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blessed and only potentate are given to a hideous idol. Instead of the tabernacle of God in Salem and His dwelling place in Zion, attracting happy pilgrims from the extremities of the holy land, each cheered with the hope of appearing before God in Zion, there is, on the desolate sands of Pooree, a temple which has for nearly seven centuries insulted the one Lord of the world, which has, during these ages, attracted millions of pilgrims from every part of India, and though it has done more to spread wretchedness, disease, and death, than any idolatrous shrine on which the sun has ever shone, it has strange fascinations for myriads still. Sad, deeply and inexpressibly sad, is it to state, that while those who preach Christ are so few and feeble, Juggernath has hundreds, nay thousands of missionaries. They are called pilgrim hunters, and are constantly employed in proclaiming the glory of the idol to the peoples and races of India, and in enticing pilgrims to its shrine. At the present time there are some six English and American missionaries in Orissa, their wives and six single ladies. In addition to these there are twenty-four converted natives engaged as preachers of the gospel, or scripture readers. But the missionaries of Juggernath are three thousand.* This fact calls with a trumpet-voice on the churches of Christ to send forth more men, and put forth mightier efforts for the diffusion of the gospel among this benighted race.
Mr. Pike further stated that at Berhampore, the most southerly station of the Society, the Rev. W. Hill and Mrs. Hill are labouring, assisted by three or four native preachers. Piplee, midway between Cuttack and Pooree, is at present occupied by Miss Packer and Miss Leigh, two valuable agents of the Society for Promoting Female Education in the East. European brethren have spent part of the year at the station, fourteen have been baptized, and the total christian community numbers 548 souls. Khundittur and Chaga, christian villages connected with the Society, were briefly alluded to. Cuttack was mentioned as the centre of the Society's operations. Dr. Buckley and Mr. Miller are the devoted agents, and Mr. W. Brooks, the superintendent of the mission press.
The church numbers 309 members. Fifteen have been added by baptism, and there is a christian community numbering in all thirteen hundred and eight persons. Interesting accounts of the orphanages were given; also of the Mission College, which contains four students, the Bible and Tract Work, and the operations of the mission press. Reference was also made to the Home proceedings and events of the year, some chequered and sad, others of an encouraging character. The conclusion, from the whole, was, that the brethren in India have perfect confidence in the weapons of their holy warfare-rejoicing in the fact that during the past half century, the time pre-eminently of preparatory and seed-sowing work, one thousand persons have been baptized in Orissa on a profession of living faith in the Lord Jesus Christ their motto is simple and intelligible, more men to preach the good old truth, with the good old fervour; more holy and faithful women to care for the orphans, to teach the young, and to do zenana work among the female population; and, on the part of the supporters at home-more “praying in the Holy Ghost” for those showers of blessings that shall make Orissa a fruitful field. New plans are not needed, but the old ones require to be worked with new energy. The cash statement was given by Thomas Hill, Esq., of Nottingham, the treasurer. The total Home and Foreign income had been £9664 6s. 8d. A debt from the former
year of £348 6s. 5d. had been paid, and there was a balance in hand of £269 78. 3d.
The Rev. E. C. Pike, B.A., of Birmingham, moved the first resolution:
“That the report an abstract of which has now been read, be received and printed under the direction of the Committee; that the facts disclosed' by the recent census in
* This is the number given by Dr. Hunter in “Orissa ;" but many years since a gentleman in the Government service residing at Pooree, informed Dr. Buckley, that he thought the number must be as high as five or six thousand.
General Baptist Missionary Socieiy.
India, and especially in Orissa, imperatively call upon the friends of the Society, not only to sustain their present agencies, but to extend their borders, by establishing new centres among the Oriya-speaking populations that have not yet heard the Word of Life.”
Mr. Pike said — The first word this evening must needs for help have more than once been heartbe one of congratulation. The report, a
rending. We ought to humble ourselves portion of which we have heard read, de- in the very dust when we think of this. mands that it should be so. We began the There has been success, not of a startling year with a debt, we end it with a balance character it may be, but real success, tho in hand. The contributions from the result of steady work. God has been better churches are larger this year than they to us, as He always is, than our deserts. were last; and there are other pecuniary A word or two respecting money contribublessings which call for gratitude. Though tions. Of the total amount of receipts which I have experienced no thrill of ecstacy in the cash statement shows, more than half is consequence of these things, I am thankful raised in India itself, and of course is exto God and man for the position in which pended there also. It simply passes through we stand to-night. Having said so much, the report, appearing upon both sides of the however, it would seem almost criminal to balance sheet. Making other deductions, dwell longer on this aspect of affairs. There such as grants from societies and legacies, is every reason why we should not be de- I find that by or through the living churches spondent, yet there is good cause for being of the denomination, there has been condiscontented. What is our work, and how tributed this year a little over £3000. are we doing it? The field in which our (Speaking accurately some other deducmissionary brethren labour is, as you know, tions should be made for what is given by Orissa, a province of the vast Indian em- individuals unconnected with our churches pire. This province, has, I suppose, an area —but let that pass). Take our membership about one-third that of Great Britain, and at 21,000, the amount given per head per a population, according to the recent census, annum is then 2s. 10 d., or reckon only the of more than 6,000,000 of human beings. membership of the contributing churches, There are at this moment in that field four which is about 19,000, the amount is 3s. 2d. missionaries and their wives, belonging to per head per annum. They say figures our society. Two other brave women, not are dry. I confess some figures in last supported by our funds, though included in year's report have excited me beyond meaour report, work with them. These with
There is a page which gives the a little aid from America, constitute the names of subscribers of £2 and upwards. foreign mission staff for Orissa. Not for That page of course contains what the one moment forgetting that there are some wealthy men of our churches do for the efficient native helpers, let us consider the Orissa Mission ; for surely no rich man smallness of the English force. We have would give less than £2 to this cause if he scarcely a missionary and his wife for each really cared for it. In my innocence I million and a half of the population. When supposed that if these larger subscriptions Acbar's general saw the province nearly were taken off the list, the rate per head 300 years ago, he is said to have exclaimed, for our membership would be greatly di“ This country is not fit for conquest and minished. Would you believe it, the rich schemes of human ambition. It belongs to people only gave last year £337 15s., or if the gods.” We have no schemes of human you strike off those giving under £3, they ambition to try, but we go in for the con- contributed £220 7s.; less than the amount quest of that so-called sacred land, so that of the increase in general contributions of its sin-steeped people may no longer be this year over last. So, then, if all our alienated from the great Father of spirits, wealthy friends were some day mysteriously but that, brought into loving allegiance to to disappear, we should hardly miss them Christ, they may be united to God. True, so far as this cash account goes. In all other brethren are about to go forth, and seriousness, ought this to be so ? Mind this we can never realise too thoroughly that list may contain poor men's names; but it success does not depend on the numbers must contain those of the rich, or the case we can put into the field, but on the grace is worse than I represent it to be. Let, of God; yet is it reasonable for us to seem then, the rich man write a cipher on the even to be satisfied with one man and his right hand side of the figure which stands wife to a million of people ? Manchester for his subscription, and repeat the process and Salford twice over for Mr. Bailey here, until the sum stand for what means sacriand the like for Mr. Smith!
fice. We must all mend our ways, but as Four men actually in the field, and they things are now, clearly the poor give more of long standing there. We have sent no than the rich. There are kind and brave new recruit for a dozen years; and the cries hearts amongst our wealthier brethren. I
would entreat them to give us a nobler lead, from our representations as it ought, and we poorer ones will not lag behind. By no looks upon this mission work rather as some means insensible to the value of legacies, I craze of ours than as a real and earnest must confess to having very little care for attempt to save the lost. Let us try to those bits of legal paper, if only we have obtain a true estimate of the grandeur of your hearts while you live. Give with a the work, and consequently of the privilege will now.
The will of the dead man is a of the workman. paltry thing beside the will of the living
" There's a voice upon the waters one whose heart beats true to Christ. I
Deeper than the sounding sea; should be ashamed to place before you mo
Zionwake thy sons and daughters;
“Lovest tives lower than the highest.
Heaven and earth are in the plea." thou me ?” It all depends on that. Our
We want men as well as money, and some prayers, our personal toil, our money gifts
may say even more.
There is a responall take their shape and hue from the an- sibility resting upon each of us in respect swer we can truthfully give to that quos- to that. The nobler the spiritual life in tion. Suppose the question put to us as of old. our churches, the more likely are the men The reply, “yea, Lord,” is prompt as then. to be produced in them. The tone of your The Master may say, “Well then, what piety will tell for good or evil on the about the gospel I have entrusted to my moral and spiritual atmosphere of the disciples ? What are you doing for the brotherhood to which you belong. You world for which I died ?” Surely the poor
may have honestly decided that it is not man who knows that the gospel is the bread
for you to go to a foreign land and to labour of life to his perishing fellow men, and who there for Christ. No man has a right to feels that Christ loved him and gave Him
judge you; to your own Master you stand self for him, will not say that a halfpenny or fall. But there ought to be in you an a week is more than he can spare for this enthusiasm as you do your work, which great cause. The well-to-do business man
shall be an inspiration to others; there whose profits this year are almost double should be a heroism in your soul which what they were last, will not be satisfied
shall help to make the church heroic, and with a respectable 10s. 6d., he will give no
then in response to the Divine word, which doubt as God has prospered him. The
has seemed so oft unheeded, “whom shall I flourishing merchant, with income
send, and who will go for us ?” the qualified perhaps of thousands a year will he give man will step to the front and say,
“ Hero his guinea or two, or a £5 note, with a bit
am I, send me.” of a notion that it is full as much as he There is a scene in a Jewish synagogue needs to bestow? This cannot be. Ought which ought to warn us. A man is there any of us to be grieved if the Master put with a withered hand, and the foes of Jesus that question, “Lovest thou me," a second watch to see if he will heal that man on the time or a third ? Brethren, we must, as Sabbath-day that they may accuse him. members of this Missionary Society, face “Stand forth,” says the Master to the poor this matter of giving as
we have never
affiicted creature, and then there comes fairly faced it yet.
that flashing word, like a sharp two-edged But back of the question of giving stands
sword out of his mouth, "Is it lawful to do another, that of praying. I do not refer to
good on the Sabbath-day, or to do evil; to the missionary prayer meeting, though that
save life or to kill ?" Kill! who thinks of ought to be improved and must be. I mean
that? Ah, brethren have we not to learn praying in the solitary place. This foreign the lesson that to refrain from doing the mission work is not laid upon the heart as
good that is in our power is to do evil, and it should be. We do not realise the truths
that if we can speak the saving word and we hold, and hence we not adequately re
won't, we are guilty of murder ? present them to others. I have a picture
It is no child's play, but stern work to at home representing the temptation of which we are called. When the Alpine Christ. On the top of the mountain the range stood in the way of Napoleon's proMaster stands in calm dignity, the tempter
gress, he exclaimed, “There shall be no is seen in the attitude of entreaty, spread- Alps.” Is there not within reach of the ing out His hands and saying, “ All theso humblest disciple of Christ a power mightier will I give thee if thou wilt fall down and far than that of the ambitious emperor ? worship me.” One day I overheard my We may not have brain to grasp the plan little boy of three years old expounding of this great battle against sin, but we can the meaning of the picture to a visitor
have grace to do the Captain's bidding; and “You see,” he said, " that gentleman is
when success has come, each of us will dewarming his hands.” Our pictures of holi
voutly own, and earnestly exclaimness and sin are about as well understood as that. The world does not see the hate
"O God, Thy arm was here,
And not to us, but to Thy arm alone, fulness of sin and the beauty of holiness Ascribe we all."
THOMAS Cook, Esq., of Leicester, seconded the resolution, and with the aid of a large map gave an account of his recent tour round the world.
The Rev. J. BURNS, D.D., of London, moved the second resolution:
“ That the meeting rejoice in the manifold encouragements vouchsafed to this and kindred societies during the past year, and would recognise the responsibility imposed by the good providence of God upon the universal church, in the fact that both pagan and popish nations are now freely open to the preachers of the gospel.”
It was now past nine o'clock, and too late to make a speech, as many already had been obliged to leave by train. Dr. Burns remarked that he was known in connection with “ Sketches of Sermons.” He would just give the divisions and sub-divisions of the speech he had intended to make had time allowed, and the next time the Association was held at Burnley, he would be happy, if spared, to come and fill it up. The resolution was seconded by the Rev. H. Wilkinson, of Leicester. A hearty vote of thanks to the Chairman, moved by the Rev. W. Bailey and seconded by the Rev. George Gill, of Burnley, with the Doxology and Benediction, brought the proceedings to a close.
DR. HUNTER'S ORISSA.
Second Letter by Dr. Buckley to the Editor of the "Friend of India."
Cuttack, September 28, 1872. Dear Sir,-Literary men rarely quote Scripture correctly; or if the text be given with verbal accuracy the comment is usually wide of the mark. Dr. Hunter has escaped the first mistake, and perpetrated the second. He has accurately cited Titus i. 15, former part. “To the pure all things are pure;" but the application of it to the gross impurities of Juggernath's worship is as foreign from the intent and meaning of the inspired writer as can be imagined. The latter part of the verse would, if quoted, have been a faithful description of the real state of the case, though it would have been fatal to his argument. “Unto them that are defiled and unbelieving is nothing pure, but even their mind and conscience is defiled.”
The attempt to “spiritualize as solemn mysteries” what cannot be named or written is worse than vain, but as the opinion of a missionary on this point may be regarded as partial and prejudiced, I appeal to the published opinions of the late Rajah Rammohun Roy, and to his distinguished friend and disciple, Braja Mohun Deb, both of whom were eminent for varied learning, intellectual power, and extensive acquaintance with Hindooism ; and who are, at least, equal to any authorities that can be adduced on the other side. It is pertinent to my present purposes to appeal to the former, as he told his readers that he had observed that “many Europeans, both in their writings and conversation, felt a wish
to palliate and soften the features of Hindoo
The admissions of Dr. Hunter as to the impurities of Juggernath's worship are very damaging.
“ Lascivious sculptures disfigure his walls; indecent ceremonies disgrace his ritual; and dancing girls, with rolling eyes, put the modest female worshippers to the blush,”—all which is true, except that the modest blushing of those who can listen to the obscene songs sung by prostitutes before the god may well be doubted. He might have also referred to the filthy gestures and language of the
bakta in front of the car—to the disgusting scene between the priests of Juggernath and those of Lakshmi-and to the wellknown fact, that the language in and about Pooree is more obscene than in any other part of Orissa. The language of God's word in reference to the abominations of ancient idolaters,—“It is a shame even to speak of those things which are done of them in secret,”—applies to what has been said and sung hundreds of times at Pooree before thousands and tens of thousands of people. If such things are done in open day, who shall describe the shameful deeds done in secret? Yet, with strange inconsistency, the author tells us that he had "talked to many pilgrims,” and that,
so far as one man can judge of the inner life of another, some of them had drawn very near in their hearts to God !” But as it is the tendency of spiritual worship to assimilate the worshipper to the object adored, it is impossible to see how the polluted rites of a worship which from its indecency cannot be described, can lift the soul to Him who is of “purer eyes than to behold evil.”
But there is no necessity for restricting the question to Pooree, or to any single shrine. Idolatry has existed for at least four thousand years; and it has prevailed in all countries where the Bible has been unknown. Its form has changed in different nations, and in the same nation at different times, though changes have generally been from bad to worse. I appeal, therefore, not simply to Pooree, or any particular shrine in India or any other country. I appeal to the history all countries and of all ages. All history is a myth if idolatry has not everywhere and always been the parent of pollution, cruelty, and blood. A hundred and twenty generations have lived and died in vain, if this fact be not as well established as any fact in the history of our race. The abominations which idolatry produced thirty-three centuries ago in Canaan are known to all readers of the Bible. And, to come down to later times, Greece and Rome, with all their refinement and learning, were awfully sunk in uncleanness. The evidence of this from the inspired page is abundantly confirmed by admired classic authors, who refer, without a hint of disapproval, to the greatest enormities. But enlargement is unnecessary. When men forsake the one true God they are prepared for every evil work. Dr. Hunter gives—not correctly—a sentence from good Bishop Wilson, written at Pooree; I will give another from the same paragraph, “Put out the Bible, and Greece and Rome, with all their abominations, would again fill the world.”
Many interesting particulars are given
in Vol. II. of “Orissa," respecting the Khonds; but historians should be impartial, and, as a simple act of justice, it appears to me that other able and energetic officers should have been generously referred to as well as Lieutenant, afterwards Major, Macpherson, especially those who spent much more time than that officer did in those pestilential hills. Colonel, now General, Campbell, in his interesting “Personal Narrative," describes thirteen years of active service among the Khonds. Major J. MacViccar and Captain J. P. Frye were faithful and zealous servants of government, and both of them sacrificed health and life in earnest and enlightened efforts to suppress the atrocious Meriah rite, and benefit the Khond race. I am aware that Major Mac Viccar's death did not occur till some time after leaving India, but it was fever contracted in the Khond hills that necessitated his leaving on furlough more than once before his final departure for Europe, and it probably shortened his days. They sought a higher and purer recomponse than historians and governments can give, but none the less should their memories be honoured for their benevolent and zealous efforts. Captain Frye was a linguist of no common order, and no government officer has ever acquired so extensive a knowledge of the Khond language as he did. Khond Primer, Fables, Grammar, History of Joseph, Dictionary, which he did not live to complete, may be mentioned in confirmation of this remark. Shortly after his return from his last tour in the hills, a missionary friend of mine, thinking that he was not looking very well, said, “I fear these trips to the jungles will shorten your days.” “Be it so," was his reply, “I would much rather have a short life and do something than a long one and do nothing." In a few days after this conversation he passed away.
It could do no good now to refer to the controversy on Khond matters which was vigorously, and not very charitably, conducted, a quarter of a century ago; but I recommend your readers carefully to examine the “History of the rise and progress of the operation for the suppression of human sacrifice and female infanticide in the hill tracts of Orissa,” No. V.; published by government in 1854. It is a clear, interesting, and impartial record of an enterprise as honourable, benevolent, and successful, as any which the government of India has undertaken. The laurels won by those who nobly toiled and honourably fell in this arduous service will never be dimmed by time and age; but will shine with brighter lustre as generations pass away, and as men learn to know that these are more glorious than those of the bloody field.