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be placed with others; and statues, in. so great a degree in St. Peter's at Rome,
except in mansions where a dry air is con“ The general taste of the composition is stantly preserved, the necessity of this preremarkable, not only for its resemblance to caution is demonstrated at present in the statues, as I have observed before, but to dome of St. Paul's. The manner of perbas reliefs also. It is clear that the authors forming this description of painting, is to had them present to their imagination, and work while the plaster is wet which covers that they had made on their minds a very the wall to be decorated, consequently, in lively impression.
the execution of large subjects, the process “The demi-tints are of an olive grey, or of of plastering must immediately precede the a yellowish or reddish cast, and the shades brush of the artist, and only in the proporof red, mixed with black. The draperies, tion he works, that the colours may incorin general, are made with little plaits, formed porate with the composition, and that it of light and flexible stuffs, after the style may not absorb the water which dilutes of Roman sculpture.” The picture of them, and prevent the free touches intended Telephus is, however, an exception, and for effect. seems to lead the author to think, that the Vitruvius, who calls Fresco painting udo artist who performed this piece, was supe- tectorio, gives an accurate account of the rior to those who executed the others. extreme care which the ancients thought
In the aggregate there are no groupes, necessary in preparing the stuccoes for the harmony, or claro obscuro. Each figure colours, and it must be admitted that they stands, as it were, independent, with its succeeded admirably, when we consider own light and shade only, neither receiving how very perfect the remains of their proreflected light from the next, nor casting ductions now are, after undergoing the sub shade on it; nor are the shades broken, but phurons inhumation of ashes, caused by the done with the same colour as the half tints, eruption of Vesuvius, one thousand three and bave merely less white; this peculia- hundred and thirty seven years past. The rity arose from their deficiency in the moderns, however, conceive that their lime science of perspective, which reduced the and sand is preferable. artist to the necessity of making the gra The design intended for a wall, should duation of distance by the faintness of his be drawn on paper, or any substance from colours. “For the rest,” adds the Count, whence it may be transferred to the wet " the pictures are done with ease, the touch plaster; the mode of proceeding must afis bold, and, the pencil handled freely, the terwards be similar to that practised in colouring being sometimes laid on patches, painting upon canvass. The colours should and sometimes softened down; in a word, be earths, exclusively, diluted with water the execution is light, and in the same style sufficiently to make them flow freely, but nearly as we paint the decorations of our not to decompose the plaster and mix its theatres, the whole indicating a great prac- surface with them; long soft haired brushes tice in the artists."
should therefore be preferred. Thus much is considered necessary, in
FRESH suit, in law, is such a ready and order to show that the adoption of many earnest following of an offender, as never colours in Fresco paintings, took place sub ceases from the time of the offence being sequent to 471; like all other arts, it must committed or discovered, until he be aphave been improved by degrees, and it prehended; and the effect of this, in the cannot be doubted, that the great masters, pursuit of a felon, is, that the party purwhose labours still adorn the numerous suing shall have his goods again, whereas churches and palaces in Italy, contributed otherwise, they are forfeited to the King. largely to its perfection, thongh it is well Anciently the law was strict in this case, known that many of their best works have but now the goods are, in all cases, restored suffered from danıps, which it is presumed to the party. will prevent their stability wherever it pre FRESH, a term used at sea, to signify a vails. This circumstance bas operated to strong, but not violent or dangerous wind :
bence, when the gale increases, it is said to powerful according to the nature of the freshen. In the plural, the word implies bodies in question; and 4, the interposithe impetuosity of an ebb-tide, increasing tion of extraneous bodies, such as moisture, by heavy rains and flowing out into the dust, &c. sea, which it often discolours to a conside Innumerable experiments have been made rable distance from the shore, so that the for the purpose of determining the quantity lipe which divides the two colours, may be of obstruction, or of friction, which is properceived distinctly for a great length along duced in particular circumstances. But the coast.
the results of apparently similar experiFRET, or FRETTE, in architecture, a ments, which have been made by different kind of knot or ornament, consisting of two experimenters, do not agree; nor is it likely lists or small fillets, variously interlaced or they should, since the least difference of interwoven, and running at parallel dis- smoothness or polish, or of hardness, or in tances equal to their breadth.
short, of any of the various concurring cirFRET, in heraldry, a bearing composed of cumstances, produces a different result. six bars, crossed, and variously interlaced. Hence no certain and determinate rules can
FRET, in music, signifies a kind of stop be laid down with respect to the subject of on some instruments, particularly bass- friction. Mr. Vince, who has done much viols and lutes. Frets consist of strings on this subject, ipfers, 1, That friction is an tied round the neck of the instrument at uniformly retarding force in hard bodies, certain distances, within which such and
not subject to alteration by the velocity, such notes are to be found.
except when the body is covered with cloth, FRET work, that adorned with frets. It woollen, &c., and in this case the friction is sometimes used to fill up and enrich flat increases a little with the velocity. 2, Fricempty spaces, but is mostly practised in tion increases in a less ratio than the quanroofs, which are fretted over with plaster- tity of matter or weight of the body. This work. The Italians also use fret-works in increase, however, is different for the diffethe mantling of ehimneys, with great figures; rent bodies, more or less, nor is it yet suffie a cheap piece of magnificence, and as dura- ciently known for any one body, what proble almost within doors, as harder matters portion the increase of friction bears to the in the weather.
increase of weight. 3, The smallest surface FRICTION, in mechanics, the rubbing has the least friction, the weight being the of the parts of engines and machines against same. But the ratio of the friction to the each other, by which means a great part "surface is not yet accurately known. Mr. of their effect is destroyed.
Vince's experiments consisted in determin. It is hardly possible to lay down general ing how far the sliding bodies would be rules concerning the quantity of friction, drawn in given times, by a weight hanging since it depends upon a multiplicity of cir- freely over a pulley. This method would cumstances, as the structure, firmness, elas both shew him if the friction was a constant ticity, &c. of the bodies rubbing against retarding force, and the other conclusions each other. Some anthors make friction above stated. For as the spaces described upon an horizontal plane, equal to one-third by any constant force, in given times, are of the weight to be moved; whilst others as the squares of the times, and as the have found it to be considerably less. Two weight drawing the body is a constant force, objects must, however, be observed, viz. if the friction, which acts in opposition to the loss of power which is occasioned by it, the weight, should also be a constant force ; and the contrivances which have been made, then their difference, or the force by which and are in use, for the purpose of diminish- the body is urged, will also be constant, in ing its effects. A body of an horizontal which case the spaces described ought to plane should be capable of being moved by be as the squares of the times, which hapthe application of the least force ; but this pened accordingly in the experiments. The is not the case, and the principal causes friction, cæteris paribus, increases with the which render a greater or less quantity of weight of the superincumbent body, and alforce necessary for it, are, 1, the roughness most in the same proportion. The friction, of the contiguous surfaces ; 2, the irregula or obstruction which arises from the bendrity of the figure, which arises either from ing of ropes about machines, is influenced the imperfect workmanship, or from the by a variety of circumstances, such as their pressure of one body from the other ; 3, an peculiar quality, the temperature of the atadhesion, or attraction, which is more or less mosphere, and the diameter, or curvature
of the suface to which they are to be stance that can be used in small works, aš adapted. But when other circumstances in watches and clocks, when metal works remaid the same, the difficulty of bending against metal. But in large works the oil a rope increases with the square of its dia- is liable to drain off, unless some niethod meter, as also with its tension ; and it de- is adopted to confine it. Therefore for creases according as the radius of the cnr- large works tallow is mostly used, or grease valure of the body to which it is adapted of any sort, which is useful for metal, as increases. Of the simple mechanical pow
well as for wood. In the last case tar is ers, the lever is the least subject to friction. also frequently used. The mechanical conIn a wheel, the friction upon the axis is, trivances which have been made, and are as the weight that lies upon it, as the dia- in use, for the purpose of diminishing the meter of the axis, and as the velocity of the effects of friction, consist either in avoidmotion. But upon the whole, this sort of ing the contact of such bodies as produce friction is not very great, provided the ma much friction, or in the interposition of rolchine is well executed. In common pul- lers, viz. cylindrical bodies, between the leys, especially those of a small size, the moving parts of machines, or between morfriction is very great. It increases in pro. ing bodies in general. Such cylinders deportion as the diameter of the axis in- rive, from their various size and application, creases, as the velocity increases, and as the different names of rollers, friction the diameter of the pully decreases. With wheels, and friction rollers. Thus in milla moveable tackle, or block of five pulleys, work, and other large machines, the wooden a power of 150 pounds will barely be able axis of large wheels terminate in iron gndto draw up a weight of 500 pounds. The geons, wbich turn in wood, or more frescrew is subject to a great deal of friction;" quently in iron or brass, which construction 80 much so, that the power which must be produces less friction than the turning of applied to it, in order to produce a given wood in wood. In the finest sort of watcheffect, is at least double that which is given work the holes are jewelled, viz. mauy of by the calculation, independent of friction. the pivots of the wheels, &c. move in holes But the degree of friction in the screw, is made in rubies, or topazes, or other hard influenced considerably by the nature of stone, which, when well finished, are not the construction, for much of it is owing to liable to-wear, nor do they require much the tightness of the screw, to the distance oil. In order to understand the nature of between its threads, and to the shape of rollers, and the advantage with which their the threads; the square threads producing, use is attended, it must be considered, that upon the whole, less friction than those when a body is dragged over the surface which are sharp. The friction which at- of another body, the inequalities of the surtends the use of the wedge, exceeds, in ge- faces of both bodies meet and oppose each neral, that of any other simple mechanical other, which is the principal cause of the power. Its quantity depends so much upon friction or obstruction; but when one body, the nature of the body upon which the such as a cask, a cylinder, or a ball, is wedge acts, besides other circumstances, rolled upon another body, the surface of that it is impossible to give even an ap- the roller is not rubbed against the other proximate estimate of it. The friction of body, but is only successively applied to, or mechanical engines not only diminishes the laid, on the other, and is then successively effect, or which is the same thing, occasions lifted up from it. Therefore, in rolling, a loss of power; but is attended with the the principal cause of friction is avoided, corrosion and wear of the prineipal parts besides other advantages : hence a body of the machine, besides producing a consi- may be rolled upon another body, when the derable degree of lieat, and even actual shape admits of it, with incomparably less fire ; it is, therefore, of great importance, exertion than that which is required to drag in mechanics, to contrive means capable of it over the surface of that other body. In diminishing, if not of quite removing, the fact, we commonly see large pieces of timeffects of friction.
ber, and enormous blocks of stone, moved The methods of obtaining the important upon rollers that are laid between them object of diminishing the friction, are of and the ground, with ease and safety, when two sorts, riz. either by the interposition it would be almost impossible to move them of particular unctuous, or oily substances otherwise. between the contiguous moving parts, or by Friction, is a term made use of in par icular mechanical contrivances. Olive medicine, and implies the act of rubbing a vil is the best, and perhaps the only sub. diseased part with oils, or other substances.
Friction is also applied to the rubbing the alienation, and reconciled to God. They human body with a flesh-brush, flannel, &c.; affirm, that for this end there is given to but the most important purpose of this kind every man a measure of the light of Christ, of friction is for the introduction of mercury (called by their early preachers the light into the habit by means of the skin instead within) a manifestation of the Spirit to proof the mouth.
fit withal; which discovers sin, reproves FRIEND, or quaker. A society of dis- for it, leads out of it, and, if not resisted, senters from the church of England obtain will save from it, and lead on the Christian ed the latter appellation in the middle of to perfection. In public worship they prothe seventeenth century; the former they fess to wait on God in this gift, in order to had before applied, and continue to apply, have their conditions made manifest in sito themselves. The first preacher of this lence and retirenient of mind. They look society was George Fox, a man of humble for an extraordinary motion of it for social birth, and illiterate. The undertaking to worship, and considering the qualification which he considered limself called, that of of a minister as a further gift which God promulgating a more simple and spiritual confers, and of which the church ought to form of Christianity than any of those which ju 'ge in the same spirit, they do not limit prevailed, and of directing the attention of its exercise to any description of persons. Christians to immediate revelation, required They suffer some inconvenience hereby, as little more reading than that of the Bible. they acknowledge ; but they prefer bearing A constant reference to the scriptures, with this to the establishing of any form of wor. great zeal, courage, and perseverance, in ship, save the forementioned waiting in preaching and suffering, did more than silence. They do not baptize formally, or literature could have done to spread his use the sign of the communion; they say doctrine among the middle and lower clas. the one has ceased as to obligation, and ses. The most prominent feature in the that the true administration of the other is Friends’ view of Christianity, is this: seeing, by the spirit alone. They deem it unlawful no man knoweth the Father but the Son, for Christians to swear at all; and their afand he to whomsoever the Son will reveal firmation in civil causes is made legal inhim, and seeing, the revelation of the Son is stead of an oath. They refuse to learn in and by the Spirit; therefore the testimo war, or to lift up the sword,” as well as to ny of the Spirit is that alone by which the contribute directly to military proceedings. true kuowledge of God is revealed. In this Yet as they inculcate implicit submission, doctrine they agree, in substance, with the actively or passively, to Cæsar, they neither church of England, and all others who ac. resist nor evade the legal appropriation of knowledge the efficacy of grace. For in their substance by him, as well to these as whatever way this is afforded to Christians, to ecclesiastical purposes. Against the claims it is powerfully given to know and to do the of the clergy, as well as many other things will of God; and the communicatiou of apparently lawful, they say in their phraseograce may be termed, in strict consistencylogy they have a testimony to bear. Some with the sense of the New Testament, a peculiarities mark them out from their felrevelation of Christ in the Spirit. The low citizens. Simplicity in dress, in some Friends receive the Holy Scriptures as instances, nearly amounting to an adherence having proceeded from the revelations of to their original, though not prescribed, the Holy Spirit; they account them the costume ; simplicity of language, thou to secondary rule for Christians, subordinate one person, and without compliments; simto the word, and therefore not the word of plicity in their manners of living; the nonGod. According to these, they profess their observance of fasts and feasts; the rejecbelief in one God, as Father, Word, and tion of those which they call the unchristian Holy Spirit; in one Mediator, the Word names of days and months; and the renunmade flesh, Jesus Christ ; in the concep ciation of the theatres and other promiscuition, birth, life, miracles, death, resurrec ous amusements, gaming, and the usual tion, and ascension of Jesus; and in the re outward signs of mourning and rejoicing, mission of sins thereby purchased for the may be considered as their shibboleth. They whole world of fallen mankind. Christ's marry among themselves by a ceremony or redemption they believe to be perfected in contract, religiously conducted, and bury us by his second coming in Spirit; in which their dead in the most simple manner. They they who obey him are, through the obedi- maintain their poor, and enforce their own ence of faith, restored from their state of rules, by means of an excellent system of
discipline, founded by G. Fox. They re- and can, with great difficulty only, be deceive approved applicants into their society coyed by traps. Their sounds are harsh by an act of monthly meeting, or particular and grating, their dispositions irascible, and congregation, and without subscription of their manners intrusive. F. cælebs, or the articles. They disown in the same manner, chaffinch, is fouud in this country througliout after repeated admonition, not officially the year, and builds its nest with extreme only, but actually extended, to offenders care and neatness, lining it with hair, wool, against morality, or their peculiar rules. and feathers. It is sprightly in its move
FRIEZE, FREEZE, or Frize, in archi. ments, and beautiful in its plumage; but tecture, a large flat face, or member, sepa can boast po peculiar powers of melody. rating the architrave from the corniche, The most singular circumstance attending being that part of the entablature between this species of birds is, that, in some counthe architrave and corniche. See ARCHI- tries, the males remain all the year round,
while the females are migratory to the south, FRIGATE, anong seamen, a ship of returning in the spring to their former has war, light built, and that is a good sailer. bitations and companions. Flocks comA frigate has commonly two decks, whence posed only of females have occasionally thiat called a light frigate is a frigate with been seen in Hampshire. This circumstance only one deck. These vessels mount from is not peculiar to these birds, but affects 20 to 44 guns, and make capital cruizers. equally some other descriptions. It is in Merchantmen are said to be frigate-built, itself, however, not a little curious, and when the disposition of the decks have a merits attention. F. carduelis, or goldfinch, descent of four or five steps from the quar. is common in Europe, and to be found, ter-deck and forecastle into the waist, in though by no means so frequently, in Africa contradistinction to those whose decks are and Asia. It breeds twice a year, and feeds on a continued line for the whole length of principally on seeds, and especially those of the ship, which are called galley-built. For thistles, near which it prefers building its merly the name of frigate was only known nest, which is formed with great compactin the Mediterranean, and applied to a kind ness and skill. It begins to sing in April, of long vessels navigated in that sea with and continues its song till the period of sails and oars. Our countrymen were the breeding is past. In confinement, however, first who appeared in the ocean with those it will sing for the greater part of the year. ships, and equipped them for war as well as These birds are universally admired for the
brilliancy of their plumage, and the melody FRINGILLA, the finch, in natural his- of their sounds; and they possess, moreover, tory, a genus of birds of the order Passeres. a docility which renders them particularly Generic character: bill perfectly conic, interesting, learning with ease a variety of slender towards the end, and extremely ingenious movements and exercises. They pointed Many of this tribe are truly ad. are long lived, and have been known to mirable, both for the elegance of their survive the age of twenty years. Buffon plumage, and the vivacity and melody of mentions the case of a goldfinch which sudtheir song. Latham enumerates 96 species, denly became black, and after continuing and Gmelin 111; of which we shall notice so for eight months, resumed its former the following: F. domestica, or the house sprightly and elegant colouring: this revosparrow, is never found remote from human lution was repeated at two subsequent pehabitations; but following the society of 'riods. (See Aves, Plate VI. fig. 6.) F. man, builds under the roofs of houses, and Spinus, or the siskin, is found in various in the holes of walls, and will frequently parts of Europe, generally migratory, but expel the martin from its nest, to save itself at irregular periods, and in very unequal the trouble of preparing one of its own. It numbers; the larger flights being supposed breeds generally three times in a year. By by some naturalists to occur only once in the destruction of caterpillars, these birds several years. It hides its nest with partiare eminently serviceable; but their favour. cular caution; and though vast numbers ite food is grain, to procure which they are are to be seen on the borders of the Danube, constant attendants at the barn-door, and which have not lost their original feathers, notwithstanding every effort to scare them, their nests have been sought, it is said, in will dare every danger to partake of the the neighbourhood with great assiduity, but repasts of the poultry and pigeons. They in very few instances with success. It is are particularly sagacious as well as daring, nearly as tractable as the goldfinch, has