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series cannot be had in finite terms, we dented or cut unevenly, or in and out, on must have recourse to infinite series; for the top or side, answerable to another the integral being expressed by such a writing that likewise comprehends the same series, the sum of a competent number of words. Formerly when deeds were more its terms will give the sum of the series re- concise than at present, it was usual to quired. This is equivalent to transforming write both parts on the same piece of one series into another, converging quicker: parchment, with some words or letters and sometimes a very few terms of this written between them, through which the series will give the sum of the series sought. parchment was cut, either in a straight or See Emerson's Increments.
indented line, in such a manner as to leave INCUBUS, or night mare, in medicine, half the word on one part, and half on the the name of a disease which consists in a other; and this custom is still preserved in spasmodic contraction of the muscles of the making out the indentures of a fine. But breast, usually happening in the night, and at last, indenting only hath come into use, attended with a very painful difficulty of without cutting through any letters at all, respiration and great anxiety.
and it seems at present to serve for little INCUMBENT, a clerk diligently resić other purpose, than to give name to the dent on his benefice with cure; and called species of the deed. incumbent of that church, because ite does INDEPENDENTS, or CONGREGATIor ought to apply himself sedulously to dis- ONALISTS, in church history, a sect of Procharge the duty of his cure.
testant Dissenters, which first made its apINCURVATION of the rays of light, pearance in Holland in the year 1616. Mr. their bending out of a rectilinear or straight Jolin Robinson appears to have been the course, occasioned by refraction.
founder of this sect. The appellation of INDEFINITE, or INDETERMINATE, independents was applied to, and adopted that which lias no certain bounds; or to by this denomination of Christians, from which the human mind cannot affix any. their maintaining that all Christain congreDes. Cartes makes use of this word in his gations are so many independent religious philosophy instead of infinite, both in num. societies, having a right to be governed by bers and quantities, to signify an uncon- their own laws, without being subject to ceivable number, or a number so great any further or foreign jurisdiction. This that an unit cannot be added to it; and a term was publicly acknowledged in the quantity so great as not to be capable of year 1644, by those English Dissenters, any addition. Thus, he says, the stars visi- who held similar sentiments respecting ble and invisible are in number indefinite; church government to the independents in and not as the ancients held infinite; and Holland ; but on account of the ill use that that quantity may be divided into an inde. many made of the term, by a perversion of finite number of parts, not an infinite num- its original meaning and religious designaber.
tion, the English Independents renounced INDEFINITE is also used in the schools to it, and adopted that of Congregationalists, signify a thing that has but one extreme; for or Congregational Brethren.
The term instance, a line drawn from any point and independent is still, liowever, applied to extended infinitely.
various sects of Protestant Dissenters, and INDEFINITE, in grammar, is understood seems justly applicable to almost every sect of nouns, pronouns, verbs, participles, ar- of nonconformists in this country, ticles, &c. which are left in an uncertain The doctrines of the Independents are indeterminate sense, and not fixed to any the same as those of the Brownists. It particular time, thing, or other' circum- is said that the only difference between stance.
these sects were, that the Brownists were INDENTED, in- heraldry, is when the illiberal in their views concerning other out-line of an ordinary is notched like the denominations, while the Independents enteeth of a saw.
tertained enlarged conceptions of church INDEnted line, in fortification, the same communion, and allowed that other churches with what the French engineers call redent; though different from them in points of being a trench and parapet running out and discipline, miglit properly be called Chris. in, like the teeth of a saw; and is much tian churches. It is, however, to be feared used in irregular fortification.
that the Independents, properly so called, INDENTURE, is a writing, containing being Calvinists as to points of faith, do a conveyance between two or more, in- not cherish very liberal sentiments concern
riz. I =
and y =
ing the salvation of those who differ from them in most of their articles of belief. A must follow that m B = C, or B = spirit which seems to be a natural effect of Thus two equations of a lower dimension the creed of the Geneva Reformer. See are obtained. If these be capable of furBROWNISTS and PRESBYTERIANS.
ther decomposition, we may assume the INDETERMINATE, in general, an ap- multiples n and p, and form four equations pellation given to whatever is not certain, still more simple. By the repeated applifixed, and limited; in which sense it is the cation of this principle, an higher equation same with indefinite.
admitting of divisors, will be resolved into INDETERMINATE problem, is that which those of the first order, the number of admits of many different solutions and an- which will be one greater than that of the swers, called also an unlimited problem. In multiples assumed. For example, resumquestions of this kind the number of un- ing the problem at first given, viz. to find known quantities concerned is greater than
two rational numbers, the difference of the number of the conditions and equations the squares of which shall be a given numby which they are to be found ; from which ber. Let the given number be the product it happens that generally some other con
of a and b; then by hypothesis, r? - y ditions or qnantities are assumed to supply =al; but these compound quantities ad. the defect, which being taken at pleasure, mit of an easy resolution, for rtyx give the same number of answers as varie- x - y = a Xb. If therefore we suppose ties in those assumptions. If, for instance,
b it were required to find the value of two x+y=ma, we shall obtain r-y= sqnare numbers, whose difference is equal where m is arbitrary, and if rational, r and to a, a given quantity. Here if x? and y? y must also be rational. Hence the resodenote the squares then x? — yʻ = a, which lution of these two equations gives the is only one equation for finding two quan- values of x and y, the numbers sought, in tities. Now by assuming some other un
m2 a th known quantity as z so that z=r
m, the sum of the roots ; then is x =
6 x? y’=a
INDEX, in anatomy, the same with the x + 2xy + y = ??
fore finger. See FINGERS. 2.x2 + 2 ry=z' ta
Index, in arithmetic and algebra, shows x = zł +a_z?+a to what power any quantity is involved, and 2 1+2 g
is otherwise called exponent. See Expo
za ta And by the same mode y=- which
INDEX of a logarithm, that which shows are the two roots baving the difference of how many places the absolute number, of their squares equal to a given quantity belonging to a logarithm, doth consist; and a, and are expressed by means of an as- of wliat nature it is, whether an integer or sumed quantity z; so that there will be fraction. Thus, in this logarithm 2.523491, as many answers to the question, as there the number 2 standing on the left hand of can be taken valaes of the indeterminate the point is called the index; because it quantity z.
shows that the absolute number, answering Mr. Leslie, in the transactions of the
to the above logarithm, consists of three Royal Society of Edinburgh, bas given a places : for the number is always one more paper on this subject, the object of which
than the index. If the absolute number be is to resolve the complicated expressions
a fraction, then the index of the logarithm which we obtain in the solution of indeter- hath a negative sign, marked thus 2.523421. minate problems, into simple equations, and See LOGARITHM. this is done by means of a principle, which,
Index of a globe, the little style or gnothough extremely simple, admits of a very mon, which being fixed on the pole of the extensive application. Let A x B be any globe, and turning round with it, points compound quantity equal to another, out the hours upon the hour circle. See CX D, and let m be any rational number GLOBE. assumed at pleasure; it is manifest that, INDIA rubber. See COUTCHOUC. taking equimultiples, A X m B=CX m D. INDICATIVE, in grammar, the first If, therefore, we suppose that A=mD, it mood, or manner, of conjugating a verb, by
22 ta for
which we simply affirm, deny, or ask some- ance, to the liberties and security of a subthing.
ject, or commands a matter of public con. INDICTION, in chronology, a cycle of venience, as the repairing of the common fifteen years. See CHRONOLOGY.
streets of the town, &c., every disobedience INDICTMENT, is a written accu- of such statute is punishable, not only at sation of one or more persons, of a crime the suit of the party grieved, but also by or misdemeanor, preferred to, and pre- way of indictment, for contempt of the stasented on oath by, a grand jury. An tute, unless such method of proceeding indictment may be found on the oath of shall manifestly appear to be excluded by one witness only, unless it be for high trea- it. Yet if the party offending, have been son, which requires two witnesses. And un- fined in an action brought by the party (as Jess in any instance it is otherwise specially it is said he may in every action, for doing directed by acts of parliament. The a thing prohibited by statute); such fine is sheriff of every county is bound to re- a good bar to the indictment, because by turn to every session of the peace, and the fine the end of the statute is satisfied ; every commission of oyer and terminer, and otherwise he would be liable to a second of general gaol delivery, twenty-four good fine for the same offence. and lawful men, of the county, some out of, If several offenders commit the same of every hundred, to enquire, present, do, and fence, though, in law, they are several ofexecnte all those things, which, on the part "fences in relation to the several offenders, of our lord the King, shall then and there yet they may be joined in one indictment; be commanded therein. As many as ap- as if several commit a robbery or murpear upon this pannel are sworn of the der. grand jury, to the amount of twelve, at the No indictment for high treason, or misleast, and not more than twenty-three, that prision thereof, (except indictments for twelve may be a majority. This grand jury counterfeiting the King's coin, seal, sign, is previously instructed in the articles of or signet), nor any process or return there.' their enquiry, by a charge from the judge upon, shall be quashed for mis-reciting, mison the bench. They then withdraw from spelling, false, or improper Latin, unless court, to sit and receive indictments, whicha exception concerning the same be taken, are preferred to them in the name of the and made in the respective court where the King, but at the suit of any private prose- trial shall be, by the prisoner or his counsel cutor; and they are only to hear evidence assigned, before any evidence given in opeu on behalf of the prosecution ; for the find- court on such indictment; nor shall any ing an indictment is only in the nature of such mis-reciting, mis-spelling, false, or iman enquiry or accusation, wbich is after proper Latin, after conviction on such in. wards to be tried and determined ; and the dictment, be any cause or stay, or arrest of grand jury are only to enquire, upon their judgment; but nevertheless any judgment oaths, whether there be sufficient cause to on such indictment shall be liable to be recall upon the party to answer it.
versed on writ of error, as formerly. An The grand jury may not find part of an indictment accusing a man in general terms, indictment true, and part false ; but must without ascertaining the particular fact laid either tind a true bill, or ignoramus, for to his charge, is insufficient; for no one can the whole; and if they take upon them to kuow what defence to make to a charge find it specially, or conditionally, or to be which is uncertain, nor can plead it in bar true for part only, and not for the rest, the on abatement of a subsequent prosecution ; whole is void, and the party cannot be neither can it appear, that the facts given tried upon it, but ought to be indicted in evidence against a defendant, on such a anew.
general accusation, are the same of which Al capital crimes whatsoever, and all the indictors have accused him; nor can it kinds of inferior crimes, which are of a pub- judiciously appear to the court what pulic nature, as misprisions, contempts, dis- nishment is proper for an offence so loosely turbances of the peace, oppressions, and all expressed. other misdemeanors whatsoever, of a pub- No indictment can be good, without exlic evil example, against the common law, pressly showing some place wherein the ofmay be indicted, but no injuries of a pri- fence was committed, which must appear vate nature, unless they in some degree to have been within the jurisdiction of the concern the King. And generally, where court. a statute prohibits a matter of public griev. There are several emphatical words of
art, which the law has appropriated for the tice having long continued as above stated, description of an offence which no circum- the judges have been averse to altering it. location will supply; as feloniously, in the Upon a certificate of an indictment being indictment of any felony ; burglariously, in found, for an assault or other misdemeanor, an indictment of burglary, and the like. and much more for a felony, at the sessions, And an indiciment on the black act for a warrant is issued, on the application of shooting at any person, must charge that the prosecutor, to take the party into cas. the offence was done wilfully and mali- tody, and he may be held to bail by a jusciously.
tice of the peace, or a judge, and it is usual, By 10 and 11 William, c. 23, it is enacte in expectation of such a warrant, to put in ed, that no clerk of assize, clerk of the bail, and obtain a supersedeas to the warpeace, or other person, shall take any mo- rant previously. This was not formerly the ney of any person bound over to give evi. practice, upon indictments or informations dence against a traitor or felon, for the dis. in the court of King's Bench. An act has charge of his recognizance, nor take more now passed to enable the court to issue than two shillings for drawing any bill of in- warrants, and hold to bail, upon indicidictment against any such felon, on pain of ments or informations filed. This act is five pounds to the party grieved, with full principally objectionable, as it may be used
And if he shall draw a defective as the means of harassing persons, prosebill, he shall draw a new one gratis, on the cuted harshly and vindictively by the Atiorlike penalty. With respect to drawing in- ney General, for libels, &c. It is either a dictments for other misdemeanors, not be- useless act, since the justice of the country ing treason or felony, no fee is limited by has been safely conducted for centuries the statute, the same therefore depends on without it, or it is an act of great importhe custom and ancient usage.
tance to the liberty of the subject. Every person charged with any felony or But an action cannot be bronght by the other crime, who shall on his trial be ac
person acquitted, against the proseentor of quitted, or against whom no indictment the indictment, without obtaining a cops shall be found by the grand jury, or who of the record of his indictment and acquit. shall be discharged by proclamation for tal; which, in prosecutions for felony, it is want of prosecution, shall be immediately not usual to grant, if there be the least proset at large in open court, without payment bable canse to found such prosecution of any fee to the sheriff or gaoler; but in upon; for it would be a very great disco lieu thereof, the treasurer, on a certificate ragement to the public justice of the king. signed by one of the judges or justices, be- dom, if prosecutors who had a tolerable fore whom such prisoner shall have been ground of suspicion, were liable to be sued discharged, shall pay out of the general rate at law whenever their indictments miscar. of the county or district, such sum as has ried. But an action on the case, for a mabeen usually paid, not exceeding thirteen licions prosecution, may be founded on snch shillings and fourpence.
an indictment whereon no acquittal can be, By these words, immediatly set at large, as, if it be rejected by the grand jury, or be the reader must not understand that this
non judice, or be insufficiently actually takes place immediately after the drawn; for it is not the danger of the plainthrowing out of the bill. It is usually done tiff, but the scandal, vexation, and expence, after the assizes or sessions are over, and upon which this action is founded. Howwhen the judge or justices proceed to the ever, any probable cause for preferring it, gaol-delivery, as it is called. This affords is sufficient to justify the defendant, proan opportunity for the preferring a new in vided it do not appear, that the prosecution dictment against the party, if there should was malicious. And it is necessary to show be occasion; and it is upon this ground, something more than the mere not prosethat the detention of a prisoner, after re- cutis, in order to raise the inference of majecting the indictment by the grand jury, lice. is countenanced. It is, however, in many INDIGESTION. See MEDICINE. cases, a hardship. The present sheriffs of
INDIGO, a dye prepared from the leaves London, in A. D. 1808, Sir Richard Phil- and small branches of the indigofera tinclips, Knt., and Mr. Alderman Smith, hare, toria. See the next article. very much to their credit, endeavoured to Indigo is distinguished into two kinds, procure the judges at the Old Bailey to dis- the true and the bastard. Thongh the tirst charge prisoners immediately, but the prac. is sold at a higher price on account of its su
periority, it is usually advantageous to culti- blue dregs to precipitate to the bottom of yate the other, because it is heavier. The the tub, where they are left to settle till first will grow in many different soils; the the water is quite clear. Holes made in second succeeds best in those which are the tub, at different heights, are then openmost exposed to the rain. Both are liable ed one after another, and this useless water to great accidents. Sometimes tie plant is let out. The blue dregs remaining at the becomes dry, and is destroyed by an insect bottom having acquired the consistence of a frequently found on it; at other times, the thick muddy liquid, cocks are then opened, leaves, which are the valuable part of the which draw it off into the settler. After it plant, are devoured in the space of twenty- is still more cleared of much superfinous
four hours by caterpillars. This last mis. water in this third and last tub, it is drained · fortune, which is but too common, has into sacks ; from whence, when water no
given occasion to the saying, “ that the longer filters through the cloth, this matter planters of indigo go to bed rich, and rise now becomes of a thicker consistence, and in the morning totally ruined.” This pro- is put into chests, where it entirely loses its duction ought to be gathered in with great moisture. At the end of three months the precaution, for fear of making the farina indigo is fit for sale. that lies on the leaves, and is very valuable, It is used, in washing, to give a bluish cofall off by shaking it. When gathered, it is lour to linen : painters also employ it in thrown into the steeping.vat, which is a their water-colours; and dyers cannot large tub filled with water. Here it under make fine blue without indigo. Tlie angoes a fermentation, which in twenty-four cients procured it from the East Indies ; in hours at furthest is completed. A cock is modern times it has been transplanted into then turned to let the water run into the America. The cultivation of it, sticcessively second tub, called the mortar or pounding attempted at different places, appears to be tub. The steeping-vat is then cleaned out, fixed at Carolina, St. Domingo, and Mexico. that fresh plants may be thrown in; and That which is known under the name of thus the work is continued without inter- Guatimala indigo, from whence it comes, is ruption. The water which has run into the the most perfect of all. ponnding-tub is found impregnated with a Indigo may be obtained from the merium very subtle earth, which alone constitutes tinctorium, and the isatis tinctoria or woad; the dregs or blue substance that is the ob, a plant cultivated and even found wild in ject of this process, and which must be se, England. When arrived at maturity, this parated from the useless salt of the plant, plant is cut down, washed, dried hastily in because this makes the dregs swim on the the sun, ground in a mill, placed in heaps, surface. To effect this, the water is forcibly and allowed to ferment for a fortnight. It is agitated with wooden buckets that are full then well mixed, and made up into balls, of holes and fixed to a long handle. This which are piled upon each other, and expart of the process requires the greatest posed to the wind and son. In this state precautions. If the agitation be disconti- they become hot, and exhale a putrid am. nued too soon, the part that is uscd in moniacal amell. The fermentation is
prodying, not being sufficiently separated moted, if necessary, by sprinkling the balls from the salt, would be lost. If, on the with water. When it has continued for a other hand, the dye were to be agitated too stifficient time, the woad is allowed to fall long after the complete separation, the to a coarse powder ; in which state it is parts would be brought together again, and sold as a dye-stuff. By treating woad torm a new combination ; and the salt re- nearly in the same manner with the indigo. acting on the dregs would excite a second fera, indigo has been obtained from it by fermentation, that would alter the dye, different chemists. spoil its colour, and make what is called Indigo is a soft powder, of a deep blue, burnt indigo. These accidents are prevent without either taste or smell. It undered by a close attention to the least altera. goes no change, though kept exposed to the tions that the dye undergoes, and by the air. Water, unless kept long upon it, does precaution which the workmen take to draw not dissolve any part of it, nor produce any out a little of it from time to time in a clean change. When heat is applied to indigo, it vessel. When they perceive that the co- emits a bluish red smoke, and at last burns loured particles collect by separating from away with a very faint white flame, leaving the rest of the liquor, they leave off shaking behind it the earthy parts in the state of the buckets in order to allow time to the ashes. Neither oxygen nor the simple coni