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gill, gilliflower, gin, ginger, gingle, to which words, as hlap, a loaf, or bread; hláford, o lord may be added Egypt and gypsy.
but this pronunciation is now disused. Gb, in the beginning of a word, has the
- Le at the end of words is pronounced like sound of the hard g, as gbosily; in the middle, a weak el, in which the c is almost mute, as and sometimes at the end, it is quite silent, as table, sbattle. sbough, rigbt, sought, spoken rbo’, rite, soute. It has often at the end the sound of f, as
M. laugh, whence laughter retains the same sound in the middle, cough, trougb, sovgb, sougb, M has always the same sound, as murmur, enough, slough.
monumental It is not to be doubted, but that in the ori
N. ginal pronunciation gh had the force of a consonant deeply guttural, which is still continued
N has always the same sound, as noble, among the Scotch. G is used before kyl, and r.
Nis sometimes mute after m, as damx,con
demn, bymin. H.
P. His a note of aspiration, and shows that the following vowel must be pronounced with P has always the same sound, which the a strong emission of breath, as hai, borse. Welsh and Germans confound with b. It seldom begins any but the first syllable,
P is sometimes mute, as in psalm, and bein which it is always sounded with a full tween m and t, as tempt. breath except in beir, berb, bostler, bonour, Pb is used for f in words derived from the bumble, honest, bumour, and their derivatives. Grcek, as pbilosopber, philantbropy, Philip. It sometimes begins middle or final syllables
iry 1 in words compounded, as blockhead; or derived:
Q. from the Latin, as comprehended.
Q; as in other languages, is álways followed 1.
by u, and has a sound which out Saxon an
cestors well expressed by cp, civ, as gracirani, I consonant sounds uniformly like the queen, equestrian, qurit, inquiis', quire, quviidian. soft g; and is therefore-a-letter useless,'except Quis never followed by u. in etymology, as ejaculation, jester, jocund,
Qir is sometimes soûnded, in words derived juice.
from the French, like k; as conquer, liquor,
risque, chequer. K.
R. K has the sound of hard c, and is used be. fore e and i, where, according to English other tongues,
R has the same rough snarling sound as in analogy, c would be soft, as kepi, king, skirt, skeptick, for so it should be written, not scepe
The Saxons used often to put k before it, as tick, because sc is sounded likes, as in scene.
before I at the beginning ot words.
Rhis used in words derived from the Greek, as It is used before n, as knell, knor, but totally myrrh, snyrıhine, catarrhous, rheun, rheumatick, hyme. loses its sound in modern pronunciation.
Re, at the end of some words derived from K is never doubled; but c is used before it the Latin or French, is pronounced like a to shorten the vowel by, a double consonant, weak er, as theatre, sepulcbre. as căckle, pickles
S has a hissing sound, as sibikation, sister. L has in English the same liquid sound as in other languages.
A single s seldom ends any word, except in
the third person of verbs, as loves, growus; and The custom is to double the l at the end of the plurals of nouns, as tvers, busbes, distresses the monosyllables, as kill, will, full. These words
pronouns this, his, ours, yours, ks; the adverb rhus were originally written kille, wille, fulle; and and words derived from Latin, as rebus, surplus; when the e first grew silent and was afterward the close being always either in se, as house; borse omitted, the // was retained, to give force, ac or in sw, as grass, dress, bliss, less, anciently grasse cording to the analogy of our language, to the dress?. foregoing vowel.
S single, at the end of words, has a grosse I is sometimes mute, as in calf, balf, sound, like that of z, as trees, cycs; excep balves, calves, could, would, should, psalm, talk, ibis, ibus, us, rebus, surplus. salmon, falcon.
It sounds like z betore ion, if a vowel goc The Saxons, who delighted in guttural sounds, before it, as intrusion ; and likes, if it fuilox sometimes aspirated the / at the beginning of a consonant, as Conversion.
It sounds like z before e mure, as refuse,
Y. and before y final, as rosy; and in those words bosum, deire, wisdom, prison, prisoner, priseni,
Y, when it follows a consonant, is a vowel present, damsel, casement.
when it precedes either a vowel or a diph. / It is the peculiar quality of s, that it may be thong, is a consonant, j's, song. It is thought eounded before all consonants, except x and, by soine to be in all cases a vowed: but it in which s is comprised, - being only ks, and z may be observed of jy as of w, that it, follows a hard or gross s. This s is therefore termed a vowel without any hiatus, as rosy youb. by grammarians suæ potatis litera; the reason
'The chief árguntent by which w and y apof which the learned Dr. Clarke erroneously pear to be always vowels is, that the sounds supposed to be, that in some words it might be which they are stipposed to have as consonants, doubled at pleasure. Thus we find in several cannot be ütrered after a vowel, like that of all languages:
other consonants; thus we say, tu, ur; no, odid Sirolehseatier, stegna, strucciolo, sfarellare, but in wed, dew, the two sounds of w have no colyš, spumbrare, sgranari, shake, slumber, mill; resemblance to each other. Taipe, spare, splendour, spring, speeze, shrew, siete trongré, stramen, stripte, suntura, swell.
2. Sis mute in isht, island, demesne, viscount.
Z begins no word originally English; it T.
has the sound, as its name is zart or : bard Thas its customary sound; as lake, ieripia- pression of the palate by the tongue, as freemol,
expresses, of an s urtered with a closer cumtion. *Ti before a vowel has the sound of si, as
froze. Salvation, excepe an s goes before, as question ; excepting likewise derivatives from words
In orthography I have supposed erikocpyor ending in ty, as mig biy, migbtier, .
just uiterance of words, to be included; intho: To has two sounds; the one soft, as thus, graphy, being only the art of expressing certain beiber; the other hard, as thing, ibink. The observed in what words any of the letters are
sounds by proper characters. I have therefore, sound is soft io chese words, tben, ebence, and ibere, with their derivatives and compounds; Most of the writers of English grammar have and in ibar, ebese, ibo!', tbee, iby, thine, tbeir, given long tables of words pronounced othertbey, ibis, 1bose , ibem, obougha, ibus, and in all wise than they are written; and seem, not sufwords between Ewq, volue]ş, -as faiber, zube- ficiently to have considered, that of English, as, ibar; and betiseen rand-a-vowel, as buriben.. of all living tongues, there is a double pronun
In orber words it is hard, as sbick, tbunder, ciation, one cursory and colloquial, the other farb, fubful. Where it is softened at the regular and solemn. The cursory pronunciaend of a word, an e silent must be added, as
tion is always vague and uncertain, being made
different in different mouths by negligenge, und bread, breuibe ; clotb, clobe.
skilfulness, or afiectation. The solemn pronun
ciation, though by no means immutable and peko V.
manent, is yet always less remote from the one V has a sound of near affinity to that of S, tion. They have however generally formed
thography, and less liable to capricions'innovar" as vain, vumily.
their tables according to the cursory speech of From (in the Islandick alphabet, v is only those with whom they happened to converse ; distinguished by a diacritical point.
and concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one manner, have often established the jargon of the lowest of the peow
ple as the model of speech! Of w, which in diphthongs is often an un For pronunciation the best general rule is, to doubted vowel, some grammarians have doubts consider those as the most elegant speakers ed whether it ever be a consonant ; and Doc who deviate least from the written words. rather, as it is called, a double u, or ou, as water the emendation and settement of our ortho.
There have been many schemes offered for may be resolved into oualer : but letters of the graphy, which, like that of other nations, being same sound are always reckoned consonants formed by chance, or according to the fancy of in other alphabets: and it may be observed, the carliest writers in rude ages, was at first that av follows a vowel without any hiatus very various and uncertain, and is yet suffi or difficulty of utterance, as frosty winter. ciently irregular. Of these reformers isome
W'b has a sound accounted peculiar to the have endeavoured to accommodate orthogran English, which the Saxons betrer expressed phy better to the pronunciation, without conby hp, bw, as wubar, wbence, wbiting; in sidering tbat this is to measure by a shadow, to atori only, and sometimes in wbolesome, wb take that for a model or standard which is is sounded like a simpie b.
changing while they apply it. Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal unlikelihood of success, have endeavoured to proportion the number of letters to that of sounds, that every
sound may have its own character, and every X begins no English word; it has the character a single sound. Such would be the wund ut ds, as exk, cxirandous.
orthography of a new language to be formed
by a synod of grammarians upon principles of Sif I her du reword kanot restur?
Dr. Gill was followed by Charles Butler, a' Some of these schemes I shall however exhi. man who did not want an understanding which bit; which may be used according to the diver- might have qualified him for better employsities of genius, as a guide to reformers, or ter
ment. He seems to have been more sanguine tour to innovators.
than his predecessors, for he printed his book One of the first wbo proposed a scheme of according to his own scheme; which the fol. regular orthography, was Sir Thomas Smith, lowing specimen will make easily understood. secretary of state to Queen Elizabeth, a man of real learning, and much practised in grammatical ble their patience, or to come among them be
But whensoever you have occasion to troua disquisitions. Had he written the following lines according to his scheme, they would have ing troubled, it is better to stand upon your appeared thus:
guard than to trust to their gentleness. For the safeguard of your face, which they have
most mind unto, provide a pursehood, made of At length Erasmus, that great injur'd name,
coarse boultering, to be drawn and knit about The glory of the priesthood, and the shame,
your collar, which for more safety is to be lined Stemm'd the wild torrent of a barb'rous age, against the eminent parts with woollen cloth. And drove those holy Vandals off the stage.
First cut a piece about an inch and a half broad, At lengo Erasmus, Xat grët îngurd nam,
and half a yard long, to reach round by the se glori of de prësthüd, and de zâm,
temples and forehead, from one ear to the Stemmd de wild torrent of a barb'rous âg,
other; which being sowed in his place, join And dröv Hös höli Vandals öff de stây.
unto it two short pieces of the same breadth under the eyes, for the balls of the cheeks,
and then set another piece about the breadth After him another mode of writing was of.
of a shilling against the top of the nose. At fered by Dr. Gill, the celebrated master of St.
other times, when they are not angered, a little Paul's school in London ; which I cannot represent exactly for want of types, but will ap- and parts about them, may, serves, though it be
piece halt a quarter broad, to cover the eyes proach as nearly as I can by means of characters
in the heat of the day. now in use, so as to make it understood, exhi. biting two stanzas of Speriser in the reformed Bet pensoever you have occasion to trubble orthography.
feir patienc', or to com among fem becing
trubled, it is better to stand upon your gard Spenser, book iü. canto 5.
fan to trust to feir gentlenes. For de saf' gard
of your fac', pis dey hav' most mind' unto, proUnthankful wretch, said he, is this the meed,
vid' a purschd, mad' of cerse boultering, to With which her sovereign mercy thou dost bec drawn and knit about your collar, pis for quite ?
mor' saf'ty is to bee lined against t' eminent Thy life she saved by her gracious deed; parts wit woollen clot. First cut a pec' about Bat thou dost ween with villanous despight, an ind and a half broad, and half a yard long, To blot her honour, and her heav'nly light. to reaɔ round by de teinples and for'head, from Die, rather die, than so disloyally
one tar to de ofer; pis being sowed in his Deem of her high desert, or seem so light.
plac', join unto it two sort preces of the sam Fair death it is to shun more shame; then die.
breade under te eys, for the vals of de cheeks, Die, rather die, than ever love disloyally. and then set anoder pecc' about te breadt of a But if to love disloyalty it be,
rilling against the top of de nose. At oder tim's, Shall I then hate her, that from deathes door
pen tey ar' not angered, a little piec' half a Me brought? ah! far be such reproach from me.
quarter broad, to cover de eys and parts about What can I less do, than her love therefore,
them, may serve, dowy it be in the heat of de Sich I her due reward cannot restore ?
day. Builer on the Nature and Properties of Bees, Die, rather die, and dying do her serve, Dying her serve, and living her adore. Thy life she gave, thy life she doth deserve ; Die, rather die, than ever from het service
In the time of Charles I. there was a very prevalent inclination to change the orthogra
phy; as appears, among other books, in suci. Vnhankful wri), sid hj, iz ðis de mjd,
editions of the works of Milton as were pubWin wis her sober in mersi dou dust qujt? lished by himself. Of these reformers, every Dj ljf rj sid:d bj her grasius djd;
man had his own scheme; but they agreed ii But dou dust wen wih vilenus dispjt,
one general design of accommodating the letter Tu blot her honor, and her hepnlj liht.
to the pronunciation, by ejecting such as the Dj, rdır dj, din sa disloielj
thought superfluous. Some of them would hav Djm of her hik dzert, or sim so liht.
written these lines thus : Fair deh it iz tu pun mwr säm; dan dj. Dj, raðer dj, 8:n idir lud disloialj.
All the erth But if tu luv disloialtj it bj,
Shall then be paradis, far happier place
Than this of Eden, and far happier dais.
Bishop Wilkins afterwards, in his great pos
of the philosophical language, proposed, without the , being cut off before a consonant in the expecting to be followed, a regular orthogra- speed of utterance. phy; by which the Lord's prayer is to be written thus :
Grammarians of the last age direct, that
an should be used before b; whence it apo Yur Fádher hxitsh art in héven, h lloed bi pears that the English anciently aspirated dhyi nám, dhyi cingdym cim, dhy vill bi dyn in less. An is still used before the silent b, as, erth as it is in héven, &c.
an berb, an bonest man : but otherwise a; as, We have since had no general reformers; A horse, a horse, my kingdom for'a horse. but some ingenious men have endeavoured to
Sbakspeare. deserve well
of their country, by writing honor and labor for honour and labour, red for read in the the correspondent plural is the noun without
An or a can only be joined with a singular: preter-tense, sais for sign, repete for repcal, explane for explain, or deciame for decluim. Of these it an article ; as I want a pen, 1 zvani pens; or may be said, that as they have done no good, with the pronominal adjective some, as. they have done little harm; both because they want some pens. have innovated little, and because few have followed them.
THE. The English language has properly no diatects; the style of writers has no professed diversity in the use of words, or of their flexions The has a particular and definite significaand terminations, nor differs but by different tion. degrees of skill or care. The oral diction is
The fruit uniform in no spacious country, but has less Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal caste variation in England than in most other nations of equal extent. The language of the northern
Brought death into ibe world. Milion. counties retains many words now out of use, That is, that particular fruit, and his world but which are commonly of the genuine Teu- in wbicb we live. So, He giveto fodder for tonick race; and is uttered with a pronuncia- the cattle, and green berbs for the use of man: tion which now seems harsh and rough, but that is, for tbose beings sbai are castle, and bis was probably used by our ancestors. The
use ibat is man. northern speech is therefore not barbarous, but obsolete. The speech in the western provinces
The is used in both numbers. seems to differ from the general diction rather
I am as free as nature first made man, by a depraved pronunciation, than by any real
Ere the base laws of servitude began, dífference which letters would express.
When wild in woods ibe noble savage ran,
Many words are used without articles; as, ETYMOLOGY.
1. Proper names, as Jobn, Alexander, Lone ETYMOLOGY teaches the deduction of London. God is used as a proper name.
girus, Aristarchus, Jerusalem, Aibens, Rome, one word from another, and the various mo
2. Abstract names, as blackness, witchcraft, difications by which the sense of the same virtue, vice, beauty, ugliness, love, batred, arword is diversified; as borse, borses ; I love, I
ger, good-nature, kindness. kruedo
3. Words in which nothing but the mere
being of any thing is implied, as, This is not of the ARTICLE.
beer, but water ; this is not brass, but steel.
The English have two articles, ar or a, and ibe,
Of Nouns SUBSTANTIVES.
The relations of English nouns to words A has an indefinite signification, and by cases, or changes of termination, but, as in
going before or following, are not expressed means one, with some reference to more ; as,
most of the other European languages, by This is a good book, that is, one among tbe prepositions, unless we may be said to have banks but are good. He was killed by a
a genitive case. sword, that is, some sword. This is a better beck for a man iban a boy, that is, for one of toge tbar are men iban one of roose sbat are
. An urmy migbe enter without resistance, that is, any army:
Nom. Magister, a Master, ibe Master. In the senses in which we use a or an in Gen. Magistri, of a Master, of the Master, the singular, we speak in the plural without
or Masters, the Masters. an article: as, ibese are good books.
Dar. Magistro, to a Master, to the Master.
a Master, tbe Master. I have made on the original article, because it Acc. Magistrum, is only the Saxon er, or æn, une, applied to a Voc. Magister, Master, O Master. Rew use, as the German sin, and the French un ; Abl. Magistro, from a Master, from the Master.
louse, mice from mouse, geese from geese, feet from Nom. Magistri, Masters, the Masters.
fool, dice from die, pence from penny, brithren frorn
brother, children from child. Gen. Magistrorum, of Masters,ofibe Masters. Dat. Magistris, o Masters, to be Masters.
Plurals ending in s have for the most part Acc. Magistros, Masters, the Masters. no genitives; but we say, Womens excellenVoc. · Magistri, Masters, O Masters.
cies, and 'Weigh the mens wits against the Abl. Magistris, from Masters, from tbe Ma. ladies bairs. Pope.
Dr. Wallis thinks the Lords' house may be said
for the house of Lords; but such phrases are nog Our nouns are therefore only declined now in use; and surely an English ear rebels thus :
against them. They would commonly produce Master, Gr*. Masters. Plur. Masters. . a troublesome ambiguity, as the Lords house may Scholar, Gen. Scholars. Plur. Scholars, be the house of Lords, or the house of a Lorit. Be
sides that the mark of elision is improper, for The genitives are always written with a mark of elision, mustie's, schiar's, according to
in the Lord's house nothing is cut off.
Some English substantives, like those of an opinion long received, that the 's is a con
many other languages, change their terminatraction of his, as the soldier's valour, for insula dier his va our: but this cannot be the true ori jirincess; actor, actress; hon, lioness; hiro, heroine.
tion as they express ditierent sexes, as prince, ginal, because 's is put io female nouns, Woman's To these mentioned by Dr. Lowth may be addbeauty, the Virgin's delicacy; Houghty Juno's unrea
ed arbitress, poetess, chsuntress, duchess, rigress, gofencing hate; and collective nouns, as Women's
verness, futress, popress, authoress, traytress, and passions, the rabbie's inso.ence, obe pull it's fullyi perhaps others. Of these variable terminations be understood. We say likewise, the founda- feel our want; for when we say of a woman
we have only a sufficient number to make us sion's strength, ibe diamond's issiri, the winter's se
that she is a philosopher, au astronomer, a builder, a Vairy; but in these cases his may be understood, he and his having formerly been applied the termination which we cannot avoid; but
weaver, a dancer, we perceive an impropriety in to neuters in the place now supplied by it and
we can say that she is an architect, a botanisi, J/s.
a studen', because 'these terminations have The learned and sagacious Wallis, to whom
annexed to thein the notion of sex. In words every English grammarian owes a tribute of which thi' nécessities of life are often requiring, reverencc, calls this modification of the noun
the sex is distinguished not by different terminan adjective possessione; I think with no more pro- ations but by different names, as, a bull, a ow; priety than he might have applied the same to
a korse, a mare, equus, equa; a cork, a hen; and the genitive in rquium decus, Tria uris, or any sometimes by pronouns prefixed; as a he-yea. other Latin genitive. Dr. Lowth, on the other part, supposes the possessive pronouns mine and
she-goo. ikire to be genitive cases. This teruvination of the noun seems to con
of ADJECTIVES. stitute a real genitive indicating possession. It is derived to us froin those who declined smið, Adjectives in the English language are osmik; Gen. smuides, of a smilk; Plur. smišer, wholly indeclinable; having neither case, or smišas, smith; and so in two other of their gender, nor number, and being added to sube seven declensions.
It is a further confirmation of this opinion, stantives in all relations without any change that in the old poets both the genitive and
as a good roman, goud women, of a good quo plural were longer by a syllable than the ori man; a good nian, 30od men, of good men. ginal word; kn: és for énighi's, in Chaucer ; leuris for leaves, in Spenser.
The Comparison of Adjectives. When a word ends in s, the genitive may be the same with the nominative, as Venus temple. The comparative degree of adjectives The plural is formed by addings, as rable, ing est, to the positive; as fair, fairer, faires
formed by aŭding er, the superlative by ad tables; fly, fries; sister, sisters; woud, woods ;
lovely, lovelier,loveliest ; soveet,sweeter, swee or es wäert s could not otherwise be sound
est; ?otv, lower, lowest; bigb, higher, high ed, as after cb, s, sb, x, z; after c sounded
Some words are irregularly compared like s, and 3 3 like ;; the mute e is vocal be. fore s, as lance, lances; outrage, outrages.
good, better, bist; bad, worse, worst; livile,
least; near, ncures , next; muco, more, mo The formation of the plural and genitive many (or moe), more (for moer), most singular is the samne.
mocs); lair, lanter, latest or last. A few words still make the plural in ", as Some comparatives form a superlative men, women, oxen, sovine, and more anciently adding most, as netler, netbermost; eyer, sheen. This formation is that which gene outer most; undir, undermost; up, upper, L. sally prevails in the Teutonick dialects.
most; fore, former, foremost. Words that end in f commonly form their Muse is sometinies added to a substan plural by ves, as icaf, laaves; calf, calves.
as topmost, soudnost, Except a few, muff, muffs ; chief, chifs. So hoof,
Many adjectives do not admit of com roof, prvos, relief, mischuet, puff, cut, dwarf, hand
son by jerminations, and are only comi kichirl, grief.
by more and most, as benevolens, more del Inegular plurals are rush from toesh, lice from kini, mosi benevolert.