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traditions, and of which she supposes that tracted most attention are that of Niebuhr, it comprehended the various bands of for- and his German followers, (among whom is eigners, including the Jews, who occupied Müller, who has written a history of the the fertile Delta of the Nile. She identi- Etruscans,) and that of Mannert. Niefies the colonists of Resin and future Etrus- buhr assigns the Etruscans an origin in cans with the scientific Assyrians, who are the mountainous district at the top of the spoken of by Herodotus as dwelling in Adriatic sea, and supposes that they thence Egypt, and building the Pyramids of Cheops descended into Etruria. Mannert accepts and Cephrenes. At last the native Egyp- the account of Herodotus as literally true : tians, who had retreated up the country, and conceives that the Pelasgians, whose drove these strangers out, and forced them, original seat he states to have been Thesaccording to Mrs. Gray, into Libya, or Ly- saly, were forced to abandon that country, bia. After inhabiting that country for a some of them taking refuge in Italy, whilst short time-whence she supposes the mis- others went to Lydia and the districts of take of Herodotus putting Lydia for Lybia, Asia Minor; and that, at a subsequent peunless he confounded the term “Ludeni” riod, the settlers in Lydia sailed to Umbria, or Assyrians, with “ Lydians,”-they took and renewed their connexion with the earship, and, landing on the opposite coast of lier colonists. We shall, in the course of Umbri, founded the kingdom of Etruria. this article, adduce some reasons for beThe time of their arrival she takes from lieving that the Etruscans did come from the story of Plutarch, that, in the year of Lydia, and that they did belong to a branch Rome, 666, when Sylla finally extinguish of the Pelasgian tribe. With the Thessaed all hopes of Etruscan independence, lian origin of the Pelasgians we have at an Etruscan Aruspex proclaimed that the present nothing to do. The difficulty that Etruscan day of 1100 years, during which besets Niebuhr's theory, besides his entire their Jupiter, Tina, had given them do- refusal of credit to the account of Herodominion, was near an end. To use her own tus, is the eastern character, the arts and language
sciences, letters and learning of the Etrus« We think,” she
cans. These, which are the peculiar chasays, that we can discern them, a stately band issuing from be-racteristics of the people, and for the origin neath the lofty gateways of the high-walled of which we are inquiring, cannot be supand proudly-lowered Resen-that great city, posed to have been practised by Alpine as ancient as Memphis and Zoan. Thence mountaineers, or brought down by them we follow them on the banks of the Nile, and into Italy, There is no doubt, indeed, behold them mingling in fellowship with the that some of the original inhabitants of victorious Assyrians, and with the seed of Is- Italy took this road from Asia—the cradle rael
, on the fertile nomes of Lower Egypt: of the human race: but that is a very difuntil at length the avenging arm of the legitimate Pharaoh delivered his country from
ferent question. Asiatic oppression, and drove the men of Resen We confess our strong predilection for to seek for settlements elsewhere. After their the father of history : there is a simple and second exile, we trace them to a welcome Ital- earnest truthfulness about his narration ian home, whither they brought the arts, the that carries an inward conviction with it. arms, the luxuries, and the sciences, which Every succeeding age-each step in geothey had originally possessed in India, and on which they had engrafted the learning of the graphical discovery, has born him out. wisest of nations.
Let us see whether it is not the case in "Here they became dominant lords of the this instance: and we think it of far more soil, and beneficent victors, conquering, civil- importance that the veracity of this great izing, and blessing the ruder people of the and oldest historian should be established, West, until the mysterious times of their do- than that a host of opposite theories and minion being ended, and the sand of their pro- hypotheses should be made plausible. mised ages of glory having run, they sunk into the subordinate state of a conquered nation,
Herodotus spoke generally from having acand were soon absorbed in the all-engrossing tual intercourse with the countries he desSenatus Populusque Romanus.”—P. 24.
cribes, and access to the best information
which they possessed. His knowledge of These views as to the early history of the traditions of Asia Minor was, of course, Etruria are proposed with diffidence, and, complete; and he spent some time in amid the numerous difficulties which invest Magna Græcia. The tradition, which he the subject, are entitled to weight. says the Lydians repeated in his day, was
The two other theories which have at- asserted by them 500 years after with equal
positiveness. The Sardians, in the time of Viterbo, the traveller comes to a deep fissure Tiberius, asserted their common origin in the plain, and descending to the bottom, with the Etruscans and the Peloponne- he finds it gradually widening, and at length sians. The story was universally believed joining with a similar ravine, it opens out in Rome in the time of the historian Dio- into a little sunny amphitheatre, over which nysius. As to his disbelief of it, because it hang the ruins of an old feudal castle. is omitted by the historian of Lydia, this The rocky walls of this valley, high overomission has no weight placed beside the head, are marked with figures of doors, positive testimony of Herodotus. But be- pediments, and various architectural ornasides this external testimony, there is the ments and inscriptions, all traced by deep internal evidence for its truth, or at least lines in the living rock. Beneath each for the fact, that the colony which settled doorway, but considerably below it, is a in Etruria did come from Asia Minor, and cavern containing sarcophagi and the renot from Africa or the Alps.
mains of the dead. Now, Mrs. Gray supThere are many similarities between the poses, and with good grounds, that this Etruscans and the inhabitants of Asia Mi- was the Fanum Voltumnæ, or general asnor and Syria. Their language, at least sembling place of the Etruscans, and that this the names, belong to the Phænician and honored burying-ground was reserved for the Hebrew dialects. Some of their pecu- the leading chiefs and nobles. This order liar notions of religion belong to the Phe- was hereditary in Etruria. Doubtless as in nicians; and it is singular that the monu- our own country the best blood of the kingments which give us most information dom belongs to those whose ancestors came about the Etruscan people, speak most over with the Conqueror, the families of strongly for their connexion with Asia Mi- the first colonists or conquerors in Etruria
Their funeral monuments are alike. would be the highest and noblest in the The three celebrated tombs of Etruria- land. The customs of the great would that of Porsenna, the conquerer of Rome, then be the customs of the country from as described by Pliny; of Aruns his son, which the colonists came. This would esstill remaining at the side of the road from pecially be the case with funeral rites-the Rome to Albano, just at the entrance of usages which man keeps up with most the town; and the magnificent Regulini- tenacity. Now, the exact antitype to these Galassi sepulchre, at Cære, which Mrs. rock-tombs is found in Lycia and Asia Min Gray so fully describes in her former work, nor. In his account of Discoveries in were of precisely similar construction to Lycia published in 1840, Sir C. Fellowes that of the tomb of Alyattes, still visible at describes the tombs and architectural reSardis, and described by Herodotus (i. 93) presentations, as appearing on every cliff as erected to the memory of that king. as he travelled up the country and the valThere is a low circular wall sorrounding leys of Asia Minor. There, as might be the receptacle of the body, and rising from expected, instead of being confined to a and resting on this wall, a conicle mound single spot, as in Etruria, the custom was of earth or stones. But it is from the la- general. Sir C. Fellowes speaks of these test discoveries among the antiquities of early specimens of represented buildings on Asia Minor, that we derive the strongest the rocks, as giving a perfect insight into reason for accepting the account of the old the construction of the ordinary dwellings historian. It is our ignorance which has of those remote ages. Generally every hitherto induced us to doubt it. The re- city is perched upon a hill, and has the searches of Sir Charles Pellowes have es- sides of its rock pierced with tombs, sometablished the strongest analogy between times high and inaccessible, and at other the tombs of the original inhabitants of times near and distinct : presenting every Asia Minor and Lycia, and some of the variety of form, from the earlier Lycian most remarkable and distinctive sepulchres monuments to the form adopted by the of Etruria. These are the wonderful rock Greek colonists when engrafting their artombs of Castel d'Azzo, of which an admi-chitecture upon the old model. Every rable account was given in Mrs. Gray's page of Sir C. Fellowes's most interesting earlier work, to the fidelity of whose de- narrative, and every plate of his beautiful scription we can ourselves testisy.
sketches, tells the same tale, and confirms Few spots are more strikingly situated the Lydian origin of the Etruscans. Bethan Castel d'Azzo. After traversing some sides some of these tombs have interiors miles of the comparatively level country near ornamented with bas reliefs representing
domestic scenes, and illustrating mytho- the previous occupants: that the friendly logical stories, as in the pictured tombs of spirit with which they were received, and the Etruria, and even colored with the bright conciliating temper which they adopted, blues, yellows, and reds which abound so soon led to great intercourse between the much in the Etruscan caverns. The anal- old and new inhabitants of the land, and ogy seems
to have forcibly struck Sir finally connected them together as c. Fellowes; and it is fully explained by, common people. and firmly corroborates the story of Herodotus, the accuracy of whose traditions, indifferently in the towns of the other; the
“ Each people," says our authoress, “ dwelt and the care with which he selected them, Tuscan language was understood and spoken, are daily more and more felt and recog. as we have reason to know, throughout Umnized.
bria, and the Rasena, as their history proves We are well aware that sepulchral to us, had the wise and singular policy of mak. caverns are found in the upper parts of ing, with those whom they had conquered, Egypt; that they extend through the rug
such a peace as gave them a share in the ged mountains of Petræa to the south of government, and an equal interest in the per. the Dead Sea, and along the shores of Pales- nullifying all feelings of' humiliation and hos
manence and prosperity of the state ; thus tine; that some most remarkable specimens tility, and converting them from bitter enemies of sculptured friezes are found in the valley into grateful allies and indissoluble friends." of Jehosaphat, near Jerusalem, and that the -P. 69. Etrurian mode of closing these caverns with a stone moving on pivots, has always Here is the first instance of that policy, prevailed, and is still observed in Judea which afterwards, in the hands of the Roand Syria. But this only shows the proba- mans, made their universal dominion perbility of an early migration, not from Egypt manent, by gradually connecting every conto Lybia, and thence to Italy, as Mrs. Gray quered nation, by the ties of citizenship, supposes, but from Egypt to Asia Minor with the conquerors. Many of the obscuand Lydia, and from Lydia to Italy—the rities in the early Etruscan history are old tradition stated by Sir Walter Raleigh cleared away, when we find this assimilain discussing the title of Larth, common to tion of the older inhabitants of Italy with Egypt and Etruria. The Philistines were this people; for the Etrurians, gradually clearly from Egypt, (Genesis x. 14,) and comprising in the circle of their power the so were many other of the Phænicians. other races of the Peninsula, the different Their original laws and customs were the theories of their origin may be reconciled same. Agenor, king of Phænicia, was by supposing them true of the different said to be the son of Neptune and Libya. parts of which the nation was composed. This connexion between the Phænicians, Mrs. Gray goes fully into the subject of or people of the coast of Asia Minor the ancient inhabitants of Italy. The most and Syria, and the Egyptians, and the curious part of this discussion is as to the evidence we have shown for the Etruscans Pelasgians, and who they really were. having come from those countries, explains This point has distracted the learned men the striking resemblance between their an- of all ages, and seeins to have been as tiquities and those of Egypt, which has much disputed in the times of Herodotus made it impossible sometimes to give a dis- and Strabo, as in our own. At present, tinctive character to the productions of however, we have only to deal with the each; a similarity which was doubtless in- connexion of the Pelasgians with Etruria. creased by the actual trade kept up between They are represented by our authoress as Egypt and Etruria.
being in Italy on the arrival of the EtrusWe have dwelt thus upon the origin of cans, and a distinct people from them. A the Etruscans, because it is really the most contrary opinion has generally been held, interesting inquiry in the work before us, and the Tyrrheni-Pelasgi was another name being, in fact, the origin of Italian civiliza- for the Etruscans. Here again the retion; and on account of the interest of the searches of Sir C. Fellowes throw light recent discoveries, and the light they throw upon the question. on the value of the work of Herodotus. The Pelasgi have left nothing to us of
A point of great importance in the history their language, manners, or customs only of the Etruscans, on their arrival in Italy, their names, and a few doubtful traditions. seems to be the fact that they effected their The chief records of their existence are settlement in the land with the good will of their architectural remains :- the walls of
enormous height and thickness, and built|can style. These walls are described by with immense stones, which are found Pausanias, whose description, we are inthroughout Italy and Greece and Asia Mi- formed by a traveller who visited them nor, occupying the highest point of every, last year, is the best guide to them now. hill, the object of wonder to the present in many Italian provinces, Mrs. Gray tells inhabitants, and, according to them, the us, there are Cyclopean, Pelasgic, and work of the giants or magicians, or their mas- Etruscan walls of the same age, and in ter the devil
. The higher road from Na- very many instances, there is a mixture of ples to Rome, by the Abruzzi, passes a the Etruscan and Pelasgic, and the Etrusline of these hill-forts, which seem to guard can and Cyclopean styles. At Cadyanda, and overawe the plains below. They are in Lycia, Sir C. Fellowes tells us (Lycia, a portion of a longer line extending from p. 121,) the Cyclopean walls of the city the Adriatic coast of Italy, opposite Greece, are blended with the more regular Greek, quite across the Peninsula. They recall (that is, old Greek,) and were evidently to mind the fenced cities, walled up to hea- constructed at the same period; and again, ven, which terrified the Israelites before at Panora, (p. 141,) he observed the Cyclotheir entrance into the Promised Land. pean, so often considered as the older, surThese various remains have been classed mounting the regular squared walls; and by architects and antiquaries (and the dis- in that country the sculptured friezes, and tinction is as old as Pausanias) into the rock tombs are found in conjunction with Cyclopean, the Pelasgic, and the Etruscan, the Cyclopean walls. When we find thus according to the apparent art used in their the only authentic record of the Pelasgi, construction ;-the first being of large bringing them into so close union with the stones, so rudely piled together as to re- Etruscans, we cannot but accept the acquire the interstices to be filled up with count of their being the Tyrrheni-Pelassmaller fragments; the second, of large gians, or Pelasgians who settled in Italy. stones, but fitting into each other; and the There are many other circumstances, such third of quadrangular stones, occasionally as their knowledge of letters, regular instisecured by cement. Now, the last are tutions, and use of arms,which connect them confessedly the work of Etrurian architects, with the early Grecian settlers, and antiand two well known instances are the Arco quaries have dwelt upon Cecrops' twelve del Bove at Volterra, and the gates still cities of Attica and the twelve cities of Etruremaining at Pæstum. The first notion ria, as offering additional evidence. Of about them was, that the rudest were the course, in a subject of this kind, the evioldest, and the more artificial the production dence itself is slight and indirect, but if we of later aud more civilized times. Mrs. find all that there is pointing in one diGray seems to maintain an opposite theory, rection, we are bound to follow it. and thinks that the ruder fragments in Our authoress states that the Etruscans Italy at least were the production of the who landed in Umbria, had for their leader Pelasgi, who had imperfectly learned the Tarchon, a name known to the readers of art of building from the Etrurians, her Virgil. She gives him a high place among master-masons. The latest investigations the heroes of the olden time. He founded have, however, established, that all these Tarquinia, the city whose interesting antikinds run into each other in the same build- quities and remains we have before mening, and appear to have been in contempo- tioned. She devotes much space in her raneous use; that they are, therefore, the work to the institutions which he establishproductions of one and the same people: ed, and enters into large dissertations on and from this we are enabled to confiim the passages to be found in classical writers, the tradition of the Sardians, as reported respecting the earliest heroes of Italy, conby Tacitus, that they or the people of Asia ceiving their stories of Janus, Saturn, and Minor, the Peloponnesians, or early colo- Hercules, to be but traditionary recollecnists of Greece and the Etruscans, the tions of this great leader. Into these disearly colonists of Italy, were of the same cussions we shall not now enter, nor into
the subject of the colonization of the cities At Mycenæ, in the Peloponnesus, the éir- of Magna Græcia, with which her conTijevov atodis9gov of Homer, the two kinds cluding chapters are occupied. We think called Pelasgic and Cyclopean are found our readers will be more interested in her together, and also an approximation to re-account of the institutions founded among gular masonry of hewn stone or the Etrus- the Etruscans by Tarchon, and in getting
an insight into their national and religious from this characteristic principle of the character.
Etruscans. These institutions were said to be deriv- The king of the nation appears to have ed from Tages, the supposed lawgiver of been elected ai the assembly of the people, the nation, who was fabled to have been which took place yearly at Castel d'Azzo; found in a furrow by Tarchon, having the where the public business of the nation, as gray head of an old man with the body of well as its traffic, was carried on at their anå child, and to have dictated to him the re- nual fair. This national cemetery was, ligion and laws of his country. There we have already stated, their place of nawere three national divinities.
tional assembly. Their Westminster Ab
bey was close to their Houses of Parliament. “ Each town had one national temple dedi- The people generally were under the concated to the three great attributes of Godstrength, riches, and wisdom-or Tina, Talna, trol of hereditary princes or chiefs, who and Minerva. The Etruscans acknowledged | had large tracts of land assigned to them only one supreme God, but they had images and the people over whom they ruled. It for his different attributes, and temples to was a kind of clanship ;-the very word, acthese images; but it is most remarkable that cording to Mrs. Gray, being Etruscan. the national divinity was always a triad under The principle of their connexion was not one roof; and it was the same in Egypt, feudal but patriarchal. It was the same where one supreme God alone was acknowledged, but was worshipped as a triad with principle that once prevailed in the Highdifferent names in each different Nome.”—P. | lands of Scotland and in Ireland, though 147.
always opposed by the Norman laws, and
never recognized. She tells us that the The state religion, afterwards adopted at chief was the governor, judge, general, and Rome, was derived from Etruria, where prince of his people. The clansmen lathe different classes of augurs were kept up bored for him, traded for him, and fought in full perfection ; the placing these offices for him. They paid his debts, if poor ; in the hands of an hereditary nobility, and ransomed him, if a prisoner; and followed the control over the national assemblies him into banishment, if exiled. A colony possessed by the augurs, who alone could animated with such principles and under take the auspices and interpret the omens, such leaders, was sure to succeed. Under was a state-craft of Etrurian origin. Their the name of Patron and Client this system knowledge of science, which was carefully is found in Rome; at least, in the earlier treasured from the vulgar, greatly assisted ages of the Republic; afterwards a middle these operations. They are believed to class arose, with the extension of conquest have understood the electric agency of and commerce and the use of a standing lightning; and this appearance, according army, and this being unconnected with the to its being in one part of the heavens or aristocracy by any ties of blood or clanship, another, circumstances over which they the real principle was abolished, whilst the seem to have had full control, was a favor- name, perverted and abused, was retained. able or unfavorable omen. They alone of Religion was mixed up with all the acthe people in Italy understood how to ob- tions of the Etruscan. We must here use tain fire from heaven by ineans of burning- our authoress's own language. glasses, and thus rekindle the sacred flame which was in the custody of the Vestal Vir- “All the ancient legislators rested their sysgins. This was an Etruscan institution, tems upon a religious structure, and strove to and our authoress supposes the first Vestal found the institutions of time upon the basis of to have been the sister of Tarchon. From eternity. Hence they inculcated all the nathis, she concludes, that her hero introduc- tural and civil obligations of social life as ed into European society the principle of held to be every sentiment of patriotism, and
emanations of the divine will, and such they rendering honor to women, and the making every exhibition of public courage. The state imperative for them such an education as ritual taught each man his rights and duties, shall fit them to maintain that honor, “A and the prescribed line of his public and priprinciple," she says, “ which alone can vate conduct, as that which was pointed out give stability to civilization. Where wo- for him by the gods. No one was suffered men are educated, men must be manly and by Tages to separate from religion the inte
rests of his country, the inspirations of human society must be refined.”
The custom of admitting females to the banquets and pub- No one was allowed to consider the world as
genius, or the purposes of human rectitude. lic feasts, she also considers to have arisen the ultimate object of his hopes and desires,