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bird: in the hlazoning of fowls which make armont of the head, and is said to be demuch use of their wings, if they are not rived from crista, or cocks-comb.
'The exhibited spread, they must be termed original use appears to have been a proteeclose. The parts and members are gene- tion from the edge of the sword, when aim. rally borne both couped and erazed, and ed at the upper part of the skull. Gwillim that on or between any of the honourable asserts, that the crest, or cognizance, should ordinaries. Birds are considered a more possess the highest place next to the mantle, noble bearing than fish. (See fig. 50.) Er- yet so as to permit the interposition of a mine, an eagle displayed gules.
scroll, wreath, chapeau, or crown. The Fishes are borne in many positions, di- knights who celebrated justs wore plumes, rectly upright, embowed, extended, and of the heron and ostrich feathers, with indorsed, and surmounting each other, fret crests of various materials, which were ted and triangle. (See fig. 51.) Azure, altered at pleasure. They are of great three trouts fretted in triangle argent. antiquity, and were of superior honour, Those upright, with fins, were anciently as no person was admitted to tiit at a termed in blazoning hauriant, signifying just till he had given proof of his noble the act of respiration, to accomplishı which descent, and they were limited to those fish frequently rise to the surface for fresh only, (See fig. 61) which exhibits a crest air; when borne transverse, or swimming, on the wreath. they were called in blazoning naiant. Fishes The mantle is the diapery that is thrown are borne in part, and on or between any of around a coat of arins : it is doubled, or the honourable ordinarics.
lined throughout by one of the furs. There are, besides, animals or monsters, Supporters are figures by the side of a (see fig. 52.) Argent, a dragon's head erazed shield, appearing as if they actually held it vert, holding in his moutia sinister liand, erect. (fig. 62.) In England supporters are couped at the wrist, gules,
confined to Peers, and Knights of the four Such are the peculiarities which dis. orders and proxies of the Princes of the tinguish the shield within the boundaries of Blood Royal, at installations, except by its surface, we shall now proceed to treat an especial grant from the Sovereigo. of the helmet, and shew how it is placed in HERALDS. The heralds, which are six various cases, on the shield, above the coro. in number, are distinguished by the names net, and in others without the latter sym- of Richmond, Lancaster, Chester, Windsor, bol of rank which equally marks the grada- Somerset, and York, and are all equal in tion of title with the heimet. The crown degree, only preceding according to the or coronet is more ancient than the helmet, seniority of their creation, their patents and was invented as a testimony of triumph being under the great seal or England. and victory; the radiated crown was as HERB, in botany, is that part of the signed to Emperors; but the coronet with plant which rises from the root, and is terpearls on the circle, and foliage intervening, minated by the fructification. It conprewas not used in heraldry more than 500 hends the trumk and stem ; the leaves ; the years past. (See fig. 53-56) the coronet fulcra, or supports; and the buds, or, as of a Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount,and Ba- they are sometimes denominater, the win. ron; besides ducal, mural, oaval, civic, ter quarters of the future vegetable. celestial, custom, valary, &c.
HERBACEOUS plunts, in botany, are those The helmet was worn in battle and at which have succulent stems that die down tournaments, both for use and distinction. to the ground every year; those are annual Since the invention of fire arms it has been that perish stem and root every year; biuearly confined to heraldic purposes. The ennial, which subsist by the roots two manner of placing them on shields is shewn years; perennial, which are perpetuated by with in tigs. 57, 58, 59. Those right in their roots for a series of years, a new stem front, many bars, to Sovereigns"; those being produced every spring. nearly in profile to Peers ; when front and HERCULES, in astronomy, a constelopen, to Baronets and Knights; in profile lation of the northern hemisphere. See close, to Esquires and Gentlemen.
ASTRONOMY. T'he wreath is a roll of silk, of two colours HEREDITAMENTS, - all such things blazoned on the shield, and laid on the immoveable, whether corporeal or incorhelmet as a support to the crest. See
poreal, as a man may leave to him and his fig. 60,
beirs, by way of inheritance; or which not The crest is the most elevated part of the being otherwise devised, naturally descend
to bim who is next heir of blood, and uot tandria class and order. Natural order of to an executor or administrator, as chattels Columniferæ. Tiliaceæ, Jussieu.
Essendo. It is a word of large extent, and much tial character: styles five; capsule fiveused in conveyances; for by the grant of celled; petals semitubular at the base, obhereditaments, isles, scignories, manors, lique. There are twenty-one species. The houses, and lands of all sorts, charters, rents, hermannias are shrubs from two to seven services, advowsons, commons, and what feet in height. Natives of the Cape of ever may be inlerited, will pass. Heredi- Good Hope. taments are of two kinds, corporeal and
HERMAPHRODITE, a term formerly incorporeal. Corporeal hereditaments con- applied exclusively to signify a human creasist wholly of substantial and permanent
ture possessed of both sexes. The term is objects, all which may be comprehendeu now applied to other animals, and to plants. under the general deromination of land It is now well known there is no such thing only ; for land comprehends, in its legal as an bermaphrodite in the human species. signification, any ground, soil, or earth what In most species of animals, the production soever, as arable, meadows, pastures, woods, of hermaplırodites appears to be the effect moors, waters, marches, furzes, and heath. of chance, but in the black cattle it seems Incorporeal herediraments are not the ob to be an established principle of their project of sensation, are creatures of the mind, pagation. It is a well known fact, and, as and exist only in contemplation. They are
far as has yet been discovered, appears to principally of ten sorts, viz. advowsons, be universal, that when a cow brings forth tithes, commons, ways, offices, dignities, two calves, one of them a bull, and the other franchises, presents, and rents.
a cow to appearance, the cow is unfit for HERIOT, in law, signifies a tribute propagation, but the bull-calf becomes a given to the lord for his better preparation very proper bull. They are known not to towards war. And by the laws of Canute, breed; they do not shew the least inclina. it appears, that at the death of the great tion for the bull, nor does the bull ever take men of this nation, so many liorses and arms the least notice of them. Among the coun. were to be paid for, as they were in their try people in England, this kind of calf is respective life-times obliged to keep for the called a free-martin ; and this singularity is King's service. A heriot was first paid in just as well known among the farmers as arms and horses; it is now by some custom either cow or bull. When they are presometimes the best live beast which the te. served, it is for the purposes of an ox or nant dies possessed of, sometimes the best spayed heifer; riz. to yoke with the oxen, inanimate goods, under which a jewel or or fatten for the table. They are much piece of plate may be included. Some are larger than either the ball or the cow, and due by custom, soine by tenure, and by the horns grow longer and bigger, being reservation on deeds executed within time very similar to those of an ox. The bellow of memory; those due by custom are the of a free-martin is also similar to that of an most frequent.
ox, and the meat is similar to that of the For an heriot service, or for an heriot ox or spayed heifer, viz. much finer in the reserved' by way of tenure, the lord may fibre than either the bull or cow, and they either seize or distrain.
are more susceptible of growing fat with HERISSON, in fortification, a beam good food. armed with a great number of iron spikes, Among the reptile tribe, indeed, such as with their points ontwards, and supported worms, snails, leeches, &c. hermaphrodites by a pivot, on which it turns.
are very frequent. In the memoirs of the HERITIERA, in botany, so named in French Academy, we have an account of hononr of Charles Louis L'Heritier, a gems this very extraordinary kind of liermaphroof the Monoecia Monadelphia class and or. dites, which not only have both sexes, but der. Essential character: calyx five-toothed; do the office of both at the same time. Such corolla none; male anthers ten, withont are earth-worms, round tailed worms found filaments; female germs five; drupes with in the intestines of men and horses, landone subglobular seed. There is but one snails, and those of fresh waters, and all species, viz. H. littoralis, looking-glass the sorts of leeches. And as all these are plant, a native of the East Indies.
reptiles, and without bones, it is inferred HERMANNIA, in botany. This name that all other insects which have these two was given in honour of the celebrated Paul characters are also hermaphrodites. The Hermann, a genus of the Monadelphia Pen- method of coupling practised in this class,
of hermaphrodites, may be illustrated in terminating; involucre universal and partial; the instance of earth-worms. These little unbellets with truncate rays, the central creatores creep, two by two, out of holes one floriferous; petals five; stamina five, proper to receive them, where they dispose barren ; seeds in pairs, suborbiculate: their bodies in such a manner, as that the male, ambels lateral, with universal and head of the one is turned to the tail of the partial involucres; umbellets many-flow. other. Being thus stretched lengthwise, ered; petals five; stamina five, fertile. a little conical button, or papilla, is thrust There are five species. forth by each, and received into an aper HERMETICAL seal, among chemists, ture of the other, these animals being male a method of stopping glass vessels, used in in one part of the body and female in an chemical operations, so closely, that the other.
most subtle spirit cannot escape throngb Among the insects of the soft or boneless them. It is commonly done by heating the kind, there are great mumbers indeed which neck of the vessel in a flame, till ready to are so far from being hermaphrodites, that melt, and then twisting it closely together they are of no sex at all. Of this kind are with a pair of pincers. Or vessels may be all the caterpillars, maggots, and worms, hermetically sealed by stopping them with produced of the eggs of flies of all kinds.
a glass plug, well luted. But the reason of this is plain : these are HERNANDIA, in botany, from Francis not animals in a perfect state, but disguises Hernandez, a genus of the Monoecia Trian. under which animals lurk. They have no dria class and order. Natural order of business with the propagating of their spe. Tricoccæ. Lauri, Jussieu. Essential chacies, but are to be transformed into animals
racter: male, calyx three-parted; corolla of another kind, by the putting off their se three-petalled: female, calyx truncate, quite veral coverings; and then only they are in entire ; corolla six-petalled ; drupe lollow, their perfect state, and, therefore, then only with an open mouth, and a moveable nushow the differences of sex, which are al- cleus. There are two species, viz. H. 50ways in the distinct animals, each being nora, whistling hernandia; and H. ovigera, only male or female. These copulate, and egg-fruited heruandia. The first mentioned their eggs produce those creatures which is an upright lofty tree, with a beautiful show no sex till they arrive at that perfect head; the flowers are of a pale yellow costate again.
lour, in panicled racemes ; the calyxes of HERMAPHRODITE flowers, in botany, the fruit are also ye'low. It is very comare so called on account of their containing mon in the West Indies, in gullies, near both the antheræ and stigma, the supposed rills of water ; the English there call it jack organs of generation within the same ca in a box. Dr. Patrick Browne attributes lyx and petals. Of this kind are the flow- the whistling noise to the cups that sustain ers of all the classes in Linnæus's method, and partly envelope the nuts; these he adds except the classes Monoecia and Dioecia; are very large, and as they move in the in the former of which, male and female wind, produce sound enough to alarm unflowers are produced on the same root; in wary travellers The seeds are very oily. the latter, in distinct plants from the same HERNIARIA, in botany, English rupseed. In the class Polygamia, there are ture-wort, a genus of the Pentandria Digyalways hermaphrodite flowers mixed with nia class and order. Natural order of Ho. male or female, or both, either on the same
Amaranthi, Jussieu. Essential or distinct roots. In the plaintain-tree the character: calyx five-parted; corolla rone ; flowers are all hermaphrodite; in some, stamina five, barren, besides the fertile however, the antheræ 'or male organ, in ones; capsule one-seeded. There are font others the stigma, or female organ, proves species; as none of these plants possess abortive. The flowers in the former class any beauty, they are rarely cultivated in are styled female hermaphrodites; in the gardens. latter, male hermaphrodites. Hermaphro HERON, in ornithology, a bird of the dites are thus as frequent in the vegetable ardea kind, with a hanging crest. kingdom 'as they are rare and scarce in the ARDEA. apinial one.
HERRING. See CLUPEA. HERMAS, in botany, a genus of the HESPERIDÆ, the name of the ninePolygamia Monoecia class and order. Na- teenth order in Linnæus's fragments of a · tural order of Umbellatæ or Umbelliferæ. nateral method, consisting of five genera, Essential character : hermaphrodite, umbel among which are the caryophyllus or clove:
tree; and the myrtus, myrtle; allspice or pi- is heterogeneous; being a mixture of all mento. The plants of this order are of the sorts of rays. shrub and tree-kind, and chiefly ever HETEROGENEOUS nouns, one of the three green. The bark of the stalks is slender; variations in irregular nouns; or snch as the leaves are generally opposite, but in the are of ore gender in the singular number, snyrtle, the leaves are placed opposite at the and of another in the plural. Heterogebottom of the stalks, and alternate above. 'neous, under which are comprehended The buds are generally conical, concealed mixed nouns, are six-fold. 1. Those which in the cavity, which is formed by the foot are of the masculine gender in the singular stalk of eaclı leaf at its origin. The flowers number, and neuter in the plural. 2. Those are commonly hermaplirodite : in a species which are masculine, in the singular numof the myrtus, however, they are male and ber, but masculine and neuter in the plural. female upon different roots. The calyx is 3. Such as are feminine in the singular num. placed above the seed-bud : the petals are ber, but neuter in the plural. 4. Sicla three, four or five in number ; the stamina nouns as are neuter in the singular number, are upwards of twenty, nearly equal, and but masculine in the plural. 5. Such as are attached in several rows to the middle of nenter in the singular, but neuter and masthe tube of the calyx. The seed-bud is culine in the plural. 6. Such as are neuter large, and placed below the receptacle of in the singular, but feminine in the plural the flower; the style is single, of the length number. ofihe stamina, ani tern.inated with a single HETEROGENEOUS numbers, mixeri numstigma. The seed vessel is sometimes a
bers consisting of integers and frachons. berry, sometimes a capsule, and sometimes
HETEROGENEOUS quuntities, are those a stope.
which are of such different kinds, as that HESPERIS, in botany, English rocket,
one of them taken any number of times, or dames violet, a genus of the Tetradyna
never equals or exceeds the other. mia Siloquosa class and order. Natural
HETEROGENEOUS surds, are such as liave order of Siliquosæ. Cruciformes, Tourne
different radical signs, as ĭ u a, y ube fort. Cruciferæ, Jussieu. Essential character : petals bent obliquely ; a gland 9, ỹ 18, &c. See SURD. within the shorter stamens; siliqua stiff ; If the indices of the powers of the heterostigma witii a forked base, and converging geneous surds be divided by their greatest tip; calyx closed. There are seven spe
common divisor, and the quotients be set cies. These plants are much cultivated for under the dividends; and those indices be the great fragrancy of the flowers : th (multiplied crosswise by each others quotiladies in Germany bave pots of it placed i, ents; and before the products be set the their apartments, whence it obtained the common radical sign ✓, with its proper inname of danes violet.
dex; and if the powers of the given roots HETEROCLITE, among grammarians, be involved alternately, according to the one of the three variations in irregular index of each others quotient, and the comnouns, and defined by Mr. Ruddiman, a mon radical sign be prefixed before those noun that varies in declension. Other products, then will those two surds be re. grammarians take the word heteroclite in a duced to others, having but one common larger sense, applying it to all irregular nouns. radical sign. HETEROGENOUS, or HETEROGE
HEUCHERA, in botany, a genus of the NEAL, something that consists of parts of Pentandria Digynia class and order. Na. dissimilar kinds, in opposition to homoge- tural order of Succulentæ. Saxifragæ,
Jussieu. Essential character : petals five; HETEROGENEOUS, in mechanics, such capsule two-beaked, two-celled. There are bodies whose density is unequal in different two species, viz. H. americana, American parts of their bulk; or they are such whose heuchera or sanicle, and H. dichotoma. gravities in different parts are not propor
HETEROSCII, in geography, a term of tionable to the bulks thereof; whereas bo- reiation denoting such inhabitants of the dies equally dense or solid in every part, er earth as have their shadows falling but one whose gravity is proportionable to their way, as those who live between the tropics bulk, are said to be homogeneous.
and polar circles, whose shadows at noon, in HETEROGENEOUS light, is, by Sir Isaac north latitude, are always to the northNewton, said to be that which consists of ward; and in south latitude, to the southrays of different degrees of refrangibility : ward. Thus we who inhabit the northern this the common light of the sun or clouds temperate zone, are heteroscii with regard
to those who inhabit the southern tem- dactyl, and the sixth always a spondee. Suci perate zone, and they are heteroscii with is the following verse of Horace: respect to us. Herce it follows, that only 1 2 3
5 6 the inliabitants of the two temperaie zones
Aut prodesse volunt, aut|delesetare polde. are heteroscii, though in reality there is al. Sometimes, indeed, a spondee constitutes ways one part of the torrid zone whose in the fifth foot; whence such hexameter habitants are heteroscii with respect to those
verses are called spondaic; as in this of of the rest, and with regard to those of one Virgil. of the temperate zones, except at the time
5 of the solstice, and even at this time all of
Cara Delum sobosles malgnum Joris incre-1 the torrid zone are heteroscii with regard to
6 those of one of the temperate zones; but as mentum. the people of the torrid zone have their sha Epic poems, as the Iliad, Eneid, &c. dows now on this, and then on that side, they consist wholly of hexameter verses; whereare called amphiscii.
as elegies and epistles consist usually of her. HEXACHORD, in apcient music, a ameter and pentameter verses, alternately. concord called by the moderns a sixth. The HEXANDRIA, the name of the sixth hexachord is twofold, greater and less. The class in the Linnæan system, consisting of greater hexachord is composed of two plants with hermaphrodite flowers, which greater tones, and two less, and one greater
are furnished with six stamina or male or. semitone, which make five intervals. The gans that are of an equal length. This nuless hexachord is of two greater tones, one merous class of plants is divided into fire lesser, and iwo greater semitones.
sections, from the number of the styles or HEXAEDRON, or HEXAHEDRON, one female organs: the narcissus, snow-drop, of the five regular or platonic bodies; being tulip, hyacinth, &c. have one style ; the indeed the same as the cube ; and is so rice, atraphaxis, &c. two; dock, star-flower, called from its having six faces. The square
&c. three; guinea-hen weed, four; and waof the side or edge of a hexahedron, is one. ter.plantain five. The Hexandria class is third of the square of the diameter of the distinguished from the Tetradynamia by tbe circumscribing sphere; and hence the dia. proportion of the stamina, which in the for. meter of a sphere is to the side of its in mer are of an equal length, in the latter unscribed hexaliedron, as v 3 to 1. See equal, four stamina being long, and two stort. Body.
HIATUS, properly signifies an opening, HEXAGON, in geometry, a figure of six chasm, or gap; but it is particularly applied sides and angles; and if these sides and
to those verses, where one word ends with angles be equal it is called a regular hexa- with one, and thereby occasion the mouth
a vowel, and the following word begins gou. The side of every regular hexagon, to be more opened, and the sound to be inscribed in a circle, is equal in length to the radius of that circle. Hence, it is easy,
very barsh. by laying off the radius six times upon the
The term hiatus is also used in speaking of circumference, to inscribe an hexagon in a
manuscripts, to denote their defects, or the circle. See GEOMETRY.
parts that have been lost or effaced.
HIBISCUS, in botany, a genus of the To describe a regular hexagon upon a given line, describe an equilateral triangle Natural order of Columbiferæ. Malvaceæ,
Monadelphia Polyandria class and order. upon it, the vertex of which will be the Jussieu. Essential character: calyx double; centre of the circumscribing circle. The side of a hexagon being s, the area will be with many seeds. There are forty-tive
outer many-leaved ; capsule five-celled, 3 2.598 $ = $2 x tang. 60°= gå 3.
species, most of these are perennials; seve
ral of them have shrubby stalks; and some HEXAGON, in fortification, is a place de. are herbaceous; the leaves are alternate fended by six bastions.
and commonly of a soft texture. The HEXAGYNIA, in botany, the name of flowers are of the mallow kind, axillary, and an order of plants, consisting of those which, terminating ; tie bark in several is capable besides their classical character, have their of being drawn into threads, and wavufac. Powers furnished with six styles.
tured for packthread and ropes; the cap. HEXAMETER, in ancient poetry, a 'sule in some is eatable; others are much kind of verse consisting of six feet; the first esteemed for their ornamental flowers, four of which may be indifferently, either HIDE. See Curis. spondees or dactyls; the fifth is generally a HIDE. Hides are the skins of beasts: