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after the introduction of that office, they continued to appoint, in the usual manner, a prior of the anziani, with the same authority and pre-eminence before described. The law of 1330 says, 1330. “ And the anziani and gonfalonier of justice, after they shall be congregated in their palace, and shall have taken their usual oaths, ought to constitute one prior from among themselves, for such time as they please, to whom all the others ought to obey, under the penalty, &c. So that each of the anziani and gonfaloniers of justice shall be prior, according to the proportion of time they shall be in office."
The gonfalonier, by the duty of his office, was bound to send out, with the consent and participation of the anziani, the standard of justice, to assemble together the armed militia, and go out to do execution against any of the grandees (magnati); which gonfalonier of justice, says the law, shall be bound by the obligation of an oath, and under the penalty of five hundred pounds, upon the cominission of any homicide, to draw forth the standard of justice, and, together with the captain of the people, to go to the house of the grandee committing such homicide, or causing it to be committed, and to cause bis goods to be destroyed, and not to suffer the said standard to repose, until all the property of such delinquent shall be totally destroyed and laid waste, both in the city and the country; and to cause the bell of the people to be rung, if to the lords, the anziani and the gonfalonier of justice, it shall seem expedient, or the major part of them; and all the shops, stores, and warehouses, shall be shut immediately upon the commission of such homicide, and shall not be opened till execution shall be done as aforesaid. But in all other offences perpetrated
againit the person of any popular man by any grandee, it shall be in the discretion of the said lords, the anziani and the gonfalonier of justice, or the major part of them, to draw out the said itandard or not. Such a rigorous kind of justice, as it regarded the grandees,
who gave themselves a licence to commit excessive disorders against the popular men, was thought to be the best adapted to their infolence. And to undeceive thofe who may imagine that in Pistoia, at that time, the title of grandees was a respectable title, and distinctive of the true nobility of the place, it is necessary to have recourse to the usual municipal laws, which fay, that the magnati (grandees) were all those, of whatever condition, who, abandoned to an ill life, offended the popular men, and held the city and country in inquietude; and for this reason were called Magnates, became separated from all public affairs, and excluded entirely from all magistracies
and offices, and subjected to penalties still more 1330. rigorous. By the laws of the years 1330 and 1344. 1344, to be declared a grandee was rather an in
famy than an honour. The words of the law are these; viz. “ But if it shall happen that men of any race, or noble house, or any one of them from such a noble house or stock, born of the male line, or any others, live wickedly and flagitioufly against the people, hurt the popular men, and terrify and disturb the peaceful state of the people, or shall endeavour to do so by himself or by others, and this Ahall be made known by public fame to the captain of the people, and the anziani and gonfalonier of justice for the time being, these magistrates, ac the petition of any of the people of Pistoia, thall be obliged to propose to the council of the people, that such a noble house or progeny, such a man or number of men, thus defamed, be written and
placed in the number of grandees, and as such be
" But if it shall 1418
The city of Pistoia had also in its regimen a Syndic. This was an officer who was called an Elder, or Syndic General, who must be forty years of age, and live forty miles from the city: His duty was to look over the accounts of the podefta, the captain of the people, the anziani; and all the magistrates and officers of the city and its district, when they resigned or were dismissed
* Scribantur et ponantur in numero magnatum et poten-
+ The devices on the standards, seals, and coins of the re-
from their charges. There were, moreover, according to the law of 1402, judges of appeals in all caules, civil, criminal, and mixed ; and to them belonged the cognizance of all disputes and regulations concerning provisions : they also fuperintended the sumptuary laws, against all Juxurious excelles in the dress and ornaments of the ladies; and they entertained a number of notaries, and a numerous family and court, for the execution of all services appertaining to their offices.
The city of Pistoia being in this state of go1355. vernment, in 1355 the emperor Charles the
Fourth arrived at Pisa, and the citizens appeared before his Imperial majesty, and gave him the demonstrations of vaffalage and obedience due to the sovereignty which he held over their city. The emperor confirmed to them all the privi. leges granted by his august predeceffors ; and desirous of fixing the reputation and reverence for the dignity of the gonfaloniers of justice, he enlarged their authority, as well as that of the anziani; and wishing to make the Pistoians enjoy, quietly, some species of liberty, he gave thein, by a diploma of the 26th of May, the faculty of living and governing themselves, according to their laws and laudable customs, in a free, popular state, under the regency of the anziani and the gonfaloniers of justice, declaring both the anziani and the gonfaloniers, for the affairs of Pistoia and its dominion, his vicars, and vicars of the empire, for the whole term of his own life. " The anziani,” says che diploma, “ and the gonfalonier of justice of the people, and commons of Pistoia, who now are, and for the time to come shall be, in office, and no others, we conititute our general and irrevocable vicars, for the whole term of our life, with che full adıninistration in the city, country, and
dittrict of Pistoia, and in all its lands, castles, and