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either of a milky colour, or depositing a proper hand, is infinitely preferable. Here, brownish sediment. Sometimes mucous as in many other cases, from the nerves matter is mixed with the urine, and where being braced by exercise in the open air, there is pain in making water the irritation and the use of the cold bath, the dangers of the bladder is taken off by it, as well as attendant on toothing will be much remov. the general fever. In all cases the child is ed, and the child better able to support subject to shrieking-fits, and its fingers are this painful and dangerous process, to often thrust into its mouth. The feet and which, and its concomitant disorders, so bands are also occasionally known to swell, many children fall victims. though it be by no means a frequent oc- A frequent attendant upon dentition is currence, and only takes place where the convulsions.

As this alarming symptom bowels are in a costive state. Transient usually proceeds from the teeth cutting numbness of the legs and arms is also an through the nervous membrane covering occasional, but not a frequent, affection at the jaw immediately under the gums, the this time. When these general symptoms scarification already recommended is not are long continued, and prove severe on only useful to prevent this occurrence, but the constitution, they are often succeeded has, in many cases, saved the infant's life, by an affection of the lungs, with cough and after the most dangerous symptoms have difficult breathing, and the attack of con- taken place. It can never do harm, and vulsions, general fever, scrophula, and atro- may even be of service, though the fits phy, or consumption. A more rare effect of should not proceed from toothing. Somethem is the formation of water in the times it will be necessary to repeat the head.

lancing two or three times, which

may Difficult toothing, as a species of inflam- always be done with perfect safety, and matory disease, is to be treated as such. with almost certain success. Besides keeping the body open by gentle Lancing will ulso, in a great measure, purgatives, as well as by clysters, especially prevent what is frequent in toothing, namewhere there is a retention of urine, the skin ly, ulcerated gums. When these take place should be relaxed, and gentle sweats pro- they should be touched with honey, renderduced by diluting drinks, and also by ad- ed astringent and moderately rough, by ministering small quantities of tartarised roch-allum and white vitriol, while the body antimonial wine, or James's powders. A is kept open. discharge should likewise be encouraged by We proceed to the very common coma blistering-plaster behind the ears, or on plaint of convulsions ; these are either the back; and, on the first appearance of symptomatic, produced by worms or deninflammation, a leech should be applied tition, or precursive of the measles, smallunder each ear. A moderate looseness, be- pox, or other eruptive fever; in which case, ing beneficial in toothing, should rather be they are not necessarily to be regarded in encouraged than checked. In fevers from an unfavourable view; or they are an origithis cause, from fifteen to twenty drops of nal complaint arising from a morbid affec. spirits of hartshorn, in a spoonful of water, tion of the brain, or nervous fluid. What. may be given to advantage every four ever stimulates the nerves in an immoderate hours, in five or six doses ; and where cos. degree may induce convulsions, as may also tiveness does not prevent, three or four an irritation of the stomach or bowels, drops of laudanum may be added to each which is certainly either the predisposing dose.

or immediate cause of most of the convulRubbing the gums with a little fine honey sions of children. • three or four times a day, and giving the We have already mentioned that for child a crust of bread, roll of liquorice. some months after birth, children should be root, wax-candle, or coral, to indulge the confined to breast-milk. Where this is not disposition for chewing which then presents the case, and the food is made too thick itself, will afford ease; but the only means and pasty, convulsions are very frequent to be depended on, is scarification with a from the indigestion which naturally en

which takes off the tension of the The bowels are thus disordered by gums, with scarcely any pain, and gives occasioning their contents to turn pasty almost instantaneous relief to the child. and cleave to their coats, so as to prevent The finger-nail, or a sharp-edged sixpence, the due adoption of the nutritious part of are sometimes used for this little operation, the aliment. Any offensive load, whether but are clumsy substitutes; the lancet, in a from the quality or quantity of food, excites




a morbid secretion, and that this is a cause often fatally, especially if counected with of convulsions may be known from their water in the head. being preceded by nausea, costiveness, or After all, alarming as convulsions are, purging, pale countenance, swollen belly, they are by no means either so generally and perturbed sleep. Repeated purges, fatal or injurious to the system as is comparticularly of castor oil or calomel, with monly believed. Their number is far oversome light cordial, will be necessary and stated in the bills of mortality; many clul. useful. Veal tea, mixed with milk, is the dren, in particular, being said to die ander best nutriment; and if all farinaceous food them who are really the victims of other be avoided, the convulsions may often, disorders. An immediate and proper aphereby alone, be prevented from appear. plication will seldom fail to relieve the child, ing:

and as this may be necessary before proThe children of the poor are not unfre- fessional assistance can be obtained; moquently afflicted with convulsions froin foul thers, and those who have the care of chil. air, and want of cleanliness in their skin dren in such situations, should so far under. and dress, a most extensive source of dis- stand the subject as to enable them to give

the immediate aid required. With this In convulsions arising from the irritation view, in addition to what has already been or foulness of the stomach and bowels, said, we may observe, that were the irritathese must be cleansed as already mention- tion proceeds from the bowels, the readiest ed; after which, if they appear to con: remedy will be a soap clyster, with two or tinue, spasmodic remedies must be adminis- more tea spoonfuls of salt, and afterwards tered, such as spirit of hartshorn, tincture the purgatives as before directed. But of castor, rectified oil of amber, or two or when the child falls suddenly into a conthree drops of laudanum. Bathing the feet vulsion, after sucking or feeding, and the in warm water, and friction all over the bowels have been before regular, the irritabody, with cainphor liniment, are likewise tion may be supposed to exist in the sto. very useful.

mach; especially when there is an musual When convolsion is a primary disease, paleness indicating sickness, or a considerproceeding immediately from the brain, able blackness with an appearance of suffocableeding, blistering, and purging, are requi- tion : symptoms which may arise either from site; and also bathing the feet in warm an overloaded stomach, or a small piece of water, friction of the legs, and rubbing the indigested food irritating, and perhaps plage soles of the feet with the compound spirit ging up the inferior aperture of the stomach. of ammonia. In delicate children, chaly. Here, without waiting for a regular emetic, beate-water may be useful; and where some immediate means may be tried to prothose of two or three years old are subject duce vomiting, as irritating the gullet with to slight aud frequent fits, issues, or setons the finger or a feather, or throwing in a lit. in the neck or between the shoulders, tle smoke of tobacco, if it be at hand; any should be made, and kept open for a length of which will provoke instant vomiting, and of time.

by relieving the stomach of the cause of Another, and the most serious, species of oppression, put an end to the fit. This will original convulsion, is attended with an nn. be the better and more easily accomplish. meaning countenance, and constant stare and ed if the child be in the mean time supmotion of the eyes, followed by a temporary ported by a hand placed under its stomach deafness or blindness, and sometimes a loss and belly. In every case it is necessary to of intellect. If water in the head be not clear the bowels; and in most cases, this is saspected, and the common nervons medi- best accomplished by pretty brisk doses of cines, with purges and blisters, have no calomel. effect, recourse must be had to repeated The next infantile disease we shall notice vomits, and bleeding with lecches ; where is liydrocephalus, or watery head. This is the body continues in a good state the divided into external and internal. In the water of prepared kali may be beneficial former, which is a very rare occurrence, the as a diuretic. Much benefit has also been fluid lies on the surface of the brain ; in the derived from a free use of musk, whether latter, much deeper, and within the ventriby the mouth or in the form of injections. cles, which, from the mass of water they When this sort of convulsion attacks young contain are much distended, and ofteu disa children, it terminates very soon, and too tend, to a monstrous size, the entire craniun,


External hydrocephalus, which sometimes unhealthy parents, and especially mothers appears immediately after birth, is a very dis- who pass a sedentary life, in unwholesome tressing, and generally a very fatal disorder. air, and feed on a weak and watery diet ; A succession of blisters to different parts or from an improper nursing of children of the cranium, offers the best chance of themselves, especially from their being kept

wet, dirty, in a close damp air, and without Iuternalhydrocephalus seldom takes place due exercise. Hence they are most com. before two, or after ten or twelve years of mon among the children of poor people in age. It may proceed from external injuries, manufacturing towns, the disease having, in from schirrous tumours, and excrescences fact, never appeared in this country till within the scull, from a watery state of the manufactures began to four ish. Children blood, a diminished secretion of urine, a begotten by men at a late period of life, or suddenly checked perspiration, or some lin- by those afflicted with gout, gravel, or other gering disease; and there are not wanting chronic diseases, or who have suffered much instances of its being hereditary; or, per- from venereal complaints, are also very laps, it may be oftener referred to scrophula subject to rickets. than to any other cause.

The disease first shows itself in a softness In young children it frequently begins and fabbiness of the fies'ı; the child's with cougli, a quick pulse, difficult respira- countenance becomes bloated, or very tion, flushed cheeks, a discharge from the Aorid, the belly and head enlarged, and the nosc and eyes, with continual heat and cos. body debilitated; the pulse is quick and tiveness. The child often puts its hand to feeble, and the appetite and digestion bad. its head; and, during sleep, picks its nose, The teeth frequently rot early, and fall out; and grinds its teeth; the eyes are impatient the wrists and ankles become unusually of light, the vision imperfect, the counte. thick; the spine, or back-bone, assumes an Dance unnjeaning, the hands tumid, and the unpatural sliape; the breast is often defingers clinched. The most decided symp- formed; and the bones of the arms and legs toms, however, are an inclination to lie on grow crooked. the back, a dislike to be moved, an increase Weakness and relaxation being the cause of pain on the head being raised, and an al- of this disorder, its remedy must, of course, most continual drowsiness.

consist in promoting digestion, and in braThough generally fatal, there are many cing and strengthening the solids. Hence instances of cures being effected by medi. nourishing, and especially aninjal food, with cines; of which, those most worth trying a little port wine, is the proper diet. Air and are, stimulant embrocations, blisters applied exercise are indispensably necessary; the to the head and neck, active purgatives and cold-bath, and it possible, of salt-water, will diuretics, with the external use of mercurial be of essential service, especially in sumointinent. Strong sneezing powders, as mer; but it should not be entered ou withwhite hellebore, or the compound powder ont previous purging. Frictions afterwards of asarum, have often been recommended, with fannel and aromatic powders, or linias well as electricity; fox-glove, too, has ments, or the fumes of frankincense, mas. been known to succeed, in conjunction, as tic, or amber, especially on the back and it should, in this disease, always be given, belly, will contribute to strengthen the with small doses of calomel. By the use of habit. Bark, columbo, steel, and tincture this conjoint plan, persevered in for a long of myrrh, are also to be recommended time, and accompanied with frictions upon where they can be employed. If the child the scalp and spine of strong camphorated be of a gross habit, gentle emetics, with liniment, the writer of this article has seen warm and active aperients, will be of use ; mavy cases yield which were pronounced it being necessary to reduce the tympanula by several practitioners altogether intract. of the belly, and to strengthen the action of able.

the intestinal canal. Though this complaint The last infantile disorder we shall notice be seldom suddenly vanquished, yet by atis that of rickets. These generally show tention to regimen, and particularly to air themselves, whenever they occur, between and exercise, in conjunction with the medi. six months and two years of age. Rickets cal plan now prescribed, it will generally are evidently a disease of debility, and be overpowered by degrees. hence, whatever tends to debilitate, predis. INFANT. From the observations daily poses the constitution to their attack. Ou made on the actions of infants, as to their this account they are often apt to arise from arriving at discretion, the law and customs of every country have fixed upon parti- trover lies against him. Also it is said, that cular periods, on which they are presum- if he take the goods under pretence that ed capable of acting with reason and dis- be is of full age, trover lies, because cretion; in our law, the full age of man it is a wilful and fraudulent trespass. Inor woman is twenty-one years. Tlie fants are disabled from contracting for ages of male and female are different for any thing but necessaries for their person, different purposes : a male at twelve years suitable to their degree and quality, and of age may take the oath of allegiance; at what is necessary must be left to the jury. fourteen, is of years of discretion, and there- An infant, knowing of a frand, sball be fore may consent or disagree to marriage, as much bound as if of age. But it is may choose his guardian, and if his discre- beld, that this rule is confined to such acts tion be actually proved, day make his only as are voidable, and that a warrant of testament of his personal estate; at seven- attorney, given by an infant, being abso. teen, may be a procurator or an executor; lutely void, the court will not confirm it, and at twenty-one is at his own disposal, though the infant appeared to have given it, and may alien his lands, goods, and chattels. knowing it was not good, and for the pur. A female at seven years of age may be be- pose of collusion. trothed or given in marriage; at nine, is in- As to acts of infants being void, or only titled to dower; and at twelve, is of years voidable, there is a difference between of maturity, and therefore may consent or an actual delivery of the thing contracted disagree to marriage, and, if proved to have for, and a bare agreement to deliver it; the sufficient discretion, may bequeath hier per- first is voidable, but the last absolately sonal estate ; at fourteen, is at years of le- void. As necessaries for an infant's wife gal discretion, and may choose a guardian ; are necessaries for him, he is chargeable for at seventeen, may be executrix ; and at them, unless provided before marriage ; in twenty-one, may dispose of herself and which case he is not answerable, though sbe her lands. An infant is capable of in- wore them afterward. An infant is also heriting, for the law presumes him ca- liable for the nursing of his lawful child. pable of property; also an infant may pur- Where goods are furnished to the son, he is chase, because it is intended for his benefit, himself liable, if they be necessaries. If and the freehold is in him till he disagree tradesmen deal with him, and he undertakes thereto, because an agreement is presumed, to pay them, they must resort to him for it being for his benefit, and because the payment; but if they furnished the infant freehold cannot be in the grantor contrary on the credit of his father, the father only to his own act, nor can be in abeyance, for is liable. With respect to education, &c., then a stranger would not know against infants may be charged, where the credit whom to demand his right; and if at his full was given, bona fide, to them. But where age the infant agree to the purchase, he the infant is under the parents' power, and cannot afterwards avoid it; but if he die living in the house with them, he shall not during his minority, his heirs may avoid it; be liable even for necessaries. for they shall not be bound by the con- If a tailor trust a young man under age tracts of a person, who wanted capacity for cloaths, to an extravagant degree, be to contract. As to infants being witness- cannot recover; and he is bound to know es, there seems to be no fixed time at whether he deals at the same time with any which children are excluded from giving other tailor. evidence; but it will depend, in a great A promissory note given by an infant for measure, on the sense and understanding of board and lodging, and for teaching him a the children, as it shall appear on examina- trade, is valid, and an action will lie for the tion in court.

money. And debts contracted during inAn infant is not bound by his contract to fancy, are good considerations to support a deliver a thing; so if one deliver goods to promise made, when a person is of full age an infant upon a contract, &c., knowing to pay them; but the promise must be ex. him to be an infant, he shall not be charge. press. A bond, without a penalty, for neable in trover and conversion, or any other cessaries, will bind an infant; but not a action for them; for the infant is not capa- bond with a penalty. Legacies to infants ble of any contract but for necessaries; cannot be paid either to them or their pa therefore such delivery is a gift to the in- rents. An infant cannot be a jaror, neither fant; but if an infant, without any contract, can he be an attorney, bailiff, táctor, or rewilfully take away the goods of another, ceiver,


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By the custom of London, an infant un. an angle, the infinite area, intercepted be married, and above the age of fourteen, tween those infinite right lines, is to the 'if under twenty-one, may bind himself ap- whole infinite plane as the arch of a circle, prentice to a freeman of London, by in- on the point of concourse of those lines as denture, with proper covenants, which co- a centre, intereepted between the said lines, venants, by the custom of London, will be is to the circumference of the circle; or, as as binding as if of age.

the degrees of the angle to the three hun. If an infant draw a bill of exchange, yet dred and sixty degrees of a circle: for exhe shall not be liable on the custom of mer- ample, right lines meeting at a right angle chants, but he may plead infancy in the do incinde, on an infinite plane, a quarter same manner as he may to any other con- part of the whole infinite area of such a tract.

plane. An action on an account stated, will not But if two parallel infinite lines be

sup. lie against an infant, though it be for neces- posed drawn on such an infinite plane, the saries.

area intercepted between them will be INFANTRY, in military affairs, denotes likewise infinite; but at the same time will the wbole body of foot-soldiers.

be infinitely less than that space, which is INFINITE, that which has neither be- intercepted between two infinite lines that ginning nor end: in which sense God alone are inclined, though with never so small is infinite. See God.

an angle; for that, in the one case, the INFINITE, or INFINITELY great line in given finite distance of the parallel lines geometry, denotes only an indefinite or diminishes the infinity in one degree of indeterminate line, to which no certain dimension; whereas, in a sector there is bounds, or limits, are prescribed.

infinity in both dimensions : and conseINFINITE quantities. The very idea of quently the quantities are the one infinitely magnitudes infinitely great, or such as ex- greater than the other, and there is no proceed any assignable quantities, does in- portion between them. clude a negation of limits : yet if we nearly From the same consideration arise the examine this notion, we shall find that snch three several species of infinite space or magnitudes are not equal among them- solidity; for a parallelopiped, or a cylinder, selves, but that there are really besides in infinitely long, is greater than any finite finite length and infinite area, three several magnitude, how great soever; and all such sorts of infinite solidity; all of which are solids, supposed to be formed on given quantitates sui generis, and that those of bases, are as those bases in proportion to each species are in given proportions. one another. But if two of these three

Intipite length, or a line infinitely long, dimensions are wanting, as in the space in. is to be considered either as beginning at tercepted between two parallel planes ina point, and so intinitely extended one finitely extended, and at a finite distance, way, or else both ways from the same or with infinite length and breadth, with point; in which case the one, which is a a finite thickness, all such solids shall be as begiuning infinity, is the one half of the the given finite distances one to another; whole, which is the sum of the begiuding but these quantities, though infinitely greatand ceasing infinity; or, as may be said, er than the other, are yet infinitely less of infinity a parte ante and a parte post, than any of those wherein all the three which is analogous to eternity in time and dimensions are infinite. Such are the spaces duration, in which there is always as much intercepted between two inclined planes to follow as is past, from 'any point or mo- ipfinitely extended; the space intercepted ment of time: nor doth the addition or by the surface of a cone, or the sides of a subduction of finite length, or space of pyramid, likewise infinitely continued, &c. time, alter the case either in infinity or of all which notwithstanding, the proportions eternity, since both the one or the other one to another, and to the to pay, or vast cannot be any part of the whole. As to abyss of infinite space (wherein is the locus infipite surface, or area, any right line, in- of all things that are or can be; or to the finitely extended both ways on an infinite solid of infinite th, breadth and thick. plane, does divide that infinite plane into ness taken all manner of ways) are easily equal parts, the one to the right, and the assignable; for the space between two other to the left of the said line; but if planes is to the whole as the angle of those from any point, in snch a plane, two right planes to the three hundred and sixty de. lines be infinitely extended, so as to make grees of the circle. As for cones and

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