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of mallows, gum-arabic, linseed-tea, bar. will be danger of sinuses. The sore is often ley-water, &c. with regard to an inflamma- extremely difficnlt to heal, and requires tion of the liver we refer to hepatitis in this mich patience: it will, however, generally article. When the kidneys are inflamed, yield to cleanliness, and due discharge the treatment should be as in diseases of the downwards, by means of a seton smeared bladder; observing, that the animal onght with mild blistering ointment: this ought to to be kept very low, after ample evacua- be kept in until the cavity is grown up, and tions, both by bleeding and gentle purges; in a manner grasps the seton. and that diuretics are highly prejudicial. Quittors, commonly are produced by the

Lampes, is a swelling of the bars in the lodgment of filth about the coronet and roof of the mouth, chiefly in young horses. surrounding parts: they should never be But as, in such, the bars are always large, burnt, as is often practised by common farand appear to be swelled, be cautious in as. riers; but be kept very clean, and dressed certaining that they really are so. When such twice daily with dijective ointment. If is the case, by no means burn with a hot carbuncles, or proud flesh, should arise, iron, as farriers too often do, but rub with take them down by means of lunar caustic. alum and honey; if they do not subside. These sores are usually very tedious; but you may scarify the part very slightly with should not be hurried, as they are apt to a sharp instrument, guarded with tow, &c. break out afresh, or to run among the bones near its point, so that you cannot, in case of of the foot, when prematurely dried, Wash accident, do injury by making too deep a frequently with soap-suds, and put pledgets wound.

of lint, steeped in spirits of turpentine, until Lethargy, is often very slow in its ap- the sores appear clean and healthy. proach, but sometimes equally rapid ; in the Ring bone, is an exostosis, which partly latter instance rather tending towards epi- surrounds the coronet: this, together with lepsy. It is occasioned in either case hy splents, curbs, bone-sparins, &c. may sometoo great a determination of blood towards times be cured by early attention; but the head. Bleed freely, unless when the when suffered to stand long, cannot be redebility is great; open the body by active moved except by absolute force, such as purges, rake, and clyster, and endeavour to sawing or chisseling them off. A strong excite perspiration. Give the following: preparation of corrosive sublimate, added nitre, three drachms; resin, three drachms; to Spanish flies and Venice turpentine, and cream of tartar, three drachms; all finely mixed with hog's-lard, will often dissolve a powdered, and mixed with honey into a ring-bone, &c.; but much time is generally bolus: repeat every morning, until the dis- required to complete a cure. charge of urine is abundant.

Stag-evil, is properly the tetarsus, or lockMallenders, and sellenders, are · scurfy ed-jaw. This is often caused by sudden eruptions about the knee, discharging a changes from heat to cold : generally speaksharp iehor : they bear the first designation ing the cure is very uncertain; but it will when within the front bending of the hock, chiefly depend on opium, the warm bath, the latter when they appear at the back of and other antispasmodics. Sometimes the it. Wash with soap-suds, and apply the sudden application of cold water in great following: white vitriol, half a drachm; su- quantities has been serviceable: friction of gar of lead, half a drachm; tar, one ounce; turpentine oil or spirits generally proves mix, and rub in gently.

useful, as does a clyster made with 2 03, of Mange, commonly arises from filth, or spirit of hartshorn, 4 oz. of oil of turpentine, from poorness of condition, and is extremely and the yolks of three or four eggs; mixed infectious. Wash well with soap-suds, and with a quart of strong ale and gin. It is a apply the following: common brimstone, great object to promote urine, sweat, &c. levigated, eight ounces; of alum and white Staggers, or phrenzy, is supposed to be a vitriol each five drachms; horse turpentine, variety of the sleepy staggers, vertigo, or three ounces; lard, half a pound; mix, and lethargy; only that in this instance the rab frequently.

pressure on the brain is extreme, and the Pole eril, arises chiefly from friction of animal rendered outrageous. The causes the collar at the back of the ears, or other are various; but for the most part this dissuch causes : it often forms a tumour, which temper arises from the critical termination must be brought forward, unless by blister. of some other inflammatory disease. Someing, &c. the Huid can be removed. Take times it proceeds from a sun-stroke, and care to open below the abscess, else there bas been known to arise from the vicinity



of putrid matter : being suddenly changed positions, during which borses could not be from poor food to rich nourishing diet is a duly exercised. Bleed freely, if the horse very frequent cause. To effect a cure, the be in good condition, and lower his diet; horse should be bled copiously, from three use gentle exercise, and rub the part with to four quarts every eight honrs, until the flannel, or a soft brush: put on a stocking symptoms abate. Blister the head and at night dipt in spirits of turpentine, with a neck with Spanish flies mixed in spirits of little Goulard mixed. As the parts diminish turpentine: rake well, and administer a gradnally apply elastic rollers; but take care strong clyster, so as to excite eonsiderable not to impede the circulation. Give very discharge of excrement. Let the stables be mild purges and diuretics, observing to very cool, and be sprinkled with hot vine. keep the body gently open. If the comgar. If possible to get a bolus down, let plaint proceeds from debility, feed well, and the following be given : calomel two drachms, proportion the exercise to the animal's aloes six drachms, Castile soap two drachms, powers: never fatigue him. But friction mixed with honey. Allow very little drink. will on all occasions be found the safest, and In desperate cases sling the horse, and the most effectual remedy. The stable throw cold water over his head and neck. should be kept cool, and sweating should

Stones in the bladder have been removed be particularly avoided, since it would inby cutting, the same as is practised when crease the complaint. In some strong hathey form in the human bladder; but this bits rowels in the thighs may be advantais a very uncertain operation with cattle. geopsly made. When in the kidnies, stones may sometimes Thrush, or running-thrush, is a discharge be brought down by strong diuretics; but, from the sensible frog, which soon becomes when so situated, the animal generally deeply diseased, if the pressure, &c. which lingers a long time, and dies in great agony, occasioned the complaint be not removed. perfectly emaciated. Horses also have It chiefly takes place in narrow heels, es. stones occasionally in the intestines, gene- pecially where the frog has been cut away, rally in the cæcum, or blind gut. These and the heels left high. The running ought induce frequent colics, and as they grow to be dried, taking care to bring the frog occasion much pain: unfortunately we know into action by lowering the heels gradually, not of any means for their expulsion, or for and bearing upon it by means of a bunch of their dissolution. Marcs liave been known Use this wash frequently, as warm as to void great quanties of small stones, kke it can be borne: tar two ounces, oil of vipebbles.

triol six drachms. Gentle purges and mild Strangles rarely attack horses after com- diuretics will greatly aid towards a cure, if pleting their sixth year. This curious con- the habit be full, and the discharge consiplaint has been compared to various dis- derable. Horses that have bad standing eases incident to the human frame, however, are very subject to this complaint : in fact, not with perfect propriety. It usually be- dirty, damp stables give birth to an infinity gins with a fever, a cough, a running at the of diseases. nose, and a swelling of the sub-maxillary Ulcers invariably require soft dressings, glands. If anheeded those glands will sup- and that their edges should be kept low, purate, rendering the cure very tedious, and and free from callous or horny matter. Dress in some degree dangerous. Repel, if pos- often, and in case of a sinus be careful to sible, by copious bleedings, opening the have the vent downwards, so that the disbody, exciting perspiration, and by gentle charge may be free. We have not any diuretics. Give the following, night and complaint more various than this, nor one morning: nitre six drachms, cream of more difficult to heal. Indeed, in some tartar six drachms, emetic tartar a drachm instances that should not be attempted. and a half, warm gruel one quart. Often Cleanliness and mild treatment are indisgreat advantage is derived from blister- pensable. If fungus Aesh should arise, or ing the throat, and from rowels in the the edges become hard, touch with blue chest. Strangles are supposed to be infec- vitriol, or with lunar caustic, and make way tious; but we believe that point has never for the flesh to granulate, and for the skin been fully ascertained. It may, however, to collapse. When the habit is foul, topical be prudent to obviate any hazard of conta. applications alone will not answer; alteragion.

tives must be given, and the diet be such as Swelled legs usually proceed from weak- may check the acrimony. When the wound ness, and are very frequent after long indis. cicatrizes, apply a little lard very gently to



soften the skin; and if the flies are trouble-. bature of that useful animal: we shall conclude some, mix a very small quantity of tobacco this with strongly inculcating the expediency in the lard.

of avoiding communication with farriers, and Warbles, form under the saddle, in conse- in advising the introduction of regular medi. quence of unequal pressure. Perfect rest cal or surgical aid, whenever horses suffer unis the best remedy; bat a solution of sugar der such indisposition as cannot be remored of lead in vinegar will greatly promote dis- ' by the cheap and simple recourse to good persion. If the warbles become firin, (i. e. bedding, ease, moderate warmth, generous sit-fasts) blister them, or, if necessary, let diet suited to the case; and where there them be carefully extirpated by the knife. appear inflammatory symptoms, to bleed to

Wind-galls must be removed hy firm the amount of two, three, or even four pressure on a bolster that immediately sets quarts, substituting diluent beverage, such upon the swelling: when subdued the part as warm hay or linseed-tea, or scalded bran should be fired, to prevent recurrence of or malt, in lieu of more substantial food. the complaint. The sweating blister, made By such attention, and by forbearance from by steeping Spanish flies in vinegar, often violent or harsh measures, we have seen has a fine effect, as will any preparation that horses speedily recover from complaints causes speedy evaporation; but the com- that, under the farrier's auspices, would press is what we chiefly advise : for unless have induced long disease, and a long-bill. the parts be brought together by pressure,

There will be found in every town some the object will rarely be attained.

person capable of giving advice at least; Worms frequentiy cause extreme indis- and in most places some one of the profesposition before their existence is even sus

sion will be found willing to take charge of pected: many horses have, indeed, died in a sick horse. Formerly, indeed, sucli a reconsequence. It is proper therefore to state, quest would have appeared an'affront; but in that when a horse rubs his tail, and that a

these more enlightened times that appreyellow matter appears at times about the hension need not be entertained : indeed adus, worms may be suspected; especially many eminent surgeons pride themselves on if he eats heartily, yet has a staring coat,

a familiar acquaintance with veterinary suband does not thrive; or that he stands with jects. Perliaps we may be right in observhis hind legs straddling, has slight attacks ing, that the designation of horse-doctor beof gripes, and frequently turns his head to- ing banished from our country establishwards his belly, which commonly appears

ments, to make way for the more respectlarge and low. Bots may often be found able title of doctor of horse, has not a lit. among the dung; these are very tenacious tle contributed towards the present libe.! of life, and resist most of our strong vermi- rality of sentiment to this useful profesfuges. Common salt is one of the most

sion, powerful remedies; bnt subjects the horse To such readers as may be desirous of to considerable inquietude. The root of obtaining a full acquaintance with the subthe male fern, levigated, and given fresh, is ject, we recommend personal application híghly extolled, as is soot also. But we be- to Mr. Coleman, and that they subscribe to lieve that strong doses of calomel and gam

the college fund. By such means they will boge will be found the most efficient, pro.

derive the utmost advantage from the libevided they be persevered in, so as to scour

rality and abilities of that gentleman, and for a number of days, or even perhaps a

gradually become competent to the treatfortnight, in succession; but this must ment of the most ordinary class of accidents greatly depend on the condition and con- and distempers. Mr. Coleman's work will stitution of the horse. The teretes, or long also be found a cheap and highly useful round worms, are commonly white, about member of the library. ten inches in length, and require very strong

FASCIÆ, in astronomy, certain parts on purges to dislodge them. The ascarides, Jupiter's body resembling belts or swathes. which are very small worms, scarcely lon- They are more lucid than the rest of that ger than a common needie, are not so bad planet, and are terminated by parallel lines, as the preceding in their effect on the in- sometimes broader and sometimes narrower. testines, but give considerable uneasiness. M. Huygens observed a fascia in Mars We recommend the continued purge, as

much broader than those of Jupiter, and affording the best prospect of expulsion. possessing the middle part of his disk, but Under the article Equus the reader will

very obscure. And what appertains more particularly to the FASCINES, in fortification, faggots of

small wood of about 'a foot diameter, and thousand of pilasters, all equal in altitude, six feet long, bound in the middle and at distance, and degree of light and shade. . both ends. They are used ip raising bat. In a moment they lost half their height, teries, making chandeleers, in filling up the and bent into arcades, like Roman aquemoat to facilitate the passage to the wall, ducts. A long cornice was next formed on in binding the ramparts where the earth is the top, and above it rose castles innumerbad, and in making parapets of trenches to able, all perfectly alike. These soon split screen the men.

into towers, which were shortly after lost in FASCIOLA, in natural history, gourd- colonnades, then windows, and at last ended worm, a gerus of the Vermes Intestina class in pines, cypresses, and other trees, even and order. Body flattish, with an aperture and similar. This is the fata morgana, or pore at the head, and generally another which for twenty-six years I had thought a at a distance beneath, seldom a single one. mere fable.” To produce this pleasing deAbout fifty species have been described. ception, many citcumstances must concur They are divided into different sections, which are not known to exist, at least to viz. those infesting mammalia, birds, rep- the same extent, in any other situation. tiles, fish, and worms : among the first is F. The spectator must stand with his back to hepatica, which is found in the liver of the east, in some elevated place behind the sheep, and is often vomited in brooks, and city, that he may command a view of the is generally found fixed by a pore at the whole bay; beyond which the mountains of extremity, and another in the middle of the Messina rise like a wall, and darken the abdomen, and occasions dropsy, and the back-ground of the picture. The winds disorder which is called the rot. The body Piust be hushed, the surface quite smooth, of this animal is about an inch long, broader and the tide at its height. All these events on the fore-part, and terminated by a tube; coinciding, as soon as the sun surmounts the back marked with about eight longitu- the eastern hills bebind Reggio, and rises dinal furrows in two series.

high enough to form an angle of forty.five FAT, an oleaginous or butyraceous mat- degrees on the water before the city, every ter, secreted from the blood, and filling up object existing or moving at Reggio will be - the eavity of the adipose cells. See ANA repeated a thousand-fold, as if in a looking

glass composed of facets or planes inclined FATA morgana, a very remarkable aerial to each other. Each image will pass rapidly ·phenomenon, which is sometimes observed off in succession, as the day advances, and from the harbour of Messina and adjacent the stream appears to carry dowo the face places, at a certain height in the atmos- upon which it appeared. Thus the parts of phere. The name, which signifies the fairy this moving picture will vanish in the twink. morgana, is derived from an opinion of the ling of an eye. Sometimes the air is at the superstitious Sicilians, that the whole spec- same moment so loaded with vapours, and tacle is produced by fairies, or such-like undisturbed by winds, as to reflect objects visionary invisible beipgs. The populace in a kind of aerial screen, rising about are delighted whenever it appears, and run thirty feet above the level of the sea. In about the streets shouting for joy, calling cloudy heavy weather they are drawn on every body out to partake of the glorious the surface of the water, bordered with sight. This singnlar meteor has been de- fine prismatic colours. scribed by various authors; but the first Father Antonio Menasi published an ex. who mentioned it with any degree of pre. press treatise at Rome, in 1773, entitled cision was father Angelucci, whose account “ Dissertazione prima sopra un fenomeno is thus quoted by Mr. Swinburne in his volgaremente detto Fata Morgana,” of tour through Sicily: “On the 15th of Au- which a short abridgement is given in gust, 1643, as I stood at my window I was Nicholson's Journal, 4to. vol. i. p. 225, surprised with a most wonderful delectable with a large engraving. This author does vision; the sea that washes the Sicilian not appear to have philosophized successshore swelled up, and became for ten miles fully upon the appearances, wbich are, inin length like a chain of dark mountains ; deed, very far from having been at all exwhile the waters near our Calabrian coast plained. The reader, who may wish to congrew quite smooth, and in an instant ap- sider the facts, is referred to Huygens, " De peared as one clear polished mirror reclin- Coromis et Parhelus;" Priestley's "Optics for ing against the ridge. On this glass was Atmospheric Phenomena ;" Huddart in the depicted, in chiaro-scuro, a string of several Phil. Trans, 1797 ; Vince, in the same work


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for 1799; and Wollaston for '1800; which They are a very costly article, brought to
three last are in the journal last quoted. us from Africa, and particularly the coast of
The fata morgana seems to depend upon Barbary. See Down.
the general principles of looming, wlich FEATHER edged, among carpenters, an
Wollaston bas very successfully displayed, appellation given to planks or boards, which
together with the reflection from particles have one side thicker than the other.
of water floating in the air. These parti-
cles doubtless assume prismatic figures called amaranth. Scé AMARANTHUS.

FEATHER, prince's, a plant otherwise by coagulation; and it is, perhaps, a mis.

FECES. The excrementitious matter take to suppose them to be spherical, even at their primary condensation, in the fluid of animals

, evacnated per anum, consists of

all that food which cannot be employed for state of minute floating particles. FATHOM, a long measure containing six purposes of nutrition, considerably altered,

at least in part, and mixed or united with feet, chiefly used at sea for measuring, the length of cables and cordage.

various bodies employed during digestion FEATHER, in physiology, a general

to separate the useless part of the food name for the covering of birds; it being nation of these matters has long been wish

from the nutritious. An accurate examicommon to all the animals of this class to have their whole body, or at least the ed for by physiologists, as likely to throw

much new light on the process of digestion; greatest part of it, covered with feathers or plumage.

but it must be admitted that our knowledge There are two sorts of feathers found on

on this subject is still very imperfect. Some

of the older chemists have turned their at. birds, viz. the strong and hard kind, called quills, found in the wings and tail ; and the tention to the excrements of animals ; . (Van

Helmont's Custos Errans, sect. 6; Opera other plumage, or soft feathers, serving for the defence and ornament of the whole

Helmont, p. 247; Neumanu's Works, body. All birds, so far as yet known, moult p. 585.) but no discovery of importance

rewarded them for their disagreeable lathe feathers of their whole body yearly, The feathers of birds make a considerable bour. Vauquelin has ascertained some cu

rious facts respecting the excrementitious article of commerce, particularly those of

matter of fowls; and in the summer of the ostrich, beron, swan, peacock, guose, 1806, a laborious set of experiments on huaud other poultry; for plumes, ornaments of the head, filling of beds, and writing dertaken, as he informs us, chiefly with a

man feces was published by Berzelius, unpens. There are scarcely any birds but what

view to elucidate the function of digestion. bed-feathers may be procured from, par. (Gehlen's Jour. VI. 509). About two ticularly those of the domestic kind; yet swans, geese, and ducks, are those that far years before, Thaer and Einhof had pub

lished a similar, set of experiments on the nish most, and the best. Geese are plucked three times a year, towards the end of May,

excrements of cattle, made chiefly to disabout Midsummer, and at the latter end of cover, if possible, how they act so power. Angust; but chiefly when the feathers are

ful as manure. (Ibid III. 276). ripe, that is, when they are perceived to

The human feces, according to the expefall off of themselves. The feathers of dead riments of Berzelius, were found to contain birds are in the least esteem, upon account

Water .....

....73.3 of the blood imbibed by the quill, which

Vegetable and animal remains ..... 7.0 putrifying, communicates an offensive smell


0.9 to the feather, and takes some time to


........... 0.9 evaporate ; for which reason live birds

Peculiar extractive matter.......... 2.7 should not be stripped till their feathers


1.2 are ripe. They are imported in this country from Poland and Germany. They are

Slimy matter, consisting of resin divided in white, half grey, and grey, and

of bile, peculiar animal mat. 14.0 valued accordingly. The best feathers

ter, and insoluble residue should be white, downy, void of large

100.0 stems, fresh, and sweet. Care should be taken that no sand be intermixed, which is To Vauquelin we are indebted for an frequently practised to encrease the weight. analysis of the fixed parts of the excrements Ostrich feathers are dyed and dressed by of fowls, and a comparison of them with the the feather-dressers, to serve as ornaments. fixed parts of the food; from which some

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