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does him great honour, and may be useful to other practitioners. The third case was perfectly cured.

Section the sixth treats of the second species of Hydrocele, mentioned in the preceding one, viz. the encyíted fort.

Three histories of it are annexed. The subject of the first, a lad of fixteen years, was perfectly cured, after a third discharge, and a second incision through the cyst, twelve months after the first. · The second was a perfect cure of the encysted Hydrocele, but not of one of the vaginal coat, with which it was combined, and which had been repeatedly emptied and filled again. The third was a perfect cure of the same sort of Hydrocele, effected by a thorough incision of the cyít, which he calls the radical cure.

The seventh section treats of the Hydrocele of the outward membrane, or theath, as it may be called, of the testicle, The radical cure of this is effected, our author says, by ex: çiting such a degree of inflammation in it, as, after suppurațion, may efface the small cavity between this and the imme. diate coat of the testicle, in consequence of their cohering by an incarnation of the fore. The many different ways of ef. fecting this are reduced to two in modern practice ; 'viz, by the caustic, or by an incision of the vaginal coat throughout its length; and of these Mr. Pott prefers the last, tho' many practitioners decline it. He affirms, however, “ that having performed it scores of times, he never saw the patients life in danger, nor that it proved fatal, but twice.” He specifies the various temperaments and circumstances, which only ought to deter a skilful operator from it. Two histories of this direase are prefixed to his account of the operation, both of which were radically cured by dispersion, or disipation, as he sometimes terms it. One was effected by nature, in consequence of the first fit of the gout, in a gentleman of fortyfive, which confined him to his bed for six weeks; and which mere decumbiture might probably conduce to his cure. The other tumour was of two years growth, which the patient had consented to have' tapped; but happening to hurt the scrotum by a fall, he altered his mind; and Mr. Pott having recourse then to fomentation, puļtice, &c. the whole tumour disappeared in about three weeks, and there has been no relapse. He ingenuously confeffes at the same time, he was never able to lucceed by the same means in many subsequent attempts.

The eighth section treats of the Hæmatocele, which, he fays, is either a tumour of the scrotum, or of the spermatic H4

process, process, from extravasated blood. Two kinds of it he supposes the effects of a chirurgic operation, chiefly from tapping the tumour just above mentioned. The third he supposes to be a Rupture of a branch of the spermatic vein. Of eleven instances of it annexed to this section, eight were consequences of a Hydrocele vaginalis : a ninth was from extravalated blood in the membrane of the spermatic cord. This last, and seven of the former recovered, one dying on the ninth day, having the scrotum mortified, and some sphacelated spots on some of the intestines. One of the eight was obliged to submit to the extirpation of one testicle. The two remaining cases appended to this section were not Häma:oceles, but Hydroceles, combined with the collection of a fluid in the sac of a congenial hernia. Both these subjects recovered. . The ninth section treats of a Varicocele, or dilatation of the vessels of the scrotum, and of the Circocele, which is a varicous enlargement of the fperniatic vein. Two cases of this last are annexed, (the first being scarcely considered as a direase) from which no fatality ensued, but a very perceivable diminution or wasting of the testicle on the affected side.

Section the tenth and last treats of the Sarcoccle, under which term this writer comprehends all schirrosities of the testicles, of whatever fize or duration. He is very diffuse and accurate in his discussion of this frequently mortal disease, through-out thirty-two pages. It comprizes twelve cases. Of these the three first recovered perfe&tly by castration. A fourth underwent the operation, and died about seven months after, with violent pains about the kidneys, spasmodic affections of the breast, and all the symptoms of a peripneumony; the renal gland being found, upon dissection, as big as a large Seville orange, and truly schirrous. The fifth patient died, being strongly averse to caftration, and having taken large quantities of the extract of hemlock, for a considerable time, to no purpose; and at lait entered upon a course of the sublimate solution, which Mr. Pott thinks contributed to shorten a very miserable existence. The fixth died some months after caftration, not having admitted it early enough. A seventh died eight or nine months after the operation (being dismissed well in two months) of a large cancerous fungus in his groin. The eighth died the third day after castration performed by the late Mr. Freke, and, as it seerns, without the hearty concurrence of all his hospital colleagues. The ninth case was a hard tumour, about the middle of the spermatic proçess, the testicle being perfectly found. Some rupture doctor

thrust thrust a lancet into it; blood only followed, and such a cancerous fore ensued, as left no hopes of succeeding by extirpation. The patient died after lang uishing miserably several months. The tenth patient also died at the end of two years, under a schirrous testicle, having protested against caItration, and being indeed no promising subject for it. The case of the eleventh patient was a large tumour of the testicle, of three years standing, which, like that of the ninth, was plunged into by a rupture doctor: a horrid fungus, with great pain, hæmorrhage, &c. were the consequence, which speedily delivered the patient from a torturing existence. The last case is a scirrhous testicle, about which our author was consulted, but his advice was not pursued. It really seems to have been injudiciously treated. Castration does not appear to have been proposed, and the patient died foon after his arrival in London. He concludes this treatise, how

ever, with giving his judgment, “ That when the testicle is · possessed by a true schirrhus or cancer, it ought to be clearly

extirpated, or not meddled with at all, by way of operation.”

Such is the substance of this practical Treatise, containing 223 pages; of which the chirurgical histories employ ninetyfix. This may be thought a large proportion by those readers of the same profession, who are apt to consider the exhibition of many cases as a matter of ostentation and parade : but if we recollect the number of the present cases, which either terminated fatally, or were only palliated, we think candour must acquit Mr. Pott in this respect. It is certain indeed, if gentlemen largely employed in physic or surgery, were to indulge a habit of publishing the greater part of their experience, which might naturally prove the most successful part of it, doubtless it might have an odious, empirical, and sordid appearance. . But on the other hand, if men of knowlege and opportunity will acquaint us with their failures, and very possible errors, as well as with their successes ; and publish only such cases, whatever be their event, as are curious or singular, and may very probably be instructive, such communications would be truly liberal, and must be founded in philanthropy: especially if we reflect, that persons very much engaged in practice have the least leisure for writing and pubJishing, in which they cannot employ their time so lucratively. From such considerations, we conceive this performance is well entitled to a favourable reception from the public; the large intervals between the histories being employed in clear and accurate descriptions of the several kinds of this diseale; in reciting the antiert and modern methods of operating in them; and in some new and practical discussions of the Author's own, either in the text or the notes, with frequent references to the best writers in surgery. His preface affects to disclaim any pretension to elegant writing : this might as well have been omitted, since some may suppose it a bait for a compliment; for as his expression is very generally correct, and always proper and perspicuous, it seems to imply as much elegance as his subje&t would periinent y admit of.

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An Essay on the first Principles of Natural Philosophy: Wherein

the Use of natural Means, or second Causes, in the Oeconomy of the material World is demonstrated from Reason, Experiments of various kinds, and the Testimony of Antiquity. IlLustrated with Copper-plates. By the Rev. William Jones, late of Univerfity College in Oxford ; and Author of the Catholic Doctrine of the Trinity*. 4to. gs. sewed. Rivington.

THERE is nothing prejudices the candid Reader so

1 much against the character and pretensions of a Writer, as his arrogance, in presuming on his own judgment, while he is petulantly treating with contempt the authority of others. The Author of the work before us is often culpable in this particular.

His Essay is divided into four books. In the firl, he treats of the mechanism of Nature in general, and combats the Newtonian doctrine of a Vacuum, and the vis inertiæ of matter. There are in this book many shrewd and very just obfervations on the mathematical principles of Natural Philosophy, and on the insufficiency of tome geometrical arguments, made use of to ascertain the nature of physical elements. They would have had more weight, however, had our Author given us a better proof of the sufficiency of phyfical reasoning.

In the second book, he considers Attraction and Gravity at large; and exposes the inaccurate and contradictory manner in which the Newtonians, and even Sir Isaac Newton himself, have spoken of these principles. The same objections,

* See Review, vol. XVII. page 284.


however, have been often made, and the justice of them admitted, so far as they serve to shew the want of logical precision in the physical terms and expressions of geometrical Writers. It is very obvious, nevertheless, that they have been always very well understood; and that, whether they spoke of aitraction as a cause or as an effect, it never affected the truth of any argument they made use of to illustrate any demonstration founded on that principle.

The contempt, indeed, is just, which our Author shews for the presumptuous conduct of, what he calls, mere English Mathematicians, who declare it as their opinion, that “ never a Philosopher before Newton ever took the method that he did ; that it is a mere joke to talk of a new philosophy ; and that in these unhappy days of ignorance and avarice, Minerva has given place to Pluto, (meaning Plutus].”* We agree, with Mr. Jones, that, however skilled such Wri, ters as these may be in the theory, or expert in the practice, of mechanics, yet, when they take upon them magifterially to decide upon philosophy in general, they should be checked with a ne futor ultra crepidam. Our Author cannot fuppose, however, that all Newtonians are of this stamp. Mr. Maclaurin confesses that Geometry can be of little use in natural philosophy, till data are collected to build upon: now it cannot be supposed he conceived the data themselves were to be collected by Geometry. Newton also, when he talks of attraction as a physical principle, expresses himself in very plain terms concerning his opinion of its being a mechanical effect. It is not improbable that, in the latter part of his life at least, he entertained some such notion too of the vis inertiæ, and other general properties of palpable bodies, notwithstanding what he has laid down in his Regulæ Pbilosophandi. The design of this eminent Philosopher was, to give a mechanical explication of the greater phenomena of Nature ; deduced, on mathematical principles, from some certain and indisputable physical data. It was therefore necessary for him to begin somewhere, and to assume such data as could be experimentally demonstrated to exist. In the vague and fluctuating state in which he found the systems of Natural Philosophy, he might be very justly afraid of bewildering himself and followers, by recurring to elements too profound and far-fetched. Indeed, notwithstanding this precaution, he was at first

* A passage quoted from the preface to the ingenious Mr. Emer. fon's treatise on Mechanics; on which we shall only observe, non om. pia poffumus onnes,


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