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bustibles have any effect upon indigo, ex- In a solution of sugar, it became green, and cept it is in a state of solution; and the ai last yellowish. In sulpbate of iron, the cosame remark applies to the metallic bodies. lour became green, and in threo weeks The fixed alkaline solutions have no action disappeared. In the sulphurets the colour was on indigó, except it is newly precipitated destroyed in a few hours. Realgar, white from a state of solution. In that case they oxide of arsenic, and orpiment, produced dissolve it with facility. The solution has at no change. Black oxide of manganese defirst a green colour, which gradually disa stroyed the colour completely. From these pears, and the natural colour of the indigo and many other experiments it was incannot be again restored. Hence we see ferred, that all those substances which have that the alkalies, when concentrated, de- a very strong affinity for oxygen give a compose indigo. Pure liquid ammonia green colour to indigo, and at last destroy acts in the same way. Even carbonate of it. Hence it is imagined, that indigo beammonia dissolves precipitated indigo, and comes green by giving out oxygen. Of destroys its colour ; but the fixed alkaline course it owes its blue colour to that prin. carbonates have no such effect. Lime- ciple. water has scarcely any effect upon indigo INDIGOFERA, Indigo or Indicum, in in its usual state; but it readily dissolves botany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decan. precipitated indigo. The solution is at first dria class and order. Natural order of green, but becomes gradually yellow. When Papilionaceæ, or Leguminosæ. Essential the solution is exposed to the air, a slight character: calyx spreading; keel of the green colour returns, as happens to the so- corolla, with an awl-shaped spreading spur lution of indigo in ammonia ; but it soon on each side; legume linear. There are disappears.

thirty-five species. The indigo's are shrubs, The action of the acids upon indigo has under shrubs, or herbs; the leaves are in been examined with most attention, it cer- some few cases simple, in more ternate, in tainly exhibits the most important pheno- most unequally pinnate; the leaflets in

When diluted, sulphuric acid is di- some jointed and awned at the base, as in gested over indigo, it produces no effect, phaseolus ; stipules distinct from the petiexcept that of dissolving the impurities ; ole; peduncles axillary, one or two-flow. but concentrated sulphuric acid dissolves it ered, in spikes or racemes. The herb in readily. One part of indigo, when mixed most of the species yields a blue dye, which with eight parts of sulphuric acid, evolves is not peculiar to this genus, many plants of heat, and is dissolved in about twenty-four this natural class abounding with the blue hours. According to Haussman, some sul- colouring matter. phurous acid and hydrogen gas are evolved INDIVIDUAL, in logic, a particular during the solution. If so, we are to as being of any species, or that which cannot cribe them to the mucilage and resin which be divided into two or more beings equal or are doubtless destroyed by the action of the alike. concentrated acid.

The usual division in logic is made into The solution of indigo is well known in genera, those genera into species, and those this country by the name of liquid blue, species into individuals. sulphate of indigo. While concentrated it INDIVISIBLE, among metaphysicians. is opaque and black; but when diluted it A thing is said to be indivisible absolute, assumes a fine deep blue colour ; and its in- absolutely indivisible, that is a simple betensity is such, that a single drop of the ing, and consists of no parts into which it concentrated sulphate is sufficient to give a may be divided. Thus God is indivisible in blue colour to many pounds of water. Berg. all respects, as is also the human mind, not man ascertained the effect of different re- having extension or other properties of agents on this solution with great precision. body. Dropt into sulphurons acid, the colour was INDIVISIBLES, in geometry, the elements at first blue, then green, and very speedily or principles into which any body or figure destroyed. In vinegar it becomes green, may be ultimately resolved; which elements and in a few weeks the colour disappears. are supposed infinitely small: thus a line In weak potash it becomes green, and then may be said to consist of points, a surface colourless. In weak carbonate of potash, of parallel lines, and a solid of parallel and there are the 'same changes, but more similar surfaces ; and then, because each of slowly. In ammonia and its carbonate, the these elements is supposed indivisible, if in colour becomes green, and then disappears. any figure a line be drawn through the eloments perpendicularly, the number of to order, transfers such instrument, and his points in that line will be the same as the interest, therein, to some other person, who number of the elements; whence we may is then termed the indorsee, and who, by see that a parallelogram, prism, or cylinder, such transfer and assignment renders himis resolvable into elements or indivisibles, self responsible for presenting such instruall equal to each other, parallel and like to ment, and using all due diligence to obtain the base ; a triangle into lines parallel to payment of the acceptor or maker. the base, but decreasing in arithmetical INDUCTION is the giving a clerk insti. proportion, and so are the circles which tuted to a benefice, the actual possession constitute the parabolic conoid, and those of the temporalities belonging to it, in the which constitute, the plane of a circle, nature of livery of seisin. It is performed or surface of an isosceles-cone. See Infi• by a mandate from the bishop to the archNITESIMALS.

deacon, who commonly issues out a preA cylinder may be resolved into cylin- cept to some other clergyman to perform it drical curve surfaces, having all the same for him; which being done, the clergyman height, and continually decreasing inwards, who inducts him indorses a certificate of his as the circles of the base do on which they induction on the archdeacon's mandate, and insist.

they who were present testify the fact unThe method of indivisibles is only the der their hands, And by this the person ancient method of exhaustions, a little dis- inducted is in full and complete possession gnised and contracted. It is found of great of all the temporalities of his church. use in shortening mathematical demonstra- INEBRIANTS, a term derived from the tions, of which take the following instance Latin, and applied to that class of substances in the famous proposition of Archimedes, that affect the nerves in 4 particular and viz. that a sphere is two thirds of a cylinder agreeable manner, and through them alter circumscribing it.

and disturb the functions of the mind. They Suppose a cylinder, an hemisphere, and are divided into natural and artificial: the apin verted cone (Plate Miscel. VI. fig. 13.), former are chiefly in use among oriental to bave the same base and altitude, and to nations; to the latter Europeans have re. be cut by infinite planes all parallel to the

Natural inebriants are opium, in base, of which dg is one. It is plain the use in Turkey and the East; peganum harsquare of dh will be every where equal to mala, Sirian rue; of this the seeds are the square of k c (the radius of the sphere) chiefly used : maslac of the Turks, or banthe square hc= eh square; and consequent- gue of the Persians, prepared from the dust ly, since circles are to one another as the of the male flower of hemp; bangue of the squares of the radii, all the circles of the Indians, from the leaves of the bibiscus hemisphere will be equal to all those of the abelmoschus; seeds of various species of cylinder, deducting thence all those of the the datara, or thorny apple; penang, or becone : wherefore the cylinder, deducting tel, of the Indians ; roots of black henbane ; the cone, is equal to the hemisphere: but it hyoscyamus physaloides ; berries of the is known that the cone is one-third of the night shade ; leaves of millefoil ; tobacco. cylinder, and consequently the sphere must Artificial inebriants are fermented liquors be two-thirds of it. Q. E. D.

from farinaceous seeds; wines and spirits INDORSEMENT, in law, signifies any drawn by distillation. See DRUNKENNESS. thing written upon the back of a deed or INERTIA of matter, in philosophy, is other instrument. On sealing of a bond defined by Sir Isaac Newton to be a passive the condition of the bond may be indorsed, principle by which bodies persist in a state of and then the bond and indorsement shall motion or rest, receive motion in propor. both stand together. In order to the exe- tion to the force impressing it, and resist as cuting a justice of the peace's warrant in much as they are resisted. It is also de. another county, it must be indorsed by fined by the same author to be a power im. some justice in such other county, which is planted in all matter, whereby it resists any commonly called backing the warrant. It change endeavoured to be made in its state. it customary also to indorse the receipt of See MECHANICS. the consideration-money upon a deed; or All bodies persevere or continue, as of an assignment of a lease may sometimes be themselves, in their state of rest or of unimade by indorsement. Indorsement, is form motion in a right line, in such manner, also that act by which the holder of a bill that a body at rest cannot move without of exchange, or promissory note, payable being solicited or urged by some force;

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neither can the rectilinear and uniform mo- cited. It is true that when we strike with tion of a body be changed without the ac- the land a body at rest, or whose motion is tion of a foreign canse. That want of ap- less rapid than that of the hand, we imagine titude which bodies have, of producing in that we experience a resistance ; but the themselves a change in their actual state, is illusion proceeds from this, that the effect is called inertia. Now it is known that a the same with regard to the hand, as body, whose state may be changed by the though it were at rest, and was struck by action of a foreign force, cannot give way the body with a motion in a contrary di. to that effect, otherwise than by itself al rection. tering the state of that force; that is to

INPAMY, in law, which extends to forsay, by itself taking away a part of its mo

gery, perjury, gross cheats, &c. disables a tion. It has hence been concluded, that

man to be a witness or a juror; but a parthe continuance of a body in its state of don of crimes restores a person's credit, to repose, or of uniform motion, was itself the make liim a good evidence. effect of a real force which resided in that

INFANCY, the first stage of life. In body; and this force has been viewed, sometimes as a resistance in so far as it op from birth to about the seventh year. Like

a medical and political view, extending posed itself to the action of the other force, which changed the state of that body, and every other stage of life, it is subject to its sometimes as an effort, in so far as it tended peculiar diseases, even in the healthiest to carry with it the change in the state of state of the constitution, and under the best

and most natural controul. But from a the other force. The celebrated Laplace has proposed a

too generally inherent debility produced by more precise and natural manner of con

the common consequences of polished and templating inertia. To conceive in what it neglect, or a snperabundance of maternal

fashionable life, added either to maternal consists, suppose a body in motion to nieet with a body at rest : it will communicate assiduity and anxiety, it is also exposed to to it a part of its motion ; in such manner,

diseases of great variety and violence from

which it would otherwise be exempt. that if the first have, for example, a mass double to that of the second, in which case The natural infirmity of infant life er. its mass will be two-thirds of the sum of the poses it at all times, and in all situations, to masses, the velocity which it will retain will a mortality far exceeding that of any other be also two-thirds of that which it had at stage : but from the powerful effect of such first; and as the other third which it has accessary causes, in conjunction with the yielded to the second body employs itself impure air of crowded towns and cities, upon a mass of only half the magnitude of we are often called upon to contemplate the former, the two bodies will both have this mortality, trebled or quadrupled bethe same velocity after the shock.

yond its appropriate ratio ; and to behold The effect of inertia is reduced, therefore, more than half the natives of a place die to the communication made by one of these within the narrow term of the first three bodies to the other, of a part of its motion ; years of life, instead of the greater part of and since this latter canuot receive, but in them reaching the age of twenty-five or consequence of the other's losing, this loss thirty, and, of course, living to become hus, has been attributed to a resistance exercised bands and wives, and giving birth to geneby the body receiving the motion. But in rations which are thus cut off along with the instance before us, it is very nearly as

themselves. in the motion of an elastic fluid, contained What then are the best means of dimiin a vessel from which we would open a vishing this melancholy and sweeping morcommunication to another vessel which tality? There cannot be a more important should be empty ; this fluid would intro. question either in medicine or in politics. duce itself by its expansive force into the To offer all that is worthy of notice in the second vessel, until it became uniformly Jatter view, would be to engage in a much distributed in the capacities of the two longer and a more speculative discussion vessels : in like manner a body when it than the limits of the present article, or strikes another does nothing else, if we even of the present work, would allow. We may so express onrselves, than pour into shall confine ourselves, therefore, in what this latter a part of its motion; and there is we shall have further to advance upon the no more reason to suppose a resistance in subject to the point of medical and domesthis case than in the examples we have just tic attention alone; and shall beg leave,

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upon this restricted scale, to propose such lity. But while many infants are born with hints as may have a tendeney to remove a out any such deposit whatever, the coverconsiderable part of the evils of which we ing that surrounds others differs materially, complain. In doing this, we shall first no- both in its nature and proportion, sometimes tice what ought to be the treatment of in- being diffused over the whole body, at fants in a state of health, and secondly in a others confined to particular parts of it; state of disease.

sometimes being a white, thick, pultaceous

mass, derived alone from the amnios, and Treatment of Infants in Health.

at others a pitchy tenacious fuid, chiefly The two primary objects of attention on the derived from a discharge of meconium. Yet birth of an infant are warmth and cleanli- be it what it may, we are told that our ness. The last bas lately been opposed, but nurses “have nothing to do but to take the certainly without due consideration. The infant's skin as nature gives it them : nolimbs and body of an infant when first thing to do but to dry it in the most kind born are generally covered over with a and gentle manner, with the receiver, or a mealy mucus matter, which appears to be a piece of old soft spongy cloth, warmed at feculent deposit from the amnios, or fluid, the fire, and then proceed to clothe him." in wbich he was immersed antecedently to Yet if they liave nothing to do but to take his birth. “ This coating, or covering,” we

the skin as nature gives it them, they ought are told, “ which the infant obtains in the not to dry it, for nature gives the skin to womb, is surely not put there for nothing. them moist ; they ought not to clothe it, Be assured, that nature has some wise and for nature gives it to them without covering; necessary design, or purpose, in the matter; and the young of many other animals, though for it adheres, and it adheres most firmly, wholly unfurnished with ready-made dresses to his skin; and, if left to itself, in a certain against their birth, are born just as naked period after birth it dries, and forms a crust, and unfledged as the human infant. Above and gradually scales off in the economy of all, they ought not to clean it, either with nature, and leaves the skin it covered heal the receiver, or a piece of old spongy cloth; and healthful, and capable to bear every

or this is to destroy the very fonndation of common or necessary freedom.”

the anthor's new system, which consists in its The natural indolence of nurses will be not being cleaned by any means, not even mnch obliged to this writer, who has ac- by “soap and water, or plain water, or any quired, and for various reasons deservedly other substance whatever.” Now certainly, acquired, considerable popularity, for this if the body of an infant may be rubbed with novel and extraordinary advice; an advice, the receiver, which is usually flannel, or even than which nothing can be much more per. with a piece of old cloth, there is no reason nicious, and which we feel ourselves, there why he may not be rubbed with a little fore, compelled to combat by a few cursory

warm water, which has a far nearer approach remarks.

to the nature of his prenascent element, This coating, we are told, is not placed than either of these substances, and is far over the skin for nothing; and we are de- less rough ard uncomfortable to its tender sired to rest assured; that nature has some and delicate skin. wise and necessary design or purpose in the We shall only offer another remark. matter. But what is this wise and neces. Though the author be not able to tell us sary design? If not put over the skin for what good purpose uature designs by difnothing, for what is it put there? These fusing over the body a coating of mealy or are important questions ; but there is not a viscid mucus, we can easily point out to single hint in the writer's entire book that bim what bad purpose nature herself would may serve as an answer to them. We be- accomplish by our suffering it to remain lieve, however, and have much reason to there after birth: and we will do it in his believe, that it is put there for nothing; own words.

6 If left to itself, says lie, that the deposit of this mucous coating is a at a certain period after birth it dries, and mere accident, resulting from a casual forms a crust and gradually scales off.” And change in the state or proportion of the am- it is for this very reason it ought to be renios; and not designed by nature to answer moved : a dry crust and scurf covering the any necessary purpose whatever. If na- hard and thickened skin even of an adult ture really designed any nseful purpose by must necessarily be productive of the such a deposit, we should find her producing double mischief of excoriating the cuticle, it uniformly in the same quantity and qua- and obstructing the matter of perspiration:

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how much more then must this double dilute gruel, a dilute solution of tops and mischief be augmented, when applied to bottoms, with or without a little cow's the soft and tender cuticle of an infant: milk, according as he seems best to relish bow extensively must its delicate skin be. it; and if he appear in good health, no come inflamed by such harsh and perpetual idea should be entertained of providing a pressure; bow continually exposed to cuta- wet nurse, till time has fully demonstrated neous eruptions, from the acrimonious hu- that the mother will be incapable of sup, mour into which its obstructed matter of porting him herself. perspiration will be converted by this very This maternal support is a duty so imobstruction itself.

perative, that it should only be relinquished Let us close by observing that wherever under the following circumstances : 1. Supthis kind of tenacious covering is found as pression of milk. 2. Extreme delicacy, or it sometimes is, spread in an unusual quan- disease of constitution, by which it may not tity, over the bodies of other animals, the be supplied in proper quantity or quality, mother of the young commonly removes 3. The indulgence in such a routine of it by washing and wiping it away with her fashionable amusements as may render the own tongue and saliva, or by encouraging mother incapable of fulfilling her task with the new born animal to roll itself on the punctuality and satisfaction to her child. grass or straw, or whatever other substance

This last conduct is unpardonable, but may be the bed that first receives it: thus it is nevertheless common, and we are teaching to mankind a lesson of cleanliness, afraid will be so in the present day, notwhich instead of despising, they will do withstanding all that can be urged to the well to follow. Cleanliness, indeed, from contrary, whether by divines or physicians, the commencement of life to its termina- and all that we attempt to do is to guard tion, may truly be said to be next to god. against the mischievous effects of such a liness; its influence upon the mind is equal conduct: for if in this respect the mother to that upon the body. The pleasurable remains deaf to the voice of nature, and sensation it excites is of no ordinary cha- the languishing desire of her own offspring, racter; it is a powerful prophylactic against we are fally convinced that all we, or any disease ; it exhilarates the animal spirits, other body of physiologists could urge and gives a feeling of moral dignity to the would be in vain; neither would she be meanest and most indigent. A habit of persuaded though one rose from the dead. cleanliness cannot be commenced too soon, We will just observe, however, that the por persevered in too punctiliously. practise of repelling milk from a full breast

The next point to be attended to in the is at times dangerous, and often accomtreatment of infants, is that of lactation or panied with abscesses, that are more insuckling.

convenient, last longer in the cure, and are There is generally to much eagerness in succeeded by far more injury to the polish putting the child to the breast; who is and harmony of the form than the suckling often worried to suck before he becomes a large family. actuated by the instinctive principle of Let us add another reason, the human nature, or before the mother finds her body is so constituted that one part assists breasts sufficiently filled with milk to sa- another in the operations of nature: contisfy bis desire. In consequence of which sequently there is a necessity for reciprocal the mother is as much and as vainly fatigu- action and rest. Whilst the womb, lately ed as the infant, passes a restless night, in a state of distention for many months, is and is harassed with a renewal of after. thus allowed rest sufficient, it recovers its pains from which she would otherwise bave former tone. Whereas, when there is an escaped.

annual repetition of pregnancy, the parts It is generally about the third day, after so distended, sooner lose their elasticity, child-bed, that both are fully prepared; and become at length, perhaps, diseased, though it sometimes happens that the in- which especially happens in cases where fant has a desire to suck and the mother to the original habit has been weakly. suckle within twenty-four hours from the The following is a reason that concerns time of delivery. While again the same the public, whatever influence it may have mutual propensity will not in other cases on the gay and the careless. The hired occur till a week or a fortnight, or even nurse, anxious to save as much as possible longer from the same period. In the latter from her own wages, not only weans her case the infant should be supported by own child, but puts him at board on the


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