the British fishery raises fish for the American markets this year : 3,000 fresh seamen every year : that they that the French can only supply them'catch about 600,000 quintals of cod fish, selves : that he can't tell whether New which, for about seven years, has sold at England can sell fish cheaper than Great 14s. the quintal : that the quantity of sal. | Britain, but that they can afford to sell it mon caught amounts to about 3,000 cheaper: whoever comes first to the tierces, at 61. 5s. the tierce: quantity of banks has the right of drying: that if New cod oil 3,000 tons, at 231. per ton ; seal England was restrained for ever from this oil 800 tons, at 251. per ton : that they fishery, it would be a benefit to Great get few seal skins, the duty upon them Britain : that he buys 300 hogsheads from here being so high as to be almost a pro- | New England every year: that he thinks hibition of the importation of them ; but if New England was deprived of their the New England people are exempted fishery, they would not be able to import from the payment of any duty upon them: goods from Great Britain : the ships from that the returns from abroad for the pro. Great Britain to Newfoundland now emduce of the British fishery is made in raw ployed make but one trip in a year, but materials, Barilla oil, and some specie: may make two in future: the British fish that the net produce of the British fishery sell for one pound a ton, the American amounts to about 500,0001. all which fish from 14s. to 20s. per ton.” centers in Great Britain : that all the ma- | Mr. George Davis acquainted the House, terials of the ships employed in this fishery“ That he was a Newfoundland merchant, are bought in Great Britain : that the and had been in that trade for 24 years: greatest part of the profits arising from that if the New England fishery was stopt, the American fishery centres in America : the foreign markets might partly be sup' that in war time the British fishery is not plied this year from Great Britain : that carried on with the same advantage as the the French cannot increase their fishery New England fishery, as the New Eng. on the coast; and that their fish are not land fishermen are exempted by act of approved of at market, not being so well parliament from being pressed, which the cured as ours: that of late years the New British fishermen are not : that the Act of England fishery is much increased, and king William don't prevent the Americans the British fishery very much decreased : from fishing on the bank of Newfoundland, I that the British ships employed in thre but only from drying their fish on shore: Newfoundland fishery are generally about that he don't know if the whole fishery, 200 tons burthen, and their number of including the whale fishery, could be car. hands is one man to two tons: that the ried on by Great Britain only: that ships employed in the New England the Newfoundland fishery carried on fishery carry but twelve hands each: that from Great Britain is the beneficial nur- the New England fish are as good as ours, sery for seamen : that he would not but not fit for the Italian market: that the have the fishery confined only to the ports greatest part of the profits of the New of Pool and Dartmouth, but would have it England fishery centres there, but a small confined to Great Britain only: that if the part is returned here for the manufactures American fishery was stopt, other places of this country: that the New England in Great Britain besides Pool and Dart fish sometimes bears a better price than mouth would engage in it: that the French ours: that the foreign markets might be supplied entirely from Great Britain if the not so good seamen as ours : that in the New England fishery was stopt: that it is last war very few of them were employed not more expensive to send ships from on board our men of war, perhaps there Great Britain than New England : that might be six or ten of them on board a the New England men have more wages man of war of 60 guns: that if this temthan ours: that they begin to fish sooner porary restraint on the New England than we, but it is very little advantage to fishery was made perpetual, it would be a them: that our men entering on board benefit to Great Britain.” their fishing ships is a great-hurt to the Sir Hugh Palliser acquainted the House, British fishery : that the witness's trade is 1" That in the year 1768 he was governor from London : that if this Act should pass, of Newfoundland: that the number of he should reap benefit from it: that he has ships then employed in that fishery was already enlarged his capital, and shall en- | 389, shallops 2,109, the tonnage of which large it more if the Act passes : that the amounted to the number of men time of the New England ships getting to 19,198 : that this fishery is the best nurmarket depends upon the seasons: that sery: that the men are better for the men they get something sooner to the markets, of war than those taken out of the colexcept the Spanish markets, than the liers: that it would be impossible to man British ships : that he knows no other rea- a fleet but in a great while, if it was not son for the Italians preferring the small | for the men they get from the Newfound. fish than their pride, which makes them land fishery: that few or no seamen are prefer the having one whole fish at table got from the New England fishery : that rather than a piece of a large fish: that if the New England fishery was entirely though all the men carried out in the stopt, the French would not be benefited, British ships are not employed in naviga- | as the English are in possession of the tion, the greatest part of them going out markets: that he does not know any thing to be employed in the fishery; yet all that about the island of Nantucket: that wheare carried out return seamen : that a ther the restraining of the New England New England ship of 200 tons carries fishery is temporary or perpetual, it will about fourteen or sixteen men, and has no be an advantage to Great Britain : that boats: that a British ship has but one boat, the fishery might be carried on from Great the men being distributed in the shallops Britain, Ireland, Jersey, and Guernsey, for fishing."
which would greatly encrease the nursery Molyneur Shuldham, esq. acquainted the for seamen : that the New England ships House, “ That he has been governor of carry provisions to Saint Pierre and Mi. Newfoundland for three years: that the quelon : that the New England fishery quantity of cod caught last year amounted would be an advantage to Great Britain, to 759,877 quintals, at 9s. a quintal : that if there was a power given to press their the number of men employed in this men.” fishery amounts to 23,652, all of whom become sailors : that he has had great March 16. The Earl of Dartmouth coinplaints of the outrages committed by moved that the Bill be committed. the New England crews employed in the The Marquis of Rockingham opposed fishery: that they cannot take any seamen the motion. His lordship asserted that out of the New England ships, but that a the Bill was oppressive and tyrannical great many are got out of the British fish- throughout ; that the principle which per. ing ships: that the New England ships vaded it, and the means of putting it in carry on an illicit trade with the French : execution, had one merit, that of conthat they load with provisions and lumber, sistency; and that from the same motive, and go to meet the French ships at sea : he should heartily dissent to every syllable that they sell them ship and cargo, and of its contents. He meant not to trouble take French manufactures and India goods their lordships in any future stage of the in exchange : that the New England ships Bil, or perhaps at all on the same subject, carry provisions to the French at Miquelon during the continuance of the session, for and Saint Pierre, and he supposes they which reason he hoped for their indul. must have a superfluity of provisions : gence on the present occasion. He dethat they supply the French fishermen sired to repeat, that the present Bill, and with flour from Indian corn: that numbers every other framed on the same principle of our seamen desert to the New England and directed to the same object, to be atships : that the New England seamen are tained only by the most flagrant acts of cruelty and oppression, must for ever con- / made the exports to all America in 1764 tinue to meet with his strongest disappro- about 2,700,0001. His lordship dwelt on bation. After examining the general the strange, mutilated, imperfect accounts principle of the Bill, which he strongly laid by the King's servants before parliacondemned and reprobated in the most ment; and particularly relative to a letter marked expressions, he proceeded to exa- written by lord Dunmore, giving an acmine the cruel and persecuting means de- count of the then state of Virginia, dated vised for enforcing it, which he said exactly in December, in which he omits to take resembled the mode adopted by marshal the least notice of the association and deRozen, king James the 2nd's French ge- claration entered into by the army under neral in Ireland, in order to reduce the his command early in the preceding Norebellious citizens and other defenders of vember. It was impossible that his lordLondonderry. They, brave men, as the ship could be ignorant of so important a · Americans are now, were stiled traitors fact, which happened on the spot; but
nd rebelş; and they, as well as our re- were that even so, a paper which he held bellious subjects in America, were to be in his hand, made it clear, that his lordstarved into compliance; that is, the ship could be at least no stranger to its means employed were to be justified by being published at Williamsburgh in Virthe goodness of the cause. He then read ginia, the seat of his government, two days an order from Rozen, for obliging the gar- preceding the date of his dispatch. Perrison of Derry to submit, which was to haps it might have been a spurious accollect the wives, children, and aged count, and as such his lordship could not parents of the garrison, to drive them have taken notice of it; but if that were under the walls of the town, there to the case, he should be obliged to some perish in the presence of their parents, noble lord in administration to rise and husbands, and other relations; and if they tell him so, otherwise he must continue offered to return, to fire on and massacre to think that the proceeding of the noble them. But weak, infatuated, and bigoted governor was not to be accounted for, conas that prince was, his heart revolted at sistent with his duty, or at least with the such a horrid expedient of subduing his duty of those, who, having better informaenemies; for as soon as it reached his tion, thought proper to hold it back. The knowledge, he immediately countermanded noble marquis concluded with a general the barbarous order, and left the innocent disapprobation of all the measures purand inoffending to their liberty. The prin- sued relative to America, since the repeal ciple he contended was the same; the of the Stamp Act; and predicted that an rebels might have avoided the barbarous useful and constitutional agreement in sen. purpose, by submitting ; so we should be timents, and a cordial reciprocity of intold might the rebels of America. His terests, would never take place between lordship then entered into a comparative them and the mother country, till the same view of the trade of America at different principles were once more recurred to. periods; and that of New England in par. | The Earl of Carlisle was surprized that ticular. He quoted from the papers lying the noble marquis could possibly conceive on the table, that the exports in 1704 the Bill was either intended, or could be amounted to no more than 70,0001. per supposed to operate in the manner he af. annum ; in half a century, in 1754, it was fected to think it would ; no such thing 180,0001. ; about the time of the repeal of being meant, no such thing could take the Stamp Act, in 1764, it was nearly place. The present was not a question 400,000l.; and within the last ten years, it about taxation; it was not involved in difhad so prodigiously increased, as to ficulty, but simply, whether we were jus amount to 7 or 800,0001. This increase | tified in employing the most lenient me had extended itself, he was well assured, thods of bringing America back to obein pretty nearly the same proportion to all dience and a proper sense of her duty. the other colonies; and it appeared by a The Bill was not formed on the narrow gentleman who gave evidence at the bar | views of loading her with taxes, or for the (Mr. Watson) that the amount of total sake of a paltry revenue. He believed the exports in the last mentioned period, was ministry had no design of forcing her into above 2,600,000l. His lordship said, he any such concession; if they had, he was could not help remarking the agreement certain that neither he, nor any of the there was between that gentleman's ac. | other lords who intended to vote for the count, and the one on the table, which measure, had any such desire. ,
The Duke of Manchester condemned as it came before him; nevertheless, upon the Bill, as involving in its consequences the most impartial consideration, in his the guilty and innocent in the same pu- opinion, it carried in the very face of it nishment. It was a new kind of logic to every appearance of a most tyrannic, ophim to hear it contended, that the Bill pressive, and persecuting spirit, from was not oppressive, cruel, or unjust, in which, consequences of alarming danger respect of the inhabitants of Nantucket; were to be feared; for, concluded he, the because, be their conduct what it might, military force sent to reduce those injured they were sure to be punished. Whether people may be employed at home in the they are obedient or disobedient, their fate / destruction of our own liberties; and by is to be the same; and what, said his grace, is the general complexion of men and meatheir mode of relief? Why, after peace and sures, and the professed means employed obedience, which, by the bye, as far as re- to give the latter existence and success, lates to them, has never been violated or de- there are, I fear, some persons of weight parted from, shall berestored for one month, and influence who would cheerfully adopt and that the same shall be certified by the and assiduously labour to put such a decustom-house officers, then the pains and sign in execution. penalties inflicted by this Bill are to cease. The Earl of Denbigh rose, to correct Now, when it is considered what a kind of a mistake which the noble duke fell people the majority at least of those cus-into, relative to the inhabitants of Nan. tom-house officers are ; when we seriously tucket, by informing him, that the Bill reflect on their narrow minds, and the was not correctly printed from the copy; mean passions they are generally actuated for that in the engrossed Bill every thing by, we may readily conclude what degree which had the least appearance of severity of favour, indulgence, or justice, the inha. was provided against. As to the certificate bitants of Nantucket are to receive at the required from the custom-house officers, hands of such men; men who, in their he said, that proceeded from a misappreseveral stations, besides, are to share hension of the noble duke, for the apamong them the forfeitures to be recovered plication was to be made to the governor under this Act. It is said, that there are of the Massachuset's Bay, not to the cuslive stock on the island; and it is con-tom-house officers. His lordship then distended, that New-England has a plentiful claimed the imputation thrown out by the supply of provisions within itself; because, noble duke on administration, so far as it during the late war, large supplies were might be supposed to affect himself, and procured from thence for the use of the was certain, that no one member of it ever army and navy. By this latter mode of harboured such a thought. reasoning, we might as well suppose, The Duke of Manchester answered, that because large quantities of tobacco are the clause respecting Nantucket, however annually exported from the city of Glas-construed, could extend no further than gow, that it grows in the neighbourhood to the whale fishery; for it still left all, of that town; and, by the former, that but those employed in that fishery, because there were provisions sufficient to starve without employment or bread. in New England, the people of Nantucket, He still maintained what he asserted, deprived of the only fair means of pro- respecting the mode of application to the curing it at market, might obtain it by custom-house officers, so far as it related rapine and injustice. His grace pro to the colonies of Connecticut and Rhode ceeded to examine the manifest oppression Island, and Providence Plantation. His of the Bill in other respects, particularly grace then read the clause out of the Bill, 13 it would affect the property of our “ If it shall be proved to the said governor merchants, who could not be supposed to and commander in chief, and council of have had any hand in the outrages which Massachuset's Bay, by the testimony of gave birth to it, or to that general spirit the officers of his Majesty's customs,” &c. of resistance and disobedience it was in. The noble duke then exculpated bis lordtended to subdue. He protested, sin- ship from the most distant suspicion that Cêrely, he came with no prejudices, or he would concur in any design to enslave party views whatever into the House; his country, were he first minister. that he had laboriously endeavoured to The Earl of Denbigh thanked his grace forget every connection, to banish every for the good opinion he entertained of him; distinction, to forget all that had hitherto but if his insinuations were directed at a passed, and contemplate the Bill nakedly noble lord who presided at the head of the (VOL. XVIII.)
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finances, he begged leave to assure him he possibility of detection. If such be the was mistaken, for he had known that noble information this House is to be guided by, lord (North) from bis early youth; they | I am certain that no reliance ought to be had been bred up together; he was per- had on it : and that it proves only, that fectly acquainted with his disposition and both accounts ought equally to be rejected. sentiments; and by a knowledge thus He said, two of the noble lords who spoke founded and acquired, he could venture to on the other side, seemed to feel greatly affirm, with the fullest confidence, that for the distresses of the Americans; but there was not a noble lord in that House, said not a syllable of the present miseries however zealous, would be further from of our own manufacturers, who were daily co-operating in any design for overturning dismissed for want of employment; and the liberties of his country, than he would. whose sufferings would, he feared, if not He therefore wished that the noble duke prevented by this Bill, or some other of would explain himself; for however flat- the same nature, become intolerable. For tering his grace's sentiments might be his part, he lived in the neighbourhood of respecting himself, it took off entirely from one of the greatest manufacturing towns the pleasure it would otherwise cause, in the kingdom (Birmingham) and there while it was founded in an insinuation the state of trade and the want of work against another, and given at his expence. was such, that should it continue much
The Duke of Manchester assured his longer, the most dreadful consequences lordship, that he had no intention of di- were justly to be dreaded. rectly alluding to the noble lord mentioned.
Lord Camden rose and said: Viscount Dudley observed, that the My lords; I have so often trou. whole state of the evidence given at their bled your lordships on the subject of lordships' bar, had a direct contrary effect America, that on every new occasion of upon him from that proposed by those speaking to it, I rise with great unwilling. who combated the Bill; for when the in- ness and reluctance to encroach on your terests of this country, the manning of our lordships' attention; and indeed, I feel navy, the increase of our seamen, and the myself not a little wearied with the fruitemployment of our own people, came in less efforts I have uniformly made since competition with the pretended hardships this business has been in agitation. My and severities of the Bill, he not only opinion, on the rights of England and the thought that it should receive the appro- rights of America, is well known. I first bation of the House on the ground it was formed it on the clearest conviction, and it taken up on, but that it ought to be made continues the same to this day. This perpetual, in order to secure for ever to opinion I have uniformly maintained; but this country so important a brarch of the great and certain majorities in both commerce. The colonies were at present Houses of Parliament, and the great numspared, by the lenity and mildness of ad. bers, for I admit there are such, perhaps ministration, who might carry fire and the majority without doors, differing from sword throughout the whole continent of those opinions, and overbearing with & America. He totally differed from the high and powerful hand our feeble efforts, noble marquis, as to the conclusions he have almost wearied me into despair of drew from the comparative state of the obtaining any thing in this question, or on evidence of Mr. Watson, and its supposed this subject, by argument or debate : and agreement with that now on your lord. I would not now give your lordships this ship's table, relative to the exports to trouble, but from a consideration of the America in 1764, as he thought them both duty in which I stand, as a member of equally erroneous. The witness said, that this House, to interpose my endeavours the entries at the custom-house are gene towards the vindication of justice, and the rally more by one-third than the goods service of my country. For this purpose, really shipped ; and that he and the rest and in this debate, it will not be necessary of his brethren, put into a box unsigned to go into the several clauses of the Bill papers, containing an account of what with a minute exactness. It will be suffic each of them exported. Will any noble cient for your lordships to consider the lord in this House affirm that there could general nature and character of the Bill, be an accuracy in such a mode, whereby to advert to its operation and tendency, every man was at liberty to set down any and to estimate its fitness and its wisdom, quantity he thought proper, without a by the qualities that shall be discovered in