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mere man of quality, who on that account wants to live upon the public by some office .or salary, will be despised and disregarded. The husbandman is in honour there, and even the mechanic, because their employments are useful. The people have a saying, that God Almighty is himself a mechanic, the greatest in the universe i. and he is respected and admired more. for the variety, ingenuity, and utility of his handiworks, than for the antiquity of his family. They are pleased with an observation of a nesiro, and frequently mention it, "that Boccarorra (meaning the white man) make de black man workee, make de horse workee, make de ex workee, make ebery ting workee ; only de hog. He, de hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walkabout, he go to sleep when he please, he libb like a gentlemab." According to these opinions of the Americans, one of them would think himself more obliged to a genealogist who could prove for him that his ancestors and relations for ten generations had been ploughmen, smiths,. carpenters, turners, weavers, tanners, or even shoemakers, and consequently that they were useful members ef society; than if he could prove that they were gen-. tlpmen, doing nothing of value, but living idly on the. labor of others, mere frugca consumere nctiy* and otherwise good for nothing, till by their death their estates^. like the carcase of the negro's gentleman-hog, come to be cut uft.
With regard to encouragement for strangers from ^government, they are really only what are derived from good laws and liberty. Strangers are welcome because there is room enough for them all, and therefore the.' old inhabitants are not jealous of them; the laws pro. tect them sufficiently, so they have no need of the. pkfc. I ronage of great men; and every one. will enjoy securely the profits of his industry. But if he does not bring ai!j fortune with him, he must work and be industrious to
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Kve. One'or two years residence giv.e him all the., rights of a citizen; but the government doss not at\ present, whatever it may have done hi former times, hire people to become settlers, by paying their passages,, giving landv negroes, utensils, stock or any other. kind of emolument whatsoever. In^ short, America is the land of labour, and by no means what the English call: Lubbcvland, and the French Pays de Cocagne, where the streets.are said to be paved, with half.peck loaves, the houses tiled with pancakes, and where the fowls fly about ready roasted, crying, Come eat me I.
Who then are the kind of persons to whom an emigration to Americscwould bo advantageous? And what are the advantages they may reasonably expect ?.
Land being cheap in that country, from the vast forests still void of inhabitants, and not likely to be occupied in an age to come, insomuch that the property of an hundred, acres of fertile soil full of wood may be obtained near the fiontiers, in many places, fot eight or ten guineas; hearty young labouring men, who understand the. husbandry of corn and cattle, which is neatly' the same in that country, as in Europe, may easily establish themselves there. A little money saved of the good wages they receive there while they work for othtrs, enables them to buy the land and begin their plantation, in which they are assisted by the good will of' their neighbors, and some credit.. Multitudes of poor people from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Germany,, have by this means in a few years become. wealthy farmers, who in their own countries, where all the lands are fully occupied and the wages of labour low, could never have emerged from the mean condition wherein, they were born..
h'om the salubrity of the air, the healthiness of the alimate, the plenty of good provisions, and the encouragement of'early marriages, by the certainty of subsistence in cultivating the earth, the increase of inhabitants by natural generation is very rapid in America, and becomes still more so by theaccession of strangers,;
hence there is a continual demand for more artisans ofe all the necessary and useful kinds, to supply those cuk tivators of the earth with houses, and with furnitureand utensils of the grosser sorts, which cannot so welt be brought from Europe.. Tolerably good workmen in any of those mechanic arts, arc sure to find employ, and to be welT paid for their work,. there being no restraints preventing strangers from exercising any art they understand, nor any permission necessary. If they.are. poor, they begin first as servants or journeymen; and if they are sober, industrious and frugal, they soon become masters, establish themselves in business, marry, raise families, and become respectable citizens..
Also, persons of moderate fortues and capitals, who having a number of children to provide for, are desirous of bringing them up to industry, and to secure estates for their posterity, have opportunities of doing it in America, which Europe does not afford. There they may be taught and practise profitable mechanic arts, 'without incurring disgrace on that account; but on the contrary, acquiring. respect by such abilities. There small capitals laid out in lands,, which daily become more valuable by the increase of. people, afford a solid prospect of ample fortunes thereafter for those children. Tht writer of this has known several instances of large tracts of land, bought on what was then the frontier or. Pennsylvania, for ten pounds per hundred acres, which after twenty years, .when. the settlements had been extended far beyond them, sold readily, without any im? provemtnt made upon them, for three pounds per acre» . The acre in America is the same with the English acre, or the acre of Normandy.
Those who desire to understand the state of govern- . ment in America, would do well to read the constitutions ef the several states, and the articles of confederation that bind the whole together for general purpof ats under the direction of one assembly, called the Con> Ji «sb, -jfthestt cewiuu^ous hare been printed, by »rdc r.
of Congress, in America; two editions of them have also been printed in London; and a good translation of theminto French, has lately been published at Paris.
Several ofthe princes of Europe having of late, from an opinion of advantage to arise by producing all commodities and manufactures within their own dominion* so as to diminish or render useless their importations, have endeavoured to entice workmen from other countries, by high salaries, privileges, &c. Many persons pretending to be skilled in.various great manufactures", imagining that America must be in want of them, and that the congress would probably be disposed, to imitate the princes above mentioned, have proposed to go over, on condition of having their passages paid, lands given, salaries appointed, exclusive privileges for terrn*. of years, &c. Such persons, on reading the articles of confederation, will find that the Congress have no power committed to them, or money put into' their hands for such purposes; and that if any encouragement ie.. given, it must be by the government of some parlicu-. lar state. This, however, has rarely been done in America; and when it has been done, it has rarely succeeded, so as to establish a manufacture which the country was not yet so ripe for as to encourage private per.* sons to set it up; labour being generally too dear there*.. and hands difficult to be kept together,every one desir* ing to be a master,atnd the cheapness of land inclining "many to leave trades for agriculture. Some indeed have met with success, and are carried on to advantage ; but they are generally such as require only a few hands, or wherein great part ofthe work is performed by machines. Goods that are bulky, and of so small value as not well to bear the expenee of freight, may often be made cheaper in the country, than they can be imported, and the manufacture of such goods wi 11 b profitable wherever there is sufficient demand. The farmers in America produce'indeed a good deal of wool and flax; and none is exported, it is all worked up; but it is ia the way of domestic manufacture,. lor the
Use of the family. The buying up quantities of wool and flax, with the design to employ spinners, weavers, kc. and form great establishments, producing quantities of linen and woollen goods for sale, has been severaf times attempted in different provinces; but those projects have generally failed, goods of equal value being imported cheaper. And when the governments have been solicited to support such schemes by encouragements in money, or by imposing duties on importation of such goods, it has been generally refused on this principle, that if the country is ripe for the manu* facture, it may be carried on by private persons to advantage ; and if not, it is a folly to think of forcing nature. Great establishments of manufacture, require pleat numbers of poor to do the work for small wages; those poor are to be found m Europe, but will not be fbund in America, till the lands are all taken up and cultivated) and the excess of people who cannot get lard want employment. The manufacture of silk, they say, is natural in France, as that of cloth in England, because each country produces in plenty the first material: but if England will have a manufacture of silk as 'well as that of cloth, and France of cloth as well asthat •f silk, these unnatural operations must be supported by mutual prohibitions, or high duties on the importation of each other's goods; by which means the workmen are enabled to tax the home consumer by greater prices, while the higher wages they receive makes them neither happier nor richer, since they only drink more and work less. Therefore the governments of America do nothing to encourage such projects. The people, by this means, are not imposed on, either by the merchant or mechanic: if the merchant demands too much profit on imported shoes, they buy of the shoe-maker: and if he asks too high a price, they take them of the merchant ; thus the two professions are checks on each. other. The shee.maker, however, has, on the whole, a considerable profit upon his labour in America, beyond wha^ he had in Europe, as he can.add to his pi ice.