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As tender parent doth his daughters weale, Yet are mo fooles of this abusion,
Lamented, and for thankes, all that they can, Whiche of wise men despiseth the doctrine,
Do cherish bym deceast, and sete him free, With mowes, mockes, scorne, and collusion,
From dark oblivion of devouring death. Rewarding rebukes for their good discipline :

Shewe to suche wisdome, yet shall they not


Unto the same, but set nothing therby Barclay wrote about 1550; his chief But mocke thy doctrine, still or openly. work is the Ship of Fooles, of which the

So in the worlde it appeareth commonly, following extract will show his style. That who that will a foole rebuke or blame,

A mocke or mowe shall he haue by and by :

Thus in derision haue fuoles their speciall Of Mockers and Scorners and false Accusers. game.

Correct a wise man that woulde eschue ill

name, HEARTLESS fooles, haste here to our And fayne woulde learne, and his lewde life doctrine,

amende, Leaue off the wayes of your enormitie, And to thy wordes he gladly shall intende. Enforce you to my preceptes to encline, If by misfortune a rightwise man offende, For here shall I shewe you good and veritie: He gladly suffereth a iuste correction, Encline, and ye finde shall great prosperitie, And him that him teacheth taketh for his Ensuing the doctrine of our fathers olde,

frende, And godly lawes in valour 'worth great Him selfe putting mekcly uịto subiection, golde.

Folowing his preceptes and good direction : Who that will followe the graces many- But yf that one a foole rebuke or blame, folde

He shall his teacher hate, slaunder and dif. Which are in vertue, shall finde auaunce. fame. ment :

Howbeit his wordes oft turne to his own Wherfore ye fooles that in your sinne are shame, bolde,

And his owne dartes retourne to him agayne, Eosue ye wisdome, and leave your lewde in And so is he sore wounded with the same, tent,

And in wo endeth, great misery and payne. Wisdome is the way of men most excellent : It also proued full often is certayne, Therfore have done, and shortly spede your That they that on mockers alway their pace,

mindes cast, To quaynt your self and company with grace.. Shall of all other be mocked at the last. Learbe what is vertue, therin is great so He chat goeth right, stedfast, sure, and lace,

fast, Learne what is truth, sadnes and prudence, May him well mocke that goeth halting and Let grutche be gone, and grauitie purchase,

lame, Forsake your folly and inconvenience, And he that is white may well his scornes Cease to be fooles, and ay to sue offence,

cast, Followe ye verrue, chiefe ruote of godlynes, Agaynst a man of Inde : but no man ought to For it and wisedome is ground of clenlynes.

blame Wisedome and vertue two thinges are Anothers vice, while he vseth the same. doubtles,

But who that of sinne is cleane in dede and Whiche man endueth with honour speciall, thought, Bor suche heartes as slepe in foolishnes May him well scorne whose living is starke Kaoweth nothing, and will nought know at nought.

The scornes of Naball full dere should have But in this little barge in principall

been bought, All foolish mockers I purpose to repreue, If Abigayl his wife discrete and sage, Clawe he his backe that feeleth itch or Had not by kindnes right crafty meancs greue.

sought, Mockers and scorners that are harde of be. The wrath of Dauid to temper and asswage. ieue,

Hath not two beares in their fury and rage With a rough comb here will I clawe and Two and fortie children rent and corne, grate,

For they the prophete Helyscus did scorne. To proue if they will from their vice remoue, So might they curse the time that they And leave their folly, which causeth great were borne, debate :

For their mocking of this prophete diuine : Suche caytives spare neyther poore man nor So many other of this sort ofien mourne estate,

For their lewde mockes, and fall into ruine. And where their selfe are most worthy de. Thus is it foly for wise men to encline, rision,

To this lewde flocke of fooles, for see thou Other men to scorae is all their most con

shall dition.

Them moste scorning that are most bad of all.

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all :

eth muche our deintie eares, with muché The Lenuoy of Barclay to the fooles. swete melodie, and causeth vs to allowe

the matter rather for the reporters sake, Ye mocking fooles that in scorne set your then the reporter for the matters sake. ioy,

Demosthenes therfore, that famouse Proudly despising Gods punition : Take ye example by Cham the sonne of Noy, est point in al oratorie, gaue the chiefe

oratour, beyng asked what was the chiefWhich laughed his father vnto derision, Which hiin after cursed for his transgression,

and onely praise to Pronunciation ; being And made him seruaunt to all his lyne and demaunded, what was the seconde, and stocke.

the thirdey he still made answere, ProSo shall ye caytifs at the conclusion, nunciation, and would make none other Since ye are 'nought, and other scorne and aunswere, till they lefte askyng, declaryng mocke.

hereby that arte without vtteraunce can dooe nothyng, vtteraunce without arte

can dooe right muche. And no doubte About the year 1553 wrote Dr. Wil- that man is in outwarde appearaunce son, a man celebrated for the politeness balfe a good clarke, that hath a cleane of his style, and the extent of his know- tongue, and a comely gesture of his body. ledge : what was the state of our lan- Æschines lykwyse beyng bannished his guage in his time, the following may be countrie through Demosthenes, when he of use to show.

had redde to the Rhodians his own ora

tion, and Demosthenes aunswere therePronunciation is an apte orderinge unto, by force whereof he was bannished, bothe of the voyce, countenaunce, and all and all they marueiled muche at the exthe whole bodye, accordynge to the wor- cellencie of the same : then (9 d Æsthines of suche woordes and mater as by chines) you would have marueiled muche speache are declared. The vse hereof more if you had heard hymselfe speak it. is suche for anye one that liketh to haue Thus beyng cast in miserie and bannishprayse for tellynge his tale in open as ed for euer, he could not but geue suche semblie, that hauing a good tongue, and greate reporte of his deadly and mortal a comelye countenaunce, he shal be ennemy. thought to passe all other that haue the like vtteraunce : thoughe they haue muche better learning. The tongue

Thus have I deduced the English langeueth a certayne grace to euerye matter, guage from the age of Alfred to that of and beautifieth the cause in like maner,

Elisabeth ; in some parts imperfectly for as a swete soundynge lute muche setteth want of materials; but I hope, at least, forthe a meane deuised ballade. Or as

in such a manner that its progress may the sounde a good instrumente styr- be easily traced, and the gradations obreth the hearers, and moueth much de- served, by which it advanced from its lite, so a cleare soundyng voice comfort- first rudeness to its present elegance.

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Roman.ftalick. Old English.




RAMMAR, which is the art of using To these may be added certain combina

tions of letters universally

used in printing ; Orthography, “Etymology, Syntax, and is et, ft, A, 1, 1b, kk, ff, t, f, ifi, fi, , Prosody.

fit, and &, or and per se, and; &, f, 1, 1,, In this division and order of the parts of gram. illi,fi, t, f, &; &, a, il, 11, it, it, raar 1 follow the common grammarians, without a, i, fi, it, t. inquiring whether a fitter distribution might not be

Our letters are commonly reckoned twenty-four, found. Experience has long shown this method to be so distinct as to obviate confusion, and so com

because anciently i andj, as well as u and v, were prehensive, as to prevent any inconvenient omis- expressed by the same character ; but as those let

ters, which had always different powers, have sions. I likewise use the terms already received,

now different forms, our alphabet may be proand already understood, though perhaps others more proper night sometimes be invented. Sylu perly said to consist of twenty-six letters


None of the sinall consonants have a double burgius and other innovators, whose new terms tave sunk their leaming into neglect, have left suf

form, cxcepts, s; of which / is used in the begin. bcient warning against the trifling ambition of ning and middle, and s at the end. teaching arts in a new language.

Vowels are five, a, e, i, o, u, ORTEOGRAPHY is ibe art of combining Such is the number generally received ; Letters iwo syllables, und syllables into words. but for i it is the practice to write y in the It therefore reaches previously the form and end of words, as iby, boly; before i, as from sound of letrers.

die, dying ; from beautify, beautifying; in the The letters of the English language are, words says, days, eyes; and in words derived

from the Greek, and written originally with да А а A a a a

as system, cusmuicon sympatby, ouuria. Bb Bb Bb 3 b be

For u we often write w after a vowel, to Ес с с с Cc

make a diphthong; as raw, grew, vieci, DODD D D D

vow, flowing, lowness.

The sounds of all the letters are various, Ee E e Ee E F F f F f F E

In treating on the letters, I shall not, like some F

other grammarians, inquire into the original of G G 8 5 je :

their form, as an antiquarian; nor into their formabhHhH b 12 h aitch

tion and prolation by the organs of speech, as a IT I i I i

i (or ja mechanick, anatomist, or physiologist ; nor intu j consonant, the properties and gradation of sounds, or the ele

gance or harshness of particular combinations, as a Kk Kk K k k k

writer of universal and transcendental grammar. I LILI LILI el

consider the English alphabet only as it is English; m Mm M m 31 m

and even in this narrow disqnisition I follow the exKn Na Nnn

ample of former grammarians, perhaps with more 0 0 o

reverence than judgment, because by writing in

English I suppose my reader already acquainted
P P Py pee

with the English language, and consequently able Q cp Qa 9

to pronounce the letters of which I teach the proRn Rr R Rr


punciation; and because of sounds in general it S r S sss ISS is

may be observed, that words are unable to describe T t T t T

them. An account therefore of the primitive and

siniple letters is uscless almost alike to those who I u Uu Uu

(or va

know their sound, and those who know it noi. VVV v V vlov

v consonant, P WwWw za w double u

of VOWELS. X X X X X X E Y ýY у r. VY wy

Z z z z 2 z 3

zed, more

A has three sounds, the slender, open, and
commonlycall. broad.
ed izzard or A slender is found in most words, as face,
luzzard, that is, mane; and in words ending in atror, is (140-

ion, saltation. generation. VOL.I.


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The a slender is the proper English a, called It has sometimes in the end of words a very justly by Erpenius, in his Arabick Grammar, sound obscure, and scarcely perceptible, as

Anglicum cum e mistum, as having a middle suund open, sbapen, sbotten, tbistle, participle, lucre.
between the opena and the e. The French have a si.
milar sound in the word pais, and in their e mas.

This faintness of sound is found when e sepaculine.

rales a mute from a liquid, as in rotlen; or follows

a mute and liquid, as in cattle. A open is the a of the Italian, or nearly resembles it; as fatber, raiber, congratulate, with i, as deign, receive; and with u or mu,

E forms a dipththong with a, as near; fancy, glass. A broad resembles the a of the German ;

as new, flew. as all, wall, call.

Eu sounds like e long, as mean ; or like

ee, as dear, clear, near. Many words pronounced with a broad wire Ei is sounded like e long, as seize, per anciently written with au, as sæult, moult; and we still say fuult, vault. This was probably the

criving Saxon sound, for it is yet retained in the northern

Eu sounds as u long and soft. dialects, and in the rustick pronunciation; as maun

E, a, u, are combined in beauty and its de. fur man, haund for hand.

rivatives, but have only the sound of u.

E The short a approaches to the a open, as

may be said to form a diphthong by re.

duplication, as agree, sleeping. grass. The long a, if prolonged by e at the end

Eo is found in yeomen, where it is sounded as o of the word, is always slender, as graze,

short; aud in people, where it is pronounced like el.
A forms a diphthong only with i or


u Or w. Ai or ay, as in plain, wain, gay,
clay, has only the sound of the long and I has a sound, long, as fine ; and short,
slender a, and differs not in the pronuncia. as fin.
tion from plane, wane.

That is eminenıly observable in i, which may Au or aw has the sound of the German a, be likewise remarked in other letters; that the as raw, naugbty.

short sound is not the long sound contracted, but Ae is sometimes found in Latin words not com a sound wholly different. pietely naturalized or assimilated, but is no Eng The long sound in monosyllables is always lish diphthong; and is more properly expressed marked by the e final, as thin, ibine. by single e, as Cesar, Eneas,

Iis often sounded before r as a short u; as

flirt, först, sbirt. E.

It forms a diphthong only with e, as field,

shield, which is sounded as the double et; E is the letter that occurs mast frequently in the

except friend, which is sounded as frond, English language.

I is joined with ev in lieu, and ew in view;

which triphthongs are sounded as the open %. E is long, as in scène ; or short, as in cěl. lar, separate, cèlebrate, měn, ikën. It is always short before a double consonant,

0. or two consonants, as in věr, perplexity, relènt, medlar, rèptile, serpènt, cellar, cèssa O is long, as bone, obedient, corröding; or tion, blessing, féll, filling, děbt.

short, as block, knock, oblique, lõll. E is always mute at the end of a word, excepe in monosyllables that have no other

Women is pronounced wimen. vowel, as ibe : or proper names, as Penelope,

The short o has sometimes the sound of a close Pbebe, Derbe : being used to modify the

, as son, come. foregoing consonant, as siner, once, bedge, O coalesces into a diphthong with a, as oblige; or to lengthen the preceding vowel, moun, groan, approach; oa has the sound of as ban, bane; căn, can ; tin, phức; tín, long. tüne ; rob, rõbe; pop, põpe; för, fire; cảr, O is united to e in some words derived from rurc; oib, tibe.

Grcek, as æconomy; but oe being not an Englis Almost all words which now terminate in con

diphthong, they are better written as they ar donants ended anciently in <, as year, yeare; wild. sounded, with only c, economy. ness, wildnesse ; which e probably had the force of With i, as vil, soil, muil, noisome. the French e feminine, and constituted a syllable with its associate.consonant ; for, in old editions,

This. coalition of letters scems to unite the words are sometimes divided thus, clea-se, felie, sounds of the two letters as far as two sounds ca knowled-ge. This e was purhaps for a time vocal

be united without being destroyed, and iliere foi or silent in poetry, as conienience required; but approaches more ncarly than any combination is has been long wholly mute. Camden in his

our tongue to the notion of a diphthong. Remains calls it che sikni t.

With o, as boot, bool, cooler; oo has th vowed, as glove, išve, gove. It does not always lengthen the foregoing sound of the Italian u.

With u or cu, as cut, power, forver ; but th

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in some words has only the sound of o long, It is mute in debt, debtor, subile, doubr, as in soul, borul, sow, grow. These different lamb, limb, dumb, ibumb, climb, comb, womb. sounds are used to distinguish different sig It is used before I and r, as black, brown, nifications; as bowu, an instrument for shoot ing; boz, a depression of the head : sozi, the stue of a boar; sow, to scatter seed : bozul, an orticular body; bozul, a wooden vessel. Ou is sometimes pronounced like o soft, as

Chas before e and i the sound of s; as sina Court; sometimes like o short, as coughs some

cerely, centrick, century, circula', cistern, city, times like u close, as could; or u open, as

sicuity : before n, o, and 'u, it sounds like R, as rougb, rougb; which use only can teach.

calm, concavily, copper, incorporate, curiosity,

concupiscence. Cu is frequently used in the last syllable of words which in Latin end in of, and are made

! C might be omitted in the language without English; as honout, labour, javour, from huner, labor, loss, since one of its sounds might be supplied fauor.

by s, and the other by k; but that it preserves Some late innovators have ejected the

to the eye she etymology of words, as face from without considering that the last syllable gives facies, captive from caprivus. the sound neither of er nor ur, but a sound be Gb has a sound which is analyzed into tsb, tweea them, if not compounded of both; be as churcb, cbin, crutch. It is the same sound sides that they are probably derived to us from which the Italians give to the c simple before the French nouns in eur, as konneur, faveur, i and e, as citia, cerro.

Cb is sounded liked in words derived from U.

the Greek, as chymist, scheme, cboler. Arch U is long in use, confusion; or short, as is, is commonly sounded ark before a vowel, as concussion.

archangel ; and with the English sound of cb It coalesces with a, e, i, 0; but has rather before a consonant, as archbishop. in these combinations the force of the w, as Ch, in some French words not yet assimilated, quaff

, quesi, qui, quite, languisb; sometimes sounds like sh, as machine, chaise. in u the i loses its sound, as in juice. It is

C, having no determinate sound, according sometimes mute before a, e, i, y, as guard, therefore we write stick, block, which were ori

to English orthography, never ends a word; guess, guise, buy.

ginally sticke, blocke. In such words C is now U is followed by e in virtue, but the c has no sound.

It is used before i and r, as clack, cross. Ue is sometimes mute at the end of a word, in imitation of the French, as prorogue, iynagogue,

D plague, vague, har angue. Y

Is uniform in its sound, as death, diligent.,

It is used before r, as draw, dross; and w, as Y is a vowel, which, as Quintilian observes dwell, of one of the Roman letters, we might want withour inconvenience, but that we have it.

F. It supplies the place of i at the end of words, as :by ; before an i, as dying ; and is commonly retained in derivative words where it was F, though having a name beginning with part of a diphthong in the primitive ; as de

a vowel, is numbered by the grammarians Siroy, destroger ; buray, betrayed, betrayer; among the semivowels ; yet has this quality of pray, prayer; say, sayer ; day, days.

a mute, that it is commodiously sounded before

a liquid, as Aask, fly, freckle. It has an un. r being the Saron vowel y, which was commonly used where i is now put, occurs very spoken nearly as ov.

variable sound, except that of is sometimes frequently in all old books. GENERAL RULES.

G. A rowel in the beginning or middle syl G has two sounds; one hard, as in gay, go, lable, before two consonants, is commonly gun s the other soft, as in zem, giant. short, as opportunity.

At the end of a word it is always hard, In monosyllables a single vowel before a

as ring, snug, song, frog. single consonant is short, as ståg, frog.

Before e and the sound is uncertain. Maryis pronounced as ifit were written manny. G before e is soft, as gem, generation, except

in gear, geld, geese, gei, gerugrow, and deriv. OF CONSONANTS.

atives from words ending in g, as singing,

stronger, and generally before er at the end of B.

words, as finger.

Gis mute before , as grasb, siga, foreign. Bhas one unvaried sound, such as is ob. G before ï is hard, as give, except in ains in other languages.

giant, gigantick, gibbet, gibe, gibless, Giles,

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