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after the introduction of that office, they continued to appoint, in the usual manner, a prior of the anziani, with the same authority and pre-eminence before described. The law of 1330 says, 1330. “ And the anziani and gonfalonier of justice, after they shall be congregated in their palace, and shall have taken their usual oaths, ought to constitute one prior from among themselves, for such time as they please, to whom all the others ought to obey, under the penalty, &c. So that each of the anziani and gonfaloniers of justice shall be prior, according to the proportion of time they shall be in office."

The gonfalonier, by the duty of his office, was bound to send out, with the consent and participation of the anziani, the standard of justice, to assemble together the armed militia, and go out to do execution against any of the grandees (magnati); which gonfalonier of justice, says the law, shall be bound by the obligation of an oath, and under the penalty of five hundred pounds, upon the cominission of any homicide, to draw forth the standard of justice, and, together with the captain of the people, to go to the house of the grandee committing such homicide, or causing it to be committed, and to cause bis goods to be destroyed, and not to suffer the said standard to repose, until all the property of such delinquent shall be totally destroyed and laid waste, both in the city and the country; and to cause the bell of the people to be rung, if to the lords, the anziani and the gonfalonier of justice, it shall seem expedient, or the major part of them; and all the shops, stores, and warehouses, shall be shut immediately upon the commission of such homicide, and shall not be opened till execution shall be done as aforesaid. But in all other offences perpetrated


againit the person of any popular man by any grandee, it shall be in the discretion of the said lords, the anziani and the gonfalonier of justice, or the major part of them, to draw out the said itandard or not. Such a rigorous kind of justice, as it regarded the grandees,

who gave themselves a licence to commit excessive disorders against the popular men, was thought to be the best adapted to their infolence. And to undeceive thofe who may imagine that in Pistoia, at that time, the title of grandees was a respectable title, and distinctive of the true nobility of the place, it is necessary to have recourse to the usual municipal laws, which fay, that the magnati (grandees) were all those, of whatever condition, who, abandoned to an ill life, offended the popular men, and held the city and country in inquietude; and for this reason were called Magnates, became separated from all public affairs, and excluded entirely from all magistracies

and offices, and subjected to penalties still more 1330. rigorous. By the laws of the years 1330 and 1344. 1344, to be declared a grandee was rather an in

famy than an honour. The words of the law are these; viz. “ But if it shall happen that men of any race, or noble house, or any one of them from such a noble house or stock, born of the male line, or any others, live wickedly and flagitioufly against the people, hurt the popular men, and terrify and disturb the peaceful state of the people, or shall endeavour to do so by himself or by others, and this Ahall be made known by public fame to the captain of the people, and the anziani and gonfalonier of justice for the time being, these magistrates, ac the petition of any of the people of Pistoia, thall be obliged to propose to the council of the people, that such a noble house or progeny, such a man or number of men, thus defamed, be written and



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placed in the number of grandees, and as such be
accounted.”* And as the Pistoians were driven
to great perplexities to maintain, in peace and
quiet, their popular government, and in order to
punish severely all those who should take the li-
cence to disturb the pacific state of their city, they
proclaimed this penalty on all delinquents, by a
law of the year 1418, rubric 9.

" But if it shall 1418
happen that any one of any noble house or race,
or any one of any other condition, shall live wick-
edly and profligately, or shall commit, or attempt
to commit, any such crime or misdemeanor against
the people, and the pacific state of the people of
the city of Pistoia, they shall be recorded in the
number of grandees, and accounted as such." To
such extremès of caprice and violence, destructive
of all liberty and safety, are such governments na-
turally and necessarily reduced.

The city of Pistoia had also in its regimen a Syndic. This was an officer who was called an Elder, or Syndic General, who must be forty years of age, and live forty miles from the city: His duty was to look over the accounts of the podefta, the captain of the people, the anziani; and all the magistrates and officers of the city and its district, when they resigned or were dismissed

* Scribantur et ponantur in numero magnatum et poten-
tum, et pro magnatibus et potentibus habeantur. Fioraa
vanti, p: 22.

+ The devices on the standards, seals, and coins of the re-
public, as well as all other antiquities, are not within the
design of this effay ; but there was on one of their standards
an idea that contained the truest emblem of their govern.
mrent-a lamb pursued by a wolf, with the motto, Pace, rie
chezza, superbía; guerra, poverta, umilta : Peace, riches, and
pride ; war, poverty, and humility. If the wolf is construed
to fignify the majority, and the lamb the minority, as there
was neither a shepherd nor shepherd's dog to interpose between
them, the resemblance is perfect. -



from their charges. There were, moreover, according to the law of 1402, judges of appeals in all caules, civil, criminal, and mixed ; and to them belonged the cognizance of all disputes and regulations concerning provisions : they also fuperintended the sumptuary laws, against all Juxurious excelles in the dress and ornaments of the ladies; and they entertained a number of notaries, and a numerous family and court, for the execution of all services appertaining to their offices.

The city of Pistoia being in this state of go1355. vernment, in 1355 the emperor Charles the

Fourth arrived at Pisa, and the citizens appeared before his Imperial majesty, and gave him the demonstrations of vaffalage and obedience due to the sovereignty which he held over their city. The emperor confirmed to them all the privi. leges granted by his august predeceffors ; and desirous of fixing the reputation and reverence for the dignity of the gonfaloniers of justice, he enlarged their authority, as well as that of the anziani; and wishing to make the Pistoians enjoy, quietly, some species of liberty, he gave thein, by a diploma of the 26th of May, the faculty of living and governing themselves, according to their laws and laudable customs, in a free, popular state, under the regency of the anziani and the gonfaloniers of justice, declaring both the anziani and the gonfaloniers, for the affairs of Pistoia and its dominion, his vicars, and vicars of the empire, for the whole term of his own life. " The anziani,” says che diploma, “ and the gonfalonier of justice of the people, and commons of Pistoia, who now are, and for the time to come shall be, in office, and no others, we conititute our general and irrevocable vicars, for the whole term of our life, with che full adıninistration in the city, country, and




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dittrict of Pistoia, and in all its lands, castles, and
places.” Pistoia maintained itself in this state of
a republic as long as Charles the Fourth lived ;
and, taking advantage of the distance and negli-
gence of his succeffors, they persevered in the
fame government until the year 1401, when the 1401.
emperor Robert, by his charter, declared the gon-
falonier and priors of the arts of the city of Flo-
rence his vicars, and vicars of the empire, and
gave them the government of Arezzo, Volterra,
Pistoia, and the other places of Tuscany. But in
the interval between these periods, the Pistoians
were never quiet ; for, governing themselves in
what they called a free popular state, they were
for reducing all to a level, and thought, or pre-
tended, to make all the citizens enjoy equally the
public honours and offices of their city. In this
ftate of things, the rebellion of Sambuca was fo-
mented by some of the citizens of Pistoia, at the
head of whom was Riccardo Cancellieri, who had Cancel-
made himself master of several castles in the moun- lieri.
tains; from whence he made inroads on the whole
territory of Pistoia, and kept the inhabitants in
continual alarms, with the delign of delivering his
country into the hands of John Galeazzo Visconti,
duke of Milan. Upon this occasion the imperial
vicars in Florence fent, for the protection of Pir.
toia, two thousand infantry, some cavalry, and
three commissaries, who, calling together the ge-
neral council, imposed upon the counsellors the
necessity of doing whatever was required of them,
that they might not incur still greater miseries. In
the first place, they required that every resolution
and statute of liberty, and every condition, article,
and confederation, which the city had, should be
annulled ; and then, by another resolution, that
they should subject themselves to the people of



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