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very curious consequences may be de ménts must be repeated frequently, and we duced.

must be' absolutely certain that the hen has He found that a hen devoured in ten no access to any calcareous earth, and that days 11111.843 grains troy of oats; these she is not diminished in weight; because, contained

in that case, some of the calcareous earth

of which part of the body is composed, may 136.509 grains phosphate of lime

bave been employed. This rigour is the 219.548 silica

more necessary, as it seems pretty evident 356.057

from experiments made long ago, that some During these ten days she laid four eggs,

birds, at least, cannot produce eggs inless the shells of which contained 98.776 grains they have access to calcareous earth. Dr. phosphate of lime, and 453,417 grains car

Fordyce found, that if the canary bird was bonate of lime; the excrements emitted

not supplied with lime at the time of her during these ten days contained 175.529 laying, she frequently died, from her eggs

not coming forward properly. (On Diges. grains of phosphate of lime, 58.494 grains of carbonate of lime, and 185.266 grains of tion). He divided a number of these birds,

at the time of their laying eggs, into two silica; consequently, the fixed parts thrown out of the system during these ten days, parties : to the one he gave a piece of morainounted to

tar, which the little animals swallowed

greedily; they laid their eggs as usual, and 274.305 grains phosphate of lime all of them lived; whereas many of the other 511.911 carbonate of lime party, which were supplied with no lime, 185.266 silica

died.” Given out 971.482

Vauquelin also ascertained, according to Taken in. 356.057

Fourcroy, that pigeon's dung contained an

acid of a peculiar nature, which encreased Surplus... 615.425

when the matter is diluted with water ; but consequently, the quantity of fixed matter gradually gives place to ammonia, which is given out of the system in ten days, exceed

at last exhaled in abundance. (Fourcroy, ed the quantity taken in by 615.425 grains, i. 70). The silica taken in amount

219.548 grains

FEE, in law, feudum, beneficium, all land ed to.......

iu England is in the nature of a feud or fee, That given out was only......185.266 grains and subject to the original conditions of the Remains......... 34.282 grant, which is supposed to come from the

crown ; but now that distinction is very imconsequently, there disappeared 34.282

material. grains of silica.

Fee simple, is an estate to a man and his The phosphate of lime?

heirs, and is the largest estate which one taken in was... $

136.509 grains

can have; it descends to heirs of all kinds, That given out was .... .274.305 grains and may be granted or devised at pleasure.

When it is created by deed, it must be ex137.796

pressly stated to be to the grantee and his consequently, there must have been formed heirs ; for an estate to A, for ever, is only by digestion in the fowl, no less than good for life: in a will, however, this strict137.796 grains of phosphate of lime, besides ness is not required; any words which 511.911 grains of carbonate; consequently, shew the intent of the testator will be suffilime (and perhaps also phosphorus) is not a cient. In a deed, a man cannot give a feesimple substance, but a compound, formed simple to one, and then afterwards, in case of ingredients which exist in oat-seed, water he dies without heirs, to another. In a will, and air, the only substances to which the words which import this, are often construfowl had access: silica may enter into its ed only to give the first taker an estate tail. composition, as part of the silica had disap. It may be forfeited for treason or felony. peared; but if so, it must be combined with Upon an exchange, a fee may pass without a great quantity of some other substance. expressing the word heir; so also on a fine (Aul. de Chim. Axix. 61).

or recovery. A grant to the King, or a * These consequences,' as Dr. Thompson corporation, sole for ever, necessarily gives observes, whom we follow in this article, a fee, because they never die. ! are too important to be admitted withont a FEELERS, in natural history, a name very rigorous examipation. The experi- used by some for the horus of insects.


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FEELING, one of the five external about three or four. Its colour is of a pale senses, by which we obtain the ideas of so tawny, and the male possesses an extremely lid, hard, soft, rough, hot, cold, wet, dry, full and flowing mane. The female is desand other tangible qualities. This sense is titute of this, and is considerably smaller the coarsest, but at the same time, the than the male. It has been known to live surest of all others; it is besides the inost in a state of confinement, to the age of aniversal. We sec and hear with small por- sixty-three, or seventy years, though fiom tions of our body, but we feel with all. a philosophical examination of its general ture has bestowed that general sensation structure, it would be concluded that its wherever there are nerves, and they are average duration would not exceed tweniyevery where, where there is life.. Were it five. The parental affection of the lioness otherwise, the parts divested of it might be is extreme: in support of her young she destroyed without our knowledge. It braves the most formidable dangers, and is seems that upon this account, nature has wrought up to a pitch of agitation and exprovided that this sensation should not re ertion, which render her in such circumquire a particular organization. The struc- stances, a more terrible adversary than the ture of the nervous papillæ is not abso- lion himself. She produces her young in Intely necessary to it. The lips of a fresh the most remote and sequestered situations, Found, the periosteum, and the tendons, and to provide for their wants, engages in when uncovered, are extremely sensible the most rapid excursions, and most daring without them. These nervous extremities attacks, returning to her cubs with the fruit serve only to the perfection of feeling, and of her toils and dangers, with the most imto diversify sensation. Feeling is the basis patient impetuosity, and feeding them with of all other sensations.

the yet convulsed members of her prey. It FELAPTON, in logic, one of the six is reported, by some authors, that she enmoods of the third figure of syllogisms, deavours, occasionally, to obscure the track wherein the first proposition is an universal to her den by brushing out the marks of it negative, the second an universal affirma- with her tail, and when suspicious of partive, and the third a particular negative. ticular danger to her young, will remove

FELIS, the cat, in natural history, a genus them in her mouth to a place of greater of Mammalia of the order Feræ. Generic security, with looks of unutterable menace character: six foreteeth, intermediate ones and antipathy at any creature, however forequal, three grinders on each side ; tongue midable, which may shew the slightest disprickly backwards ; claws retractile. Ani- position to impede her progress. She proinals of this comprehensive class never unite duces but one litter, consisting of four or in companies for mutual defence, but ac- five in number, in the year. These are at complish their ferocious and bloody pur first extremely small, little exceeding the poses with solitary energy. They are swift size of a half grown kitten, and they are and strong, have many of them, a peculiar five years in attaining their full growth. facility in climbing trees, and falling from The lion is found in the warmer regions any considerable height, alight on their feet. of Asia, but attaws his highest perfection They spring on their prey with the sudden- in the interior of Africa. His strength is, ness of lightning, and suck its blood before such, that with a single stroke of his paw they devour it. They will eat vegetables, he has broken the back of a horse, and he only when other food is not within their has been known, not unfrequently, to carry reach. They are principally distinguished off a young buffalo between his teeth. by their large and pointed claws, which are He rarely engages in full daylight in the lodged in a sheath, and protruded or with pursuit of prey, but on the approach of drawn at pleasure. The numerous species night quits his habitation, and with a roar of this genus differ extremely in size and which can be resembled only to a peal of in colour, but in form and character, pos- thunder, and overwhelms the other inhabi$ess a family resemblance, and are crafty, tants of the wilderness or forest with confierce, and sanguinary. There are twenty- sternation, commences his career of havock. three species, of which we shall notice those His sense of smell is far from being acute, which follow :

and he depends in the chase only upon F. leo, or the lion. This is the largest actual sight or probable inference. He species of the Felis genus, and has occa- frequently consumes at one repast sufficient sionally been known to measure eight feet to satisfy him for two or three days; he in length, exclusively of its tail, which is breaks the bones of the buffalo with perfect

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lease and frequently swallows them; and the only manifest tranquillity and contentment, reversed prickles on his tongue are of ex but occasionally engage in sports and gamtraordinary strength and extension. After bols with smaller animals, among which a full repast, he returns to his den and they have been led to associate. They are enjoys a state of slumber and repose, till , susceptible of attachment and gratitude, the calls of hunger rouse him to fresh acti. will caress their keepers, display a magnavity, and impel him to recommence the nimous forbearance with respect to the ofwork of blood. The lion, in the exertion fensive freedom and petulant insults of of his full energies, must present one of the weaker creatures, and after having once, most impressive images that can be con as it were, pledged themselves for the se ceived. The general majesty of his coun-' curity of any wbich, by an act of wantontenance, surrounded by his full mane in ness, may have been thrown as victims into tensely erected, and lighted up by the their den, will endure extreme hunger beglaring indigpation of his eye, connected fore they can permit themselves to destroy with the thunder of his voice, and all the them. The natural excitability of these apparatus of destruction in his mouth and animals, however, is so great, that all the paws, has in every age, caused him to be discipline of education is frequently insafconsidered as furnishing admirable mate. ficient effectually to repress their passions rials for sublime and terrific imagery. within secure limits, and in some unlucky

At the Cape of Good Hope, it is by no coincidence of circumstances, those famimeans uncommon to hunt the lion, and in liarities with them which had been peran open and spacions plain, in which he mitted without the slightest resistance, or finds it impossible to escape his pursuers reluctance, have proved fatal to the per. by flight, he checks his progress, and fronts sons who engaged in them. Though the his adversaries awaiting their attack. Se lion frequently attacks his prey in open veral of the dogs which first dare to assault chase, he generally adopts the system of him, generally fall upder his stroke, but in ambuscade, and will lurk on his belly in a few moments he is overwhelmed by num some thicket, frequently near the water, bers, and literally torn to pieces. The awaiting the approach of any animal which negroes of the Cape are reported to eat his its evil destiny may impel near it, on which flesh; and his skin, which was formerly he will spring with a sudden bound, rarely deemed a mantle for a hero, is now more failing of success, and sometimes reaching frequently employed for the bed of a Hot to the distance of twenty feet. When this tentot.

leap is unsuccessful, the object is permitted It is imagined that lions are inexpres- to escape without pursuit, and he retraces sibly less numerous in Africa now than his steps slowly to the thicket, as it were formerly, and it is stated by. Shaw, that abashed by his failure, and anticipating the all Libya could at this time scarcely supply consequences of greater adroitness in his that number, which was sometimes ex ensuing effort. ported to Rome, even in a single year. In Lions have in various countries been emproportion as population has extended, ployed as emblems of state, and insignia and national intercourse has advanced, their of sovereignty. In Persia, two large lions range has necessarily become more limited, with fetters of gold are stationed on days and their acquaintance with man seems to of peculiar ceremony and splendour, on have considerably checked that daring, each side of the hall of audience; and in which was supposed by many incapable of Rome, Anthony was drawn through the being daunted. The lion's valour dimi- streets by lions harnessed to his chariot. nishes in proportion as he resides near the To furnish entertainment for the inbabihabitations of men, whose ingenuity and tants of that splendid and luxurious city, resources he seems well aware must always lions were conveyed in vast numbers from secure them a superiority in the conflict the interior of Africa, to exhibit at the pubwith other animals, and whose appearance, lic festivals, at which they fought with each therefore, he shuns as that of his most for- ..other, with other animals, and even at midable adversary. In the neighbourhood length with men. This diversion was first of the small towns of Africa, even women cxhibited by Quintus Scævola, but was afand children have not unfrequently driven terwards carried to far greater extent. lions from their lurking places. When taken Sylla displayed in the Arena, a hundred young, they can be taught to sustain con lions during his pretorship. Julius Cæsar, finement without difficulty, and will not to conciliate the people, entertained them

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with 10 fewer than four hundred; and rushing on their victim with almost unerring
Pompey imported at vast expence, and accuracy, and making those extensive
with the most elaborate research, the im- bounds, which can result only fivm super-
mense number of three hundred and fifteen lative elasticity and vigour.
males, and two hundred and seventy-five The name tiger, in the language of the
females. For the lion and lioness, and their Armenians, signifies an arrow, and aptly
whelps, see Mammalia, Plate XIII. expresses the agility of those movements,

F. tigris, the tiger. This is called by by which these animals seize upon their
Linnæus the most beautiful of quadrupeds, prey. The sounds which they utter in this
a character, which would not be thought moment of seizure, are stated to be the
correctly applicable, were the judgment most hideous and appalling that imagina-
on this subject to be determined from the tion can conceive, Animals of considera.
skins in a museum, or from a view of the ble size are not only attacked by a tiger
animal itself, in that confined state in which without the slighteşi hesitation, but give
it must ever appear in this country. But no impediment from their bulk to his car.
in its native region, and unchecked health rying them off to some thicket, where he
and energies, it exhibits a bloom and ra may enjoy in unmolested solitude, his feast
diance unequalled by any of the brute crea of carnage. A man, or even a young buffalo,
tion. Its ground colour is an intense has been thus disposed of by him with great
orange colour, and defined stripes of pure facility, and after sucking the blood of his
black, in some parts double, and in others victims with the most intense application,
single, mark its body tranversely, extend- he proceeds to tear them in pieces and de
ing through the clear white of the sides. It vour them. Conflicts, are reported by tra-
is little inferior in size to the lion, and in vellers, not unfrequently to occur between
some instances has been seen even larger the lion and the tiger, carried on with all
than any lion mentioned by travellers, ex that intrepidity and perseverance, with all
tending from the nose to the end of the tail, that energy and fierceness, which might
to fifteen feet in length. Of all the carni, naturally be expected, and ending some-
vorous tribes, this species is considered as times only in the complete destruction or
the most sanguinary and destructive. It mutilation of both. At Siam it is not un-
appears to delight in the infliction of pain usual for elephants to be baited by a tiger,
and the effusion of blood. After satisfying constituting a similar display of savage
its hunger it still continues to worry and power and skill, with what is afforded in
destroy. If unmolested in the enjoyment this country by a bull and dogs. Two ele-
of its prey, it will absolutely bathe its bead phants, well defended by artificial guards
in the blood and entrails of its victim, and on their heads and great part of their trunks,
while exhibiting this spectacle of horror, ap are related in one instance, to have been
pear to enjoy that ecstacy, which arises introduced to the arena, where was a tiger
necessarily from the gratification of the tethered by cords : one of the elephants
most impetuous and irresistible instincts. · approaching it while under this extreme
Though frequently confined, its ferocity is disadvantage, struck it several heavy blows
incapable of being subdued, and those on its back, and laid it motionless on the
sports, or freedoms, on the part of its ground; it was then untied, and soon after-
keeper, which the lion admits with impu- wards, being considerably recovered, it
nity, if not with satisfaction, would be fatal, bounded with an immense spring and a
to the man who should dare to attempt most hideous roar at the trunk of its anta-
practising them with the tiger. Tigers are gonist, who parried the attempt with as-
found only in Asia, and attain their perfec. tonishing adroitness, and receiving the tiger
tions of size and beauty, and their extreme on his tusks, hurled it into the air. The
degree of rapacity and fierceness in India, other elephant was at this time unfairly
where they commit often the most dreadful allowed to join its companion, and each in-
havoc, and lurking among thickets, and near Aicted several severe blows on their com-
villages, assault unwary travellers as well mon enemy, who must have perished, in-
as the inferior animals; and in districts deed, under their united efforts, if the fight
thinly peopled, are the most dreadful ter. had not been terminated at this crisis by
for and plague of the inhabitants. They sel. the governors' command. The boldness
dom, if ever, engage in the violent and per- and vigour of the tiger were sufficiently
severing chase of any animal, but practise displayed, however, and considering the
almost uniformly, tie modé of ambue b, restraints under which he laboured, and his

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coatinued combat, notwithstanding the first seems to mark her character, is wrought up and almost fatal discomfiture, were truly to a paroxysm, in which she defies all admirable.

dauger, and exposes herself frequently to It is recorded by Mr. Pennant, that in certain destruction. See Meinmalia, Plate the beginnii:g of the last century, as a XIV. fig. 3. British party in India were indulging them F. pardus, the panther. It was for some selves in rural recreation and festivity, to time a question whether the panther were tally unsuspicions of danger, an immense not to be found in the new as well as in the tiger was seen advancing towards them, old world; it is now, however, fully ascertainand was so near as to be almost in the acted not to belong to America. It is found in to hound upon them. · Dismay and conster- Africa from the coast of Barbary to the nation instantly pervaded every individual south of Guinea, in the last of which it is present but one, who was a lady, and who, found in considerable numbers. Its length with a proniptness and self-possession, pro- is about six feet and a half without the tail, bably never exceeded, furled a large um which generally measures three; its colour brella in the face of the tiger, and thus most is a bright tawny yellow, thickly studded happily effected its retreat.

along the upper part of its body, with cirThe catastrophe of Mír. Monro, in similar cles of black spots containing a single spot circumstances, was recorded by one of his in the centre. It is extremely ferocious, companions, and may be not improperly and its depredations in Africa resemble noticed in this connection. In the year those of the tiger in Asia; though the pan1792, several British gentlemen, together ther, indeed, abstains, unless when urged with Mr. Monro, went to shoot deer on by extreme hunger, from attack on man. Sangar island, on the shores of which they Its mode of attack is always by surprise, observed innumerable traces of the feet of and bursting from the thicket with an imboth these animals, not only of the deer, mense spring, or approaching with extreme but of the tiger. They continued their silence and caution on its belly, it lights insport, however, for a very considerable stantly upon its prey, and the moment of tinje, and after completing it, were sitting alarm is made by it, frequently, the moment down for refreshment near a jungle, when of destruction. In China, where the skins of a tiger, with a most horrible roar, darted beautiful and brilliant quadrupeds are in from the jungle, and seizing on Mr. Monro, high estimation, there is a variety of this hurried back with him to the thicket, drag species, the skin of wlich is sold for about .ging him through the thickest bushes with six guineas. The number of panthers imamazing rapidity, and making every thing ported by the rich and ambitious among the bend and yield to its prodigious strength. Romans, to supply the popular sports of A tigress accompanied it in its progress. tiat city, is almost incredible; four hun. The tiger was fired at by the two remaining cred and ten were exhibited by Augustus gentlemen, and was obliged to drop its within only a few days, and the immense prey; and in a few moments afterwards demands which were made on Africa for their untortanate friend was advancing to this purpose, tended at length to render wards them weltering in his blood. He them procurable in the territory of Mauhad received, however, such deep wounds ritania, only with very great labour and exfrom the teeth and claws of the tiger, as pense. In that country they are at present precluded the possibility of recovery, and rare, comparatively with what they must after tweaty-four hours of agony bie ex have been before those vast exportations ; pired. The scene was dreadfil beyond all but farther to the south they are extremely the expression of words. At the time of

See Mammalia, Plate XIV: the assault, an immense fire of several

fig. 2. whole trees was burning by the spot, and

F. leopardus, or the leopard. This ani. shortly after their departure from these fatal mal is principally distinguished from the shores, the gentlemen observed tie tigress preceding by its less lively yellow colour, to make her re-appearance in all the agita- its interior size, and the closer arrangement tion of unbounded fierceness and disap. of the spots with which it is diversified. Its pointed vengeance. The tigress produces

manners are similar to those of the panther, but one litter, consistinz generally of five aud both inliabit the same territories. young, in a year. In her defence of these,' Among the vast herds of Lower Guinea that fury which, even, in ordinary times, they commit the most destructive havoc;


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