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« sieve which had been employed to strain them out of the wine. In less than three hours two of them began by degrees to' recover life.. They commenced by some convulsive motions in the thighs, and at length/ fhey raised themselves upon their legs, wiped their' eyes with their fore.feet, beat and brushed their wings. with their hind.feet, and soon after began to fly. finding' themselves in Old England. without kno .ihg how they came thither. The third continued lifeless umil sunset? when, losing all hopes of him', he was thrown away.
I wish it were possible, from this instance, to inventf a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a. manner that they might be recalled to life at any peviodr however distant; for, having a very ardent desire to' see and observe the state of America an hundred years hence, I should prefer to an ordinary death. the being immersed in a cask of Madeira wine, with a few friends?. until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar 'warmth of my dear country 1 But since, in all probability, we live in an age too early, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection, I must, for the present, content myself with the treat, which you are so kind as to promise. Hie, of the resurrection of a fowl or a' turkey-cock.
Precautions to be used by those who are about
to. undertake a Sea Voyage.
When you intend to undertake a long voyage, nov thing is better than to keep. it a secret till the moment •f your departure. Without this, you will be continually interrupted and tormented by visits from friends and acquaintances, who not only make you. lose your valuable time,. but make you forget a thousand things. which you wish to remember; so that when you arc embarked, and fairly at sea, you recollect, with mucrV iHeasincss, affairs which you have not terminated* ae
counts that yon hare not setil d, and a number of thlfigir W^ich you proposed to entry with you. and which you. find the want of every tno 'eiit. Would it not be attended with the best consequences to reform such a custom. and to suffer a traveller, without deranging him, to make his preparations in quietness, to set apart a few days, when th'.se are finish (I, to take leave of his friends and to receive their good wishes for his happy return? It is not always in one's power to choose a captain; though great part of the pleasure and happiness of the
. passage depends apon this choice, and though one must" for a time be confined to his company, and he in somc measure under his command. If he is a social sensible man, obliging, and of a good disposition, you will be much the happier. One sometimes meets with people ef this description, but they are not common ; however, if yours be not of this number, if.he be a good seaman*. attentive, careful, and active in the management of his vessel, you may dispense with the rest, for these are the mo at essential qualities..
Whatever right you may have by your agreement with him, to the provisions he has taken on hoard for the use of the passengers, it is always proper to have some private store, which you may make use.of occasionally. You ought, therefore, to provide good water,. that of the ship b..ing often bad; but you must put it into bottles, without which you cannot expect to preserve
-h sweet.. You ought also to carry witn you good tea, ground coffee, chocolate, wine of the sort you like best, cyder, dried raisins, almonds, sugar, capillaire, citrons,.
. rum, eggs dipped. in oil,: portable soup, bread twice baked. With regard to poultry, it is almost useless to carry any with you, unless you resolve to undertake liie office of feeding and fattening them yourselfv With the little care which is taken of them on board shipi they are almost all.sickly, and their flesh.is as tough as leather.
All sailors entertain an opinion-, which has undoubU •tSljf originated formerly. from a want of water,. aii&
l*rnen It has been found necessary to be sparing of it, that poultry never know when they have drank enough; and that when water is given tliem at discretion, they generally kill themselves by .drinking beyond measure. In consequence of this opinion, they give them water only once in two days, and even then in small quanti. ties: but as they pour this water into troughs inclining en one side which occasions it to run to the lower part, it thence happens that they are obliged to mount one upon the back of another ia order to reach it; and there are some which cannot even dip their beaks in it. Thus continually tantalized and tormented by thirst, they are unable to digest their food, which is very dry, and they soon fall sick and die. Some of them are found thus every morning, and are thrown into the sea; whilst those which are kilkd for the table are scarcely fit to be eaten. To remedy this inconvenience, it will be necessary to divide their troughs into small compartments, in such a manner that each of them may be capable of containing water; but this is seldom or never done. On this account, sheep and hogs are to be considered as the best fresh previsions that one can have at sea; mutton being there in general very good, and pork excellent.
It may happen that some of the provisions and stores which I have recommended may become almost use. less, by the care which the captain has taken to lay ill a proper slock; but in such a case you may dispose of it to relieve the poor passengers, who, paying less for their passages, are stowed among the common sailors,. and have no right to the captain's provisions, except such part of them as is used for feeding the crew. These passengers are sometimes sick-melancholy, and dejected; and there are often women and children a. mong them, neither of whom have any opportunity of procuring those things which I have mentioned, and of which, perhaps, they have the greatest need. By. distributing amongst them a part of your superfluity* you may be of the greatest assistance to them, toiii may restore their health, save their lives, and in sh.oiC render tlitm happy; which always affords the liveliest— sensation to a fueling mind.
The most disagreeable thing at sea is the cookery;. for there is not, properly speaking, any professed cook en board. The worst sailor i« generally chosen for that purpose, who for the most part is equally dirty. Hence comes the proverb used among the English sailors, that God sends meat and the Devil sends cooks.. Those, however, who have a better opinion of Providence, will think otherwise.. Knowing xhat sea.air,. and the exercise or motion which they receive from the rolling of the ship, have a wonderful effect in'whetting the appetite, thoy will say that Providence has given sailors bad cooks to prevent them from eating too much; or that knowing they would have bad cooks., he has given them a good appetite to prevent.them. from dying with hunger. However, if you have no* confidence in these succours of Providence, you may yourself, with a lamp and a boiler, by the help of a lit-.. tie spirits of wine, prepare some food, such as soupy hash, &c. A small oven made of tin plate is not a bad piece of furniture: your servant may roast in it a piece of mutton pr pork. If you are ever tempted to eat salt beef, which is often very good, you will find that cyder is the best liquor to quench the thirst generally occasioned by salt meat or salt fish. Sea biscuit, which is too hard for the teeth of some people, may be softened by steeping it; but bread double.baked is the best, for being made of good loaf bread cut into slices, and baked a second time, it readily imbibes water, becomes. soft, and is easily digested; it consequently forms excellent nourishment, much superior to that of biscuit, which has not been fermented.
I must here observe, that this double.baked bread was originally the real biscuit prepared to keep at sea;. fbr the word biscuit, in French, signifies twice baked.*"
•- ;; .e.
# Zt is derived from bis, again—and CAUlybakcd*.
^ease often boil Batlly, and do not become soft; in such a case, by putting a two pound shot into the kettle, the, rolling of the vessel, by means of this bullet, will convert the pease into a kind of porridge, like mustard.
Having often seen soup, when put on the table at sea in broad flat dishes, thrown out on every side by the rolling of the vessel, I have wished that our tinmen would make our soup-basons with divisions or compartments forming small plates, proper for containing soup for one person only. By this disposition, the soup, in an extraordinary roll, would not be thrown out of the plate, and would not fall into the breasts of those who are at table and scald them.—Having entertained you with these things of little importance, permit me now to conclude with some general reflections upon navigation
When navigation is employed only for transporting necessary provisions.from one country, where they abonrid, to another where they are wanting; when by this it prevents famines, which were so frequent and so fa;al before it was invented and became so common, 'we cannot help considering it as one of those arts which contribute most to the happiness of mankind.— But when it is employed to transpoit things of .,0 utility, or articles merely of luxury, it is then uncertain whether the advantages resuliing from it are sufficient to counterbalance the misfortunes it occasions, by exposing the lives of so many individuals upon the vast ocean. And when it is evidently only the dreadful means of increasing those calamities wiiicli arflici numan natute.
One is astonished to think on the number of vessels and men who are daily exposed in goin^to brmg tea from China, coiTee from Arabia, and sugar and tobacco from America; all commodities which our ancestors lived very well without. The sugar.trade employs nearly a thousand vessels: and that of tobacco almost the same number. With regard to the utility of to'oa«•o, little cun be said; and with regard to sugar, how