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arising, I imagine, from the manner in which the rays of light of an aurora dart about in the heavens), and consequently worship it. Of meteors and falling stars they have a great dread; they believe that they are sent by the great warriors who are in the “happy hunting grounds” to warn them of danger.-Sullivan's Rambles in America.
A FATHER'S TENDERNESS.—I will give a notion of my father's tenderness if I set down just one tiniest instance of his attention to me. The forenoon was oppressive. I was sitting under a tree, trying to read, when he came up to me. There was a wooden gate, with open bars, near. He went and set it wide open, saying, “There, my love, you will fancy yourself cooler if I leave the gate open!" Will you laugh at me for mentioning such a trifle? I think not; for it went deep to my heart, and I seem to know God better for it ever after. A father is a great and marvellous truth, one you can never get at the depth of, try how you may.-The Vicar's Daughter.
THE DUNCE-BLOCK.—A school-master tells the following story: "I was teaching in a quiet country village. The second day of my session I had leisure to survey my surroundings, and among the scanty furniture I espied a three-le ged stool. “Is this the dunce-block ?' I asked a little girl of five. The dark eyes sparkled, the curls nodded assent, and the lips rippled out, “I suppose so; the teacher always sits on it.' The stool was unoccupied that term."
SLEEP AND DREAMS.—There are | hence one of the advantages of "early moments of repose, even in action, for to bed.” One-third of life, on an averthe heart, the lungs, and the muscles age, is spent in sleep, profitably and of the body. But during wakefulness necessarily so. Great wrong is done the brain has no perfect repose. Now. young and growing children by not that it is quite universally acknow- allowing them to have all the sleep ledged that different parts of the brain their system requires. have different functions assigned them, THE LAUNDRY. - Borax is much we can readily see that there would better to use than soda for fine articles be change of activity, and in this in washing. French laundresses use change relaxation if not perfect rest, it altogether. It saves soap, and does to which is due the integrity of this not harm the finest lace goods. It is organ. The influence of sleep upon used in proportion of a handful to ten the brain has been carefully observed or twelve gallons of water well mixed. in cases in which fracture of the skull Clean washed sand is the best matehas left portions of the brain exposed rial in which to start slips from plants. to view. "Continued loss of sleep under- Grape propagators use nothing but mines the nervous system. Peevish- sand and water at first. When roots ness, restlessness, annoyances at trifles, start, the cuttings are changed to other despondency, and even insanity, may pots filled with rich compost. follow as the result of sleeplessness. To clean tortoise shells, use fine The sleep of health is unbroken repose. rottenstone and sperm oil; apply it Sleep is generally more profound and with a chamoise, then polish it off with restful in the early part of the night, dry rottenstone and a dry chamois.
NOTES AND QUERIES-FACTS, HINTS, GEMS, AND POETRY.
Notes and Queries.
J. B. B.—Your inference is correct. used about himself—a very different “Things" stand opposed to “persons” thing. in the passage you quoted. The literal M. R.-Yes: but the Rechabites rendering, according to Bengel, is— were more than teetotallers: they were are being dissolved.”
a half monastic and pastoral people. A. F.-We think not. It is rather B. W. N.-Not necessarily. The a threefold picture : the sheep and courses you mention may be otherwise shepherd at early morning, at noon, explained. and at night. Read it again with this S. M.-Yes: there is no doubt that suggestion of Godet's, and you will see the charity of the apostle was very a new meaning and beauty in John x. broad and tolerant. The definition of
B. X. W.-It is easy to explain the toleration given by Fichte hardly Psalm you speak of. David is not applies: “The true proof of tolerance cursing his enemies: he is quoting the is to be tolerant of men's intolerance." hard speeches that his enemies have J. F. R.-State your difficulty again.
Facts, Hints, Gems, and Poetry.
Make but fow explanations; the
character that cannot defend itself is Short-sightedness is on the increase not worth vindicating.–F. W. Robertin Germany. The United States has 79,000 miles
Often the grand meanings of faces, of telegraph.
as well as written words, may be chiefly There are eight newspapers in Eng- in the impressions of those who look land over a century old.
on them.-George Eliot. There are in France 200 towns pos
If we had no faults ourselves, we sessing each a library numbering from should not have so much pleasure in 10,000 to 20,000 volumes.
discovering the faults of others. The death of Pio Nono caused over
To know one person who is posia million pairs of black gloves to be tively to be trusted will do more for a sold in Paris.
man's moral nature—yes, for his Germany has carried underground spiritual nature-than all the sermons telegraph lines from Berlin to the he has ever heard or ever can hear.farthest frontiers of the empire. They George MacDonald. work well. Minnesota is a Lutheran State,
Gems. having more Lutherans among its population than of any other name or Nothing ages like laziness.—Bulwer confession. They number 75,000, Ger-Lytton. mans and Scandinavians. There is but
No one keeps a secret so well as the one English Lutheran church in the individual who is ignorant of it.State.
You cannot dream yourself into a Hints.
character; you must hammer and forge Brisk talkers are slow thinkers. yourself one.-Froude.
It requires greater virtue to sustain The praises of others may be of use good fortune than bad.
in teaching us, not what we are, but
FACTS, HINTS, GEMS, AND POETRY.
what we ought to be. Guesses at Truth.
It was Carlyle who said: “Make yourself an honest man, and then you may be sure that there is one rascal less in the world.
No hand so rude but that it gathers with the flower more and other beauty than what the dews of heaven have nourished in it.-William Smith.
Duty is the voice of God, and a man is neither worthy of a good home, or a heaven, that is not willing to be in peril for a good cause.—John Brown.
The truest help we can render to an afflicted man is not to take his burden from him, but to call out his best strength, that he may be able to bear the burden.-Phillips Brooks.
It is better that joy should be spread over all the day in the form of strength, than that it should be concentrated into ecstasies, full of danger, and followed by reactions.-Emerson.
THE FOUNTAIN OF LIFE, JESU8, refuge of the weary,
Object of the spirit's love; Fountain in life's desert dreary,
Saviour from the world above; O how oft Thine oyes, offended,
Gaze upon the sinner's fall! Yet upon the cross extended,
Thou did'st bear the pains of all. Do we pass that cross unheeding,
Breathing no repenting vow, Though we see Thee wounded, bleeding,
See Thy thorn-encircled brow? Yet Thy sinless death hast brought us
Life eternal, peace and rest; Only what Thy grace has taught us
Calms the sinner's stormy breast. Jesus, may our hearts be burning
With more fervent love for Thee ! May our eyes be ever turning
To Thy cross of agony; Till in glory, parted never
From the blessed Saviour's side, Graven in our heart's forever, Dwell the cross, the Crucified.
FATHER, TAKE MY HAND. DARK and lonely is the way;
Father, take my hand, Lead me o'er the thorny road
To that sunny land. Lead, Almighty-where thou wilt,
Feed from living springs, And when tempests 'round me war
Hide me 'neath Thy wings.
May I understand
Father, take my hand.
O'er death's cold river,
Forever, O forever!
WAIT a little while,
Be sure Thou'st but one short lifetime
What thou must.
Above Is the God who gives you pain
In His love.
To His face.
01 LITTLE feet, that such long years Must wander on through doubts and fears,
Must ache and bleed beneath the load; I, nearer to the wayside inn, Where toil shall cease and rest begin,
Am weary, thinking of your road.
01 little hands, that, weak or strong, Have still to serve and rule so long;
Have still so long to give or ask; I, who so much with book and pen Have toiled among my fellow-men,
Am weary, thinking of your task.
01 little hearts, that throb and beat With such impatient, feverish heat,
Such limitless and strong desires, Mine, that so long has glowed and burned With passions into ashes turned,
Now covers and conceals its fires.
01 little souls, as pure and white And crystalline as rays of light
Direct from heaven, their source divine ! Refracted through the mist of years How red my setting sun appears, How lurid looks this soul of mine!
In mechanism the phonograph is simplicity itself. It consists of a cylinder of hollow brass, mounted on a horizontal axis, supported by two iron uprights, furnished with a balance wheel, and revolved either by hand, clockwork, or steam power. On the surface of the cylinder, which is about four inches in diameter, is cut a screw thread, corresponding exactly in pitch with that cut on the axis for the purpose of giving the cylinder longitudinal motion. In front of the cylinder is a movable bar or arm, which supports a mouthpiece of gutta-percha, on the under side of which is a disc of thin metal such as is used for taking tintypes. Against the centre of the lower side of this disc, a fine steel point is held by a spring attached to the rim of the mouthpiece; an india-rubber cushion, between the point and the disc, controls the vibration of the spring. In fact, the instrument has no other parts but the cylinder and its axis and the vibrater with its arm, yet with it the most wonderful results are obtained.
To use the phonograph a sheet of smooth tinfoil is adjusted around the cylinder, and secured in position with a little gum. The vibrater, with its adjustable mouthpiece, is then moved to the cylinder, and clamped in position, with its pointer bearing on the wrapper of tinfoil to such a degree that, if the cylinder is revolved, the point will trace a shallow groove on its surface corresponding with the threads cut on the cylinder surface. While turning the crank the operator talks, sings, laughs, or whistles into the mouthpiece. Every vibration of sound is faithfully recorded on the tinfoil by the steel point, the cylinder making about one revolution to a word. In order to reproduce the words or sounds, that is to make the machine talk or sing, the cylinder is turned back, so that the steel point may go over the indentations made by speaking into the mouthpiece. A paper funnel, like a speaking trumpet, is now attached to the mouthpiece to prevent the sound from scattering, the cylinder is revolved as before, and the phonograph repeats in a clear tone every word and sound recorded on the tinfoil sheet. In a word, every sound of a pitch that causes vibration of the tintype diaphragm, and thereby the most minute impressions of the pointer attached to it on the tinfoil wrapper of the cylinder, is reproduced.
To reproduce the sounds that originally caused the vibration of the diaphragm and the puncturing of the tinfoil wrapper of the revolving cylinder, it is only necessary to make the pointer pass over and into these punctures and reproduce the vibrations in the
diaphragm. These latter, acting on the air, give to it the same relative impulses and in the same order and energy as were given it by the organs of speech or other causes of the original sound. Hence, the conditions of atmospheric vibrations being alike in both cases, the same effects must be produced. If the sound of the human voice causes the diaphragm to vibrate and mark the tinfoil, certainly the inverse action of the tinfoil on the diaphragm, when the cylinder is revolved, will cause the reproduction of the same series of vibrations, and consequently the same sounds. Although the quality of the sound as reproduced is not altered, its volume is somewhat less than that of the original. The notes of the higher pitch are given out with more distinctness than those of the lower. Whistling is perfectly reproduced, the sound of a low cough or sneeze is repeated with startling accuracy, singing is given out with full and perfect notes, and distinct as to the pronunciation of every word.
It would be difficult to set a limit to the uses to which this wonderful instrument can be put. With perfected instruments it is possible that a speech delivered by one of the orators of the day can be repeated fifty years hence, simultaneously, in a thousand towns and cities, word for word and tone for tone, as it was uttered by one who had long passed away. The phonograph may take the place of short-hand reporters. A man who has many letters to write will talk them to the phonograph and send the sheets to his correspondents, who will lay them on these phonographs and listen to the message.
ROMAN CATACOMBS. BENEATH the ruined palaces and temples, the crumbling tombs and dismantled villas of the august mistress of the world, we find the most interesting relics of early Christianity on the face of the earth. In traversing these tangled labyrinths, we are brought face to face with the primitive ages ; we are present at the worship of the infant church; we observe its rites ; we study its institutions; we witness the deep emotions of the first believers as they commit their dead, often their martyred dead, to their last long resting place; we decipher the touching record of their sorrow, of the holy hopes by which they were sustained, of “their faith triumphant o'er their fears, and of their assurance of the resurrection of the dead and the life everlasting. We read in the testimony of the Catacombs the confession of faith of the early Christians, sometimes accompanied by the records of their