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committed prisoner to the apartments of and acuteness of wit. In company he was the Fiscal of the Holy Office. After free and affable, and full of pleasantry. wards, through the intercession of the He took great delight in Architecture and Grand Duke, he was permitted to reside in Painting, and designed extremely well; the house of his embassador, while the pro- and he also played on the late with great cess was carrying on against him. After skill and taste. Whenever he spent any of his trial had lasted about two months, he his time in the country, he took great plea. was brought up to receive sentence in full sure in husbandry. From the time of Arcongregation ; when he was ordered, in the chimedes, as M. Leibnitz observes, there most solemn manner, to abjure and con had been nothing done in mechanical geodemn the Copernican system, as contrary to metry, till Galileo, who possessing an excelthe Scriptures, and to bind himself, by lent judgment, and great skill in the most oath, no longer to teace or support it, abstruse points of geometry, first extended either directly or indirectly As a punish- the boundaries of that science, and began ment for having disobeyed the former de to reduce the resistance of solid bodies to cree of the court, he was condurned to be its laws. We shall follow the example of detained in the prisons of the Holy Office Dr. Hutton, in giving a summary sketch of during the pleasure of the Cardinal Inqui- his discoveries and improvements, chiefly in sitors, and enjoined, as a saving pinance, the language of the judicious Colin Maclaufor three years to come, to repeat, once a rin. “He made the evidence of the Coperweek, the seven penetential psalms, the nican system more sensible, when he shewed court reserving to themselves the power of from the phases of Venus, like to the monthly moderating, changing, and taking awa: phases of the moon, that Venus actually realtogether, or in part, the above-mentionen volves about the sun. He proved the revo. punishment and penance. His Dialogues lution of the sun on his axis, from his spots ; were also censured, prohibited, and ordered ind thence the diurnal rotation of the earth to be burnt at Rome.

became more credible. The four satellites Pope Urban VIII, who at that time sat thit attended Jupiter, in his revolution on the Pontifical throne, lessened the ri. about the sun, represented, in Jupiter's lesgour of his sentence, by confining him for a ser system, a just image of the great solar time to the palace and garden de Medici at systen, and rendered it more easy to conRome ; after which he was sent to the archi; ceive hw the moon might attend the earth, episcopal palace at Sienna, where the air as a satelite, in her annual revolution. By was more favourable to his state of health; discoverirg hills and carities in the moon, and in the course of the year, 1634, he was and spots n the sun constantly varying, he permitted to reside at his country house, at shewed that there was not so great a differAncetri, in the vicinity of Florence. ence between celestial and sublunary bodies

In this place he spent the remainder of as the philosophers had vainly imagined. his days, visited and esteemed by the most “ He rendered no less service to science distinguished characters in Florence, and by treating, in a clear and geometrical mandiligently applying himself to his celestial ner, the doctrine of motion, which has been observations. By his continual use of the justly called the key of nature. telescope, however, and the injuries which tional part of mechanics had been so much his eyes received from the nocturnal air, his neglected, that scarcely any improvement sight was gradually impaired, till he became was made in it for almost 2000 years; but entirely blind about three years before his Galileo bas given us fully the theory of death. This calamity he bore with a truly equable motions, and of such as are uniphilosophical resignation, employing himself formly accelerated or retarded, and of these in constant meditation and enquiry, the re two compounded together. He first desult of which he intended to communicate monstrated, that the spaces described by to the world. He had digested much mat heavy bodies from the beginning of their ter, and had begun to dictate his concepti- descent, are as the squares of the times; ons, when he was attacked by a distemper and that a body, projected in any direction which terminated in his death, in 1642, when that is not perpendicular to the horizon, he was in the seventy-eighth year of his age. describes a parabola. These were the be

Galileo was small in stature, but of a ve ginnings of the doctrine of the motion of nerable aspect, and of a vigorous constitution, heavy bodies, which has been since carried His learning was very extensive; and he to so great a height by Sir Isaac Newton. possessed in a high degree, a clearness In geometry, he invented the cycloid, or

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trochoid, though the properties of it were Siderous," 1610, of whidi a “Continuation" afterwards chiefly demonstrated by his pu “ An Essay on the History of Galileo's pil Torricelli. He invented the simple pen- last Observations on Saturn, Mars, Venus, dulum, and made use of it in his astronomi- and the Sun, &c.” was al erwards collected cal experiments : he had also thoughts of from letters between Galileo and his corapplying it to clocks, but did uot execute respondents; “ A Letter concerning the that design. The glory of that invention Trepidation of the Nioon, lately discovered, was reserved for his son Vincenzo, who inscribed to Alphonso Antonini, with Antomade the experiment at Venice in 1649; nini's Answer," 1638; “A Discourse of the and Huygens afterwards carried the inven. Solar Spots, &c. with Predictions and . tion to perfection. Of Galileo's invention Ephemerides of the Medicean Planets," also was the machine with which the Vene- 1613; the famous Italian piece, entitled, tians render their laguna fluid and navi. “Il Saggiatore," pritten in defence of Guigable.

ducci's “ Discourse on Comets," and con“ He also discovered the gravity of the air, taining a compete account of the physiology and endeavoured to compare it with that of and astronory of our author, printed in water ; and opened several other inqui- 1623 ; “A Letter to Prince Leopold of ries in natural philosophy. He was not es- Tuscany, examining the fiftieth chapter teemed and followed by philosophers only; of Liceus's Letheosphoros ;" “ A Letter but was honoured by persons of the greatest to Chistopher Greinbergerus, concerning distinction of all nations. Galileo had scho- the Nontuosity of the Moon,” 1611 ;“ Malars worthy of so great a master, by whom thenatical Discourses and Demonstrations the gravitation of the atmosphere was fully colcerning two new Sciences, relating to established, and its varying pressure accu

Nechanics and local Motions, together with rately and conveniently measured, by the an Appendix concerning the Centre of Gracolumn of quicksilver of equal weight sus- vity in some Solids," 1638, &c. tained by it in the barometrical tube. The The preceding articles, together with elasticity of the air, by which it perpetualy some other treatises, written either by Gaendeavours to expand itself, and while it lileo, or by some of his disciples, in defence admits of condensation, resists in propor- of his doctrines and observations, were tion to its density, was a phenomern of collected and published by Menolessi, in a new kind, (the common fluids naving 1656, under the title of “ L'Opere de Ga. no such property), and of the utmos impor. lileo Galilei Lynceo, nobile Fiorentino," tance to philosophy. These principles &c. two volumes quarto. Several of opened a vast field of new and useful know- these pieces were translated into English, ledge, and explained a great variety of phæ-' and published by Thomas Salisbury, in his nomena, which had been accounted for in “ Mathematical Collections,” in two vols. an absurd manner before that time. It folio. seemed as if the air, the fluid in which men

A volume also of his “ Letters" to sevelived tiom the beginning, lad been then ral learned men, and solutions of a variety first discovered. Philosophers were every of problems, was published at Bologna, in where busy, enquiring into the various pro- quarto. His last disciple Vincenzo Viviani, perties and their effects; and valuable dis- who proved a very eminent mathematician, coveries rewarded their industry. Of the methodised a piece of his master's, and great number who distinguished themselves published it under the title of “ Quinto on this occasion, we cannot but mention Libro de gli Elementi d' Euclid,” &c, 1674, Torricelli and Viviani, in Italy ; Pascal, in quarto; and he also published some other France; Otto Guricke, in Germany; and pieces of Galileo, including extracts from Boyle, in England."

his “ Letters to a learned Frenchman," in Galileo wrote a number of treatises, of which the author gives an account of the which the principal published during his works which he intended to have published, life-time : besides his “ Mechanics,” “Ba- and an extract of a letter to John Camillo, lance,” and “ Dialogues," already mention a mathematician of Naples, concerning the ed, were, “ The Operations of the Com- angle of contact. Many other of Galileo's pass, geometrical and military,” 1606 ;“A writings were unfortunately lost to the Discourse, addressed to the Most Serene world, owing to the superstition of one of Cosmo II. Grand Duke of Tuscany, con his ignorant nephews; who, considering cerning the swimming of Bodies upon, and that his uncle died a prisoner of the holy their submersion in, Water,” 1612; “Nuncius office, though permitted to reside in his

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own house, suspected that his papers might perty depends the art of making our writcontain dangerous heresies, and therefore ing-ink, as also a great deal of those of dyecommitted them to the flames.

ing and dressing leather, and other manuSir John Finch, in a letter to Thomas Sa- factures. See INK, &c. lisbury, attributes the destruction of Ga. GALL bladder, called vesicula, is usually lileo's MSS. to his widow's devotion, and of the shape of a pear, and of the size of a the fanaticism of her confessor ; but the small hen's egg. It is situated in the conbest authorities maintain that our philoso- cave side of the liver, and lies upon the copher was never married. His son Vincenzo lon, part of which it tinges with its own coGalilei, who, as we have already seen, ho- lour. The use of the gall-bladder is to colnourably supported his father's reputation, lect the bile, first secreted in the liver, and by first applying his invention of the pen- mixing it with its own peculiar produce to dulum to clock-work, was of illegitimate perfect it farther, to retain it together a birth.

certain time, and then to expel it. GALIUM, in botany, a genus of the Te GALL fly. See Cynips. trandria Monogynia class and order. Na GALL stone. See Calculi biliary. tural order of Stellatæ. Rubiacea, Jussieu. GALLEON, in naval affairs, a sort of Essential character: corolla one-petalled, ships employed in the commerce of the flat; seeds two, roundish. There are forty. West Indies. The Spaniards send annualeight species.

ly two fleets; the one for Mexico, which GALL, in the animal economy, the same they call the flota, and the other for Peru, with bile. See BILE.

which they call the galleons. GALL, in natural history, denotes any By a general regulation made in Spain, protuberance or tumour, produced by the it has been established, that there should puncture of the insects on plants and trees be twelve men of war, and five tenders, of different kinds. Galls are of various annually fitted out for the armada or galforms and sizes, and no less different with leons; eight ships of six hundred tons burregard to their internal structure. Some den each, and three tenders, one of an have only one cavity, and others a number hundred tons, for the island Margarita, and of small cells communicating with each two of eighty each, to follow the armada : other: some of them are as hard as the for the New Spain fleet, two ships of six wood of the tree they grow on, whilst hundred tons each, and two tenders of others are soft and spongy; the first being eighty each ; and for the Honduras fleet, termed gall-nuts, and the latter berry-galls, two ships of five hundred tons each : and, or apple-galls.

in case no fleet happened to sail any year, The general history of galls is this : an in- three galleons and a tender should be sent sect of the fly-kind (see CYNIPS), is in- to New Spain for the plate. They were structed by nature to take care for the formerly appointed to sail from Cadiz, in safety of her young, by lodging her eggs January, that they might arrive at Portoin a woody substance, where they will Bello about the middle of April, where be defended from all injuries : she for this the fair being over, they might take aboard purpose wounds the branches or leaves of a the plate, and be at Hayanna with it about tree, and the lacerated vessels, discharging the middle of June, where they were joined their contents, soon form tumours about the by the flota, that they might return to Spain holes thus made. The hole in each of these with the greater safety. For this purpose, tumours, through which the fly has made the viceroy of Peru was to take care that the its way, may for the most part be found; plate should be at Panama by the middle and when it is not, the maggot-inhabitant of March. The plate is fifteen days reor its remains, are sure to be found within, moving from Potosi to Arica, eight days on breaking the gall. It is to be observed, generally from thence hy sea to Callao, and however, that in those galls which contain from that place to Panama twenty days, several cells, there may be insects found in taking in by the way the plate at Paita some of them, though there is a hole by and Truxillo. It has, however, been which the inhabitant of another cell has es found by experience, that the month of caped. Oak-galls, put in a very small quan- September is the fittest for the fleet to tity into a solution of vitriol in water, sail : they are about two years in the though but a very weak one, give it a pur whole voyage. ple or vitriol colour, which, as it grows The galleons bring annnally of gold about stronger, becomes black; and on this pro.' two or three millions of crowns, and the

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flota one. Of silver, the galleons bring France, to work at the oar on board a eighteen or twenty thousand crowns, and galley, being chained to the deck. and the flota ten or twelve. Of precious GALLIC-acid, in chemistry, exists in stones the galleons bring quantities to an nut-galls, and is obtained by boiling toimmense value ; besiiles fine wool, leather, gether for some time carbonate of barytes, and Campeachy wood.

and a solution of gall-nuts. This affurds a GALLERY, in fortification, a covered bluish green liquid, which consists of a walk across the ditch of a town, made of solution of gallic acid and barytes. It is strong beams, covered over head with now to be filtered and saturated with planks, and loaded with earth : sometimes diluted sulphuric acid. Sulphate of barytes it is covered with raw hides to defend it is deposited in the state of insoluble powder, from the artificial fires of the besieged. Its and a colourless solution of gallic acid re. sides should be musquet proof.

mains behind. This is the method given GALLERY of a mine, is a narrow passage, by Mr. Davy, others lave been suggested or branch of a mine carried on under by almost every practical chemist. Gallicground to a work designed to be blown up. acid, pure, is in the form of transparent Both the besiegers and the besieged also, plates or octahedrons. Its taste is acid, carry on galleries in search of each others and somewhat astringent, and when heated mines, and these sometimes meet and de has rather an unpleasant aromatic odour. stroy each other.

It is soluble in about twelve parts of cold GALLERY, in ship-building, a balcony, water, and in three parts of alcohol: it is projecting from the stern or quarter of a soluble in ether. It combines with alkaline ship of war, or of a large merchantman: bodies, making with them coinpounds called the stern-gallery is wholly at the stern of gallates. It occasions a precipitate when the ship, and is usually decorated with a poured into solutions of glucina, yttria, and balustrade extending from one side of the zircon in acids, which distingnishes these ship to the other ; the fore part is limited from the other earths, none of which are by a partition, in which are framed the precipitated from their solutions by gallic cabin windows, and the roof of it is formed acid. Upon the metallic solutions gallic by a sort of vault termed the cove, which acid acts with great energy, changing the is frequently ornamented with sculpture. colour, and producing precipitates in many Quarter-gallery is that part which projects of them. Hence it is frequently used as on each quarter, and is generally fitted up a reagent to detect the presence of metalas a water closet. Ships of twenty.guns lic bodies. It is composed of oxygen, carand upwards, on one deck have quarter bon, and hydrogen, but the proportions galleries, but no stern gallery; two and of each have not been accurately ascer. three deckers have quarter galleries, with tained. their proper conveniences, and one or two GALLIOT, a small galley designed only stern galleries.

for chase, carrying only one mast, and two GALLEY, in naval affairs, a low-built or three pattereroes; it can both sail and vessel, using both sails and oars, and com row, and has sixteen or twenty oars. All monly carrying only a main-mast and fore the seamen on board are soldiers, and each mast, which may be struck or lowered at has a musket by him on quitting his oar. pleasure. Such vessels are much used in GALLON, a measure of capacity both the Mediterranean.

for dry and liquid things, containing four These vessels are of a long standing, though quarts; but these quarts, and consequently it is probable the construction of those in the gallon itself, are different, according to modern times is very different from that the quality of the thing measured: for informerly adopted. Galleys are of a finer stance, the wine gallon contains 231 cubic and slenderer make than ships. Galley is inches, and holds eight pounds averdupois the name also of an open boat, rowing six of pure water: the beer and ale gallons or eight oars, and used on the Thames by contain 282 solid inches, and holds ten Custom-house officers, press-gangs, and also pounds three ounces and a quarter aver. for pleasure. The same word denotes the dupois, of water: and the gallon for corn, kitchen of a ship of war, or the place meal, &c. 2724 cubic inches, and holds nine where the grates are put up, fires lighted, pounds thirteen ounces of pure water. and the victuals generally dressed.

GALLOON, in commerce, a narrow GALLEY slave, a person condemned, in thick kind of ferret, or lace, nsed to edge

or border clothes, sometimes made of wool, band's laboratory, upon which was placed and at other times of gold or silver.

an electrical machine. One of the assis GALLY, in printing, a frame into which tants in his experiments chanced carelessly the compositor empties the lines out of to bring the point of a scalpel near the cruhis composing-stick, and in which he ties ral nerves of a frog, lying not far from the up the page when it is completed. The conductor. Instantly the muscles of the gally is formed of an oblong square board, limb were agitated with strong convulsions. with a ledge on three sides, and a grove Madame Galvani, a woman of quick underto admit a false.bottom, called a gally- standing, and a scientific turn, was preslice.

sent, and, struck with the phenomenon, GALOPINA in botany, a genus of the she immediately went to inform her husTetrandria Digynia class and order. Na band of it. He came and repeated the tural order of Rubiaceæ, Jussieu. Essential experiment; and soon found that the concharacter: calyx none; corolla four-cleft; vulsion only took place when a spark was seeds two, naked. There is one species, drawn from the conductor, at the time the riz. G. circæoides, a native of the Cape of scalpel was in contact with the nerve. It is Good Hope.

unnecessary in this place to mention the se. GALVANI (LEWIS) a modern physiolo- ries of experiments by which he proceeded gist, who has had the honour of giving his to investigate the law of nature, of wbich name to a supposed new principle in na

accident had thus given him a glimpse, for ture, was born in 1737, at Bologna, where which our article GALVANISM must be conseveral of his relations had distinguished sulted. themselves in jurisprudence and theology. In conjunction with these enquiries, his From his early youth he was much disposed duties as a professor, and his employment to the greatest austerities of the Catholic as a surgeon and accoucheur, in which religion, and particularly frequented a con

branches he was very eminent, gave full ocvent, the monks of which attached them- cupation to bis industry. He drew up vaselves to the solemn duty of visiting the rious memoirs upon professional topics, dying. He shewed an inclination to enter which have remained inedited ; and reguinto this order, but was diverted from it by larly held learned conversations with a few one of the fraternity. Thenceforth he de literary friends, in which new works were voted himself to the study of medicine in read and commented upon. He was a man its different branches. His masters were

of an amiable character in private life, and the Doctors Beccari, Jacconi, Galli, and possessed of great sensibility, which he had especially the Professor Galeazzi, who re the misfortune of being called to display on ceived him into his house, and gave him his the death of his wife in 1790, an event daughter in marriage. In 1762, he sus

which threw him into a profound melantained with reputation an inaugural thesis choly. He rarely suffered a day to pass “ De Ossibus," and was then created pub- without visiting her tomb in the nunuery of lic lecturer in the University of Bologna, St. Catherine, and pouring out his prayers and appointed reader in anatomy to the ina and lamentations over her remains. He stitute in that city. His excellent method was always, indeed, punctual in practising of lecturing drew a crowd of auditors; and the minutest rites of his religion, the early he employed his leisure in experiments and strong impressions of which never left him, in the study of comparative anatomy. He and this attachment to religion was probamade a number of curious observations on bly the cause of steadily refusing to take the the urinary organs, and on the organ of civic oath exacted by the new constitution hearing in birds, which were published in of the Cisalpine Republic, in consequence the Memoirs of the Institute. His reputa- of which he incurred the deprivation of his tion, as an anatomist and physiologist, was posts and dignities. A prey to melancholy, established in the schools of Italy, when and reduced almost to indigence, he retired accident gave birth to the discovery which to the house of his brother James, a man of has immortalised his name. His beloved very respectable character,and there fell into wife, with whom he lived many years in a state of languor and almost imbecility. The the tenderest union, was at this time in a republican governors, probably ashamed of declining state of health. As a restorative, their conduct towards such a man, passed she made use of a soup of frogs ; and some a decree for his restoration to his profesof these animals, skinned for the purpose, sional chair and its emoluments ; but it happened to lie upon a table in her hus- then was too late. He died on November

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