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a^um nearly equal to all the expences of freight and commission, risque or insurance, &c. necessarily charged by the merchant. And it is the same with every other mechanic art. Hence it is, that artisans generally live better and more easily in America than in Europe ; and such as are good economists make a comfortable provision forage, and for their children— Such may, therefore, remove with advantage to Ame* rica
In the old long settled country of Europe, all arts, trades, professions, farms, Sec'are so full, that it is difficult for a poor man who has children to place them where thev may gain, or learn to gam, a decent livelihood. The artisans, who fear creating future rivals in business refuse to take apprentices, but upon conditions of money, maintenance, or the like; which the. parents are unable to comply with. Hence the youth 'are dragged up in ignorance of every gainful art, and. obliged to become soldiers; or servants or thieves, for a subsistence. In America', the rapid increase of inha-' bitants takes away that fear of rivalship, and artisans willingly receive apprentices from the hope of profit by' their labour, during the remainder of the time stipula-' ted, after they shall be instructed. Hence it is easy for families to get their children instructed; for the artisans are so desirious of apprentices that many of them will even give money to the parents, to have boys from ten to fifteen years of ai;e bound apprentice to them, till the age of twenty one; and many poor parents have by that means, on their arrival in the country, raised money enough to buy tand sufficient to establish themselves, and to subsist tie rest of their family by jrgriculture. t hese contracts for apprentices are made before a magistrate, who regulates the r.gieemeritaccording to reason and justice; anU having in view the fbrmation of a future useful citizen, obliges the master Wengage.by a written indenture, not »,ily that, during t.ne.i:in>e of service stipulated, the apprentice shall be. duly provided with meat, chink,,.apparel, vashing) and' lodging, and at the expiration with a complete new «ik of clothes, but also that he shall be taught to read, write and cast accounts; and that he shall be well instructed in the art or professsicn of his master, or some other, by which he may afterwards gain a livelihood, and be able in his turn to raise a family. A copy of this indenture is given to the apprentice or to his friends, and the magistrate keeps a record of it, to which recourse may be had, incase of failure by the master in any point of performance. This desire among the masters to have mare hands employed in working for them, induces them to pay the passages of young persons, of both sexes, who, on their arrival, agree to serve them one, two, three or four years: those who have already learned a trader agreeing for a shorter term,.in proportion to their skill, and the consequent immediate value of their service^ and those who have none, agreeing for a longer term, in consideration of being taught an art their poverty. would not permit them to acquire in their own.country.
The almost general mediocrity of fortune that prevails in America, obliging its people to follow some bu» siness for subsistence, those vices that arise usuafly from idleness, are in a great measure prevented. Industry and constant employment are great preservatives ef the morals and virtue of a nation. Hence bad examples to youth are more rare in America, which must be a comfortable consideration to parents. To this may be truly added, that serious religion, under its various denominations, is not only tolerated, but respected and, practised. Atheism is unknown there'; infidelity rare and secret; so that persons may live to a great age in that country without having their piety shocked by meeting with either an atheist or an infidel. Ami the Divine Being seems to have maniiested his approbation of the mutual fbrbearanne and kindness with which the differe..t sects treat each other, by the remarkable prosperity with which he has been.pleaseti to •favour the whole country.
Filial Speech of Dr. Franklin in the • Federal Convention.*
I confess that I do not entirely approve of this constitution at present: but, sir, I am not sure I shall never approve it; for having lived long, I . have experienced many instances of being obliged, by fcetter information, or further consideration, to change opinions, even on important subjecti., which I once thought right, but found to be othevwise. It is, therefore, that the older I grow, the more apt I am to doubt my own judgment, and to pay more respect to the judgment of others. Most men, indeed, As well as most sects of religion, think themselves in possession of all truth, and that whenever others differ from them, it is so far error. Steel, a protestasit, in a dedication, tells the pope, that "the only difference between our two churches, in iheir opinion of the certainty of their doctrines, is, the Romish church is infallible, and thechurch ef England never in the wrong." But, tiro' anany private persons think almost as highly of their own infallibility as of that of their sect, few expressit so natural. ly as a certain French lady, who, in a little dispute with her sister, said, I don't know how it happens, sister, but 1 meet with nobody but myself that is always in the right. IhCy a que met qui a toujours raison. hi these sentiments, sir, I agree to this constitution, with all its faults, if they were such; because I think a general government necessary for us, and there is no form oTgovernment, but what may be a blessing, if v. ell administered; and I believe farther, that this is likely to be veil administesed for a course of years, and can only and in despotism, as other forms have done before it, r
* Our reason for ascribing this speech to Dr. Franklin, are., its internal evidence, and its having appeared viith hit tiame, during his life-time, uncontradicted, in en rfnieii. cun periodical publication. X
'when the people shall become so corrupted as to need despotic government being incapable of any other. I doubt too, whether any other convention we can obtain, may be able to make a better constitution. For when . you assemble a number of men, to have the advantage of their jomt wisdom, you assemble with those men, alt their prejudices, tl.eir passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish views. From euth an assembly, can a perfect pioduction be expected? It therefore astonishes me, sir, to find this system approaching so near to perfection as it does; and I think it will establish our enemies, who are waiting with confidence. to hear that our councils are confounded, like those of the builders of Babylon; and that our states are on the point of separation, only to meet hereafter for the purpose of cutting each other's throats.
Thus I consent, sir, to this constitution, because I expect no better, and because I am not sure that this is not the best. The opinions I have had of its errors, I sacrifice to the public good. I have never whispered a syllable of them abroad. Within these walls they were born; arid here they shall die. If every one of us, in returning to our constituents, were to report the objections he has h'ad to it, and endeavor to gain partiBans in support of them, we might prevent its being generally received, and thereby lose all the salutary effects and great advantages resulting naturally in our favor among foreign nations, as well as among ourselves, from our real or apparent unanimity. Much of the strength or efficiency of any government, in procuring and securing happiness to the people, depends on opinion; on the general opinion of the goodness of that government as well as of the wisdom and integrity of its governors.
I hope, therefore, that for our own sakes as a part of the people, and for the sake of our posterity, we shall act. heartily and unanimously in recommending this constitution, wherever our influence may extend, and. inrn our future thoughts and endeavors to the mean* of having it well administered.
On the whole, sir, I cannot help expressing a wish, that every member of the convention, who may stilt have objections, would with me on this occasion, doubt a little of his own infallibility, and making manifest our unanimity, put his name to this instrument.
[The motion was then made for adding the last formula, viz.
Done in Convention, by the unanimous con ent, &c. which was agreed to, and added accordingl) ,!
Sketch of an English School.
For the consideration of the Trustees of the Philadelphia Academy.
It is expected that every scholar to be admitted mto this school, be at least able to pronounce and diyide the syllables in reading, and to write a legible hand. None to be received that are under years
FIRST, OB LOWER CLASS.
Let the first class learn the English Grammar rules, and at the same time, let particular care be taken to improve them in orthography. Perhaps the latter is best done by pairing the scholars; two of those nearest equal in their spelling to be put together. Let these strive for victory; each propounding ten words every day to the other to be spelled. He that spells truly. most of the other's words, is victor for that dav ; he that is victor most days in a month, to obtain a prize, a pretty neat book of some kind, useful in their future studies. This method fixes the attention of Children. exiremely to the orthography of words, and make* them good spcll.'rs very early. It is a. shame foi'