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tory explanation of this appearance has, we believe, ever been given.
Dr. Franklin received the thanks of the assembly ©f Pennsylvania, "as well for the faithful discharge of his duty to that province in particular, as for the many and important services done to America in general, during his residence in Great Britain." A compensation of 50001. Pennsylvania currency, was also decreed him for his services during six years.
During his absence he had been annually elected member of the assembly. On his return to Pennsylvania he again took his seat in this body, and continued a steady defender of the liberties of the people.
In December 1T62, a circumstance which caused great alarm in the province took place. A number of Indians had resided in the county of Lancaster, and conducted themselves uniformly as friends to the white inhabitants. Repeated depredations on the frontiers had exasperated the inhabitants to such a degree, that they determined on revenge upon every Indian. A number of persons, to the amount of 120, principally inhabitants of Donnegal and Peckstang or Paxton townships, in the county of York, assembled; and, mounted on horseback, proceeded to the settlement of these harmless and "defenceless Indians, whose number had now reduced to about twenty. The Indians received intelligence of the attack which was intended against them, but disbelieved it. Considering the wh'ue people as their frends, they apprehended no danger from them. When the party arrived at the Indian settlement, they found only some women and children, and.a few old men, the rest being absent at work. They murdered all whom they fouiid, and amongst others the Shahaesf who had been always distinguished for his friendship to the whites* This bloodv deed excited much indignation to. the well-disposed part of.the community.
The remainder of these unfortunate Indians, who, by absence, had escaped the massacre, were conducted to Lancaster, and lodged in the gaol, as a place of security. The governor issued a proclamation expressing the strongest disapprobation of the action, off.ring a reward for the discovery of the perpetrators of the deed, and prohibiting all injuries to the peaceable Indians in future. But, notwithstanding this, a party of the same men shortly after marched to Lancaster, broke open the ganl^ and inhumanely butchered the innocent Indians who had been placed there for security. Another proclamation was issued but had no effect. A detachment marched down to Philadelphia, for the . express purpose of murdering some friendly Indians, who had been removed to this city for' safety. A number of the citizens armed in their defence. The Quakers, whose principles were opposed to* fighting, even in their own defence, were most active upon this occasion. The rioters came to Germantown. The governor fled for safety to the house of Dr. Franklin, who, with some others, advanced to meet the Paxton bovs, as thev were called, and had influence enough to prevail upon them to relinquish their undertaking, and return to their homes.
The disputes between the proprietaries and the assembly, which, for a time, had subsided,. were again revived. The proprietaries were dissatisfied with the concessions made in favor of the people, and made great struggles to recover the privilege of' exempting their estates from taxation, whid* the} had been induced to give up.;'
In 1763, the assembly passed a militia bill. to which tht governor refused to give his assent, unless the assembly would agree to certain amendments which he proposed. These consisted in increasing the fines, and, in some cases, substituting di ath far fines. He wished too that the officers should be appointed altogether by himself, and not be nominated b\-the people, as the bill bid proposed. These amendments the assembly considered as inconsistent with the spirit of liberty. Th.'y wold not adopt them; the governor was obstinate, and the bill was lost.
These, and various other circumstances, increased the uneasiness whiih subsisted between the proprietaries and the assembly, to such a degree, that in 1764, a petition to the king was agreed to by the bouse, praying an alteration from a proprietary to a. %egal government. Great opposition was made to this measure, not only in the house but in the public prints. A speech of Mr. Dickenson, on the suby ct, was published with a preface by Dr. Smith, in vhich great pains were taken to shew the impropriety and impolicy of this proceeding. A speech oi. Mr. Gallon ay, in reply to Mr. Dickenson, was published, accompanied with a preface by Dr. Franklin; in which he ably opposed the principles laicV «iown in the preface to Mr. Dickenson's speech.. This application to the throne produced no effect.. The proprietary government was still continued.
At the election for a new assembly, in the fall of 1764, the friends of the proprietaries made great exertions to exclude those of the adverse party and obtained a small majoritv in the city of Philadelphia. Franklin now lost his seat in the house, which he had hfld for fourteen vears. On the meeting o£ the assembly, it appeared that there was still a du-. ei.led majoritv of Franklin's friends. He was immediately appointed provincial agent, to the great chagrin of his enemies, who made a solemn pro. ttst against his appointment; which was refused admission upon the minutes, as being unprecedented. It was, however, published in the papers, and produced a spirited reply from him, just before his departure for England..
The disturbances produced in America bv Mr, Crenville's stamp-act, and the opposition made to it,, are will known. Under the marquis of Rockingturn's administration, it apprarcd'expedient to endeavor to calm the minds of the colonists ;. and the «epeal of the odious tax was contemplated. ABiongst other means of collecting information onr the disposition of the people to submit to it, Dr. Franklin was called to the bar of the house of com— awns. The examination which he here underwent was published, and contains a striking proof of the extent and accuracy of his information, and the facility with which he communicated his sentiments. He represented facts in so strong a point of view, that the inexpediency of the act must hive appeared clear to evi rv unprejudiced mind. The act, after some opposiuon, was repealed, about a ytar after it was enacted, and before it had ever been carlied into execution.
In the year 1766, he made a visit to Holland and Germany, and received the greatest marks of attentention from men.of science. In hispassage through Holland, he learned from the watermen the effect which a diminution of the quantity of water in cabals has, in impeding the progress of boats. Upon* his return to England, he was led to make a number of experiments; all of which tended to confirm the observation. 1 best, with. aa explanation* of the phenomenon, he communicated m a letter tTj his friend, Sir John Pringle, which is contained in the volume of his philosophical pieces.
In the following \ ear he travelled into France, wlure he nut with a no less favorable reception than he had experienced in Germany. He was introduced to a number of literary characters, and to eht king, Louis XV.
S.\eral letters wiitten by Hutchinson, Oliver, and others, to persons in eminent stations in Great Britain, came into the hands of Dr. Franklin.
These contained the most violent invectives against the leading characters of the state of Massachusetts, and strenuously advised the prosecution of vigorous measures, to compel the people to obedience to the measures of the mmistry. These he transmitted to the legislature, by whom they were published. Attested copies were sent to G. Britain, with an address, praying the king to discharge from office persons who had rendered themselves so> obnoxious to the people, and who had shewn themselves so unfriendly to thvir interests. The publication of these letters produced a duel between Mr. Whately and Mr. Temple; each of whom was suspected of having been instrumental in procuring them. To prevent any further disputes on this subject, Dr. Franklin, in one of the public papers, declared that he had sent them to America, but would give no information concerning the manner ii» which he had obtained them, nor was this ever discovered.
Shortly after, the petition of the Massachusetts ■ss' mbly was taken up for examination, before the priw council. Dr. Franklin attended as agent for the assembh; and here a torrent of the most viokut and uuwanaated abuse was poured upon tun*