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The Trojans from above their foes beheld,
Words are like leaves, and where they most
, And with arm'd legions all the rampires tillid.
Dryden. Much fruit of sense beneath is rarely found. Popes 2. In the regions of heaven.
ABO’UT. prep. [abutan, or abuton, Sax. Your praise the birds shall chant in every grove, which seems to signify encircling on the And winds shall waft it to the pov:'rs above.
outside.] Pope's Pastorals,
1. Round; surrounding : encircling, 3. Before. (See ABOVE-CITED.) I said above, that these two machines of the
Let- not mercy and truth forsake thee. Bind
them about thy neck; write them upon the table balance, and the dira, were only ornamentai, and
of thy heart.
Proverbs. that the success of the duel had been the same
She cries, and tears her cheeks, without them.
Her hair, her vest; and stooping to the sands,
Dryden's Fables. his manners, his judicious management of the 2. Near to. figures, the sober retrenchments of his sense, Speak unto the congregation, saying, get you which always leaves something to gratify our up from about the tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, imagination, on which it may enlarge at pleasure; and Abiram.
Exodus, but, above all, the elegance of his expression, and
Thou dost nothing, Sergius, the harmony of his numbers.
Dryder. Thou canst endeavour nothing, nay, not think; ABOVE-BOARD.
But I both see and hear it; and am with thee,
Ben Jonson's Catiline. gamesters, who, when they put their 3. Concerning; with regard to; relating to. hands under the table, are changing their
When Constantine had finished an house for
the service of God at Jerusalem, the dedication he cards. It is used only in familiar language.
judged a matter not unworthy, about the solemn It is the part also of an honest, man to deal above-board, and without tricks. L'Estrange.
performance whereof the greatest part of the bi
shops in Christendom should meet together. 2. Without disguise or concealment.
Hooler. Though there have not been wanting such here The painter is not to take so much pains about tofore, as have practised these unworthy arts, for the drapery as about the face, where the princias much as there have been villains in all places, pal resemblance lies.
Dryder and all ages, yet now-a-days they are owned above
They are most frequently used as words équiboard.
Sourl's Sermons. valent, and do both of them indifferently signify ABOVE-CITED. Cited before. A figura either a speculative knowledge of things, or a
tive expression, taken from the ancient practical skill about them, according to the eximanner of writing books on scrolls : where
gency of the matter or thing spoken of. Tillotson. whatever is cited or mentioned before, in
Theft is always a sin, although the particular
species of it, and the denomination of particular the same page, must be above.
acts, doth suppose positive laws about dominion It appears from the authority above-cited, that
Stilling fleet. this is a fact confessed by heathens themselves.
Children should always be heard, and fairly and Addison on the Christian Religion. kindly answered, when they ask after any thing ABOVE-GROUND. An expression used to they would know, and desire to be informed signify alive ; not in the grave.
about. Curiosity should be as carefully cherished ABOVE-MENTIONED, See ABOVE-CITED.
in children as other appetites suppressed. Lałe. I do not remember, that Homer any where
It hath been practised as a method of making falls into the faults above-mentioned, which were men's court, when they are asked about the rate I indeed the false refinements of latter ages.
of lands, the abilities of tenants, the state of trade, Addison's Spectator,
to answer that all things are in a flourishing conTO ABO’UND. v. n. (abundo, Lat. abonder,
Swift's Short View of Ireland Fr.]
4. In a state of being engaged in, or em1. To have in great plenty ; to be copiously
Our blessed Lord was pleased to command the stored. It is used sometimes with the
representation of his death and sacrifice on the particle in, and sometimes the particle cross 'should be made by breaking of bread and quith.
effusion of wine; to signify to us the nature and The king-becoming graces;
sacredness of the liturgy we are about. Taylor I have no relish of them, but abound
Labour, for labour's sake, is against nature In the division of each several crime,
The understanding, as well as all the other facut Acting it many ways; Shakspeare's Macbeth. ties, chooses always the shortest way to its en
Corn, wine, and oil, are wanting to this ground, would presently obtain the knowledge it is abo: In which our countries fruitfully abound. Dryden. and then set upon some new enquiry. But this
A faithful man shall abound with blessings: but whether laziness or baste, often misleads it. Lck he that maketh haste to be rich, shall not be in Our armies ought to be provided with secret nocent.
Proverbs. ries, to tell their story in plain English, and to le Now that languages are made, and abound with us know, in our mother tongue, what it is ou words standing for combinations, an usual way of brave countrymen are abort. Addison's Spectat getting complex ideas, is by the explication of 5. Appendant to the person, as clothes. those terms that stand for them.
If you have this about you, 2. To be in great plenty.
And I will give you when we go, you may
It is not strange to me, that persons of the One evening it befel, that looking out, fairer sex should like, in all things about them, The wind they long had wish'd was come about , that handsomeness for which they find themselves Well pleas'd they went to rest; and, if the gale most liked.
Boyle on Colours. Till morn continued, both resolved to sail. 6. Relating to the person, as a servant or
Dryden's Fables, dependant.
9. To go about, to prepare to do it. Liking very well the young gentleman, such I
Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none took him to be, admitted this Deiphantus about
of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me, who well shewed, there is no service like his
Fobn. that serves because he loves.
In common language, they say, to come 7. Relating to the person, as an act or office. about a man, to circumvent him.
Good corporal, for my old dame's sake, stand Some of these phrases seem to derive my friend: she hath no body to do any thing about their original from the French à bout ; her when I am gone, and she is old and cannot help herself. Sbakspeare's Henry iv.
venir à bout d'une chose ; venir à bout de ABOʻUT, adv.
quelqu'un. 1. Circularly ; in a round; circum.
A. Bp. for Archbishop; which see. The weyward sisters, hand in hand
ABRACADABRA. A superstitious charm Posters of the sea and land,
against agues. Thus do go about, about,
TO ABRA’DE. v. a. (abrado, Lat.] To Thrice to thine, and thrice to mine, And thrice again to make up nine.
rub off; to wear away from the other
Sbaks. 2. In circuit; in compass.
parts; to waste by degrees. I'll tell you what I am about.--Two yards and
By this means there may be a continued supply more.---No quips now, Pistol : indeed I am in the
of what is successively abraded from them by dea cursion of waters.
Hale. waste two yards about; but I am about no waste, ABRAHAM's Balm. The name of an herb. I am about thrift.
Sbakspeare. A tun about was ev'ry pillar there,
ABRA'SION.n. s. (See ABRADE.] A polish'd mirror shone not half so clear. Dryid. 1. The act of abrading, or rubbing off. 3. Nearly; circiter:
2. [In medicine.] The wearing away of When the boats were come within about sixty the natural mucus, which covers the yards of the pillar, they found themselves all bound, and could go no farther; yet so as they
membranes, particularly those of the might move to go about, but might not approach
stomacb and guts, by corrosive or sharp medicines, or humours.
Quincy. Dacon's New Atalantis. 4. Here and there; every way; circa.
3. The matter worn off by the attrition of Up rose the gentle virgin from her place,
bodies. And looked all about, if she might spy
ABRE'ast. adv. (See BREAST.] Side by Her lovely knight.
side ; in such a position that the breasts A wolf that was past labour, in his old age, borrows a habit, and so about he goes, begging
may bear against the same line. charity from door to door, under the disguise of
My cousin Suffolk, a pilgrim.
My soul shall thine keep company to heav'n:
L'Estrange. 5. With to before a verb; as, about to fly;
Tarry, sweet soul, for mine, then fly abreast, Shaks.
For honour travels in a streight so narrow, upon the point; within a small distance of. Where one but goes abreast.
Sbaks. These dying lovers, and their floating sons,
The riders rode abreast, and one his shield, Suspend the right, and silence all our guns :
His lance of cornel wood another held. Dryden. Beauty and youth, about to perish, finds
A'BRICOT. See APRICOT.
to the short straight way.
1. To make shorter in words, keeping still closeness of parts; fixation; pliantness, or soft
the same substance. Diess; immunity from rust; colour, or tincture of
All these sayings being declared by Jason of yellow : Therefore the sure way (though most
Cyrene in five books, we will essay to abridge in
one volume. about) to make gold, is to know the causes of the Beveral natures before rehearsed.
Bacon. 2. To contract; to diminish ; to cut short. Spies of the Volscians
The determination of the will, upon enquiry, Held me in chace, that I was forced to wheel is following the direction of that guide; and he Three or four miles about ; else had I, Sir,
that has a power to act or not to act, according Half an hour siħce brought my report.
Sbaks, as such determination directs, is free. Such des 7. To bring aboui, to bring to the point or termination abridges not that power wherein li
Locke. state desired; as, he has brought about his
berty consists. purposes.
3. To deprive of; to cut off from. In Whether this will be brought about, by break
which sense it is followed by the particle ing his head, I very much question. Spectator. from, or of, preceding the thing taken &. To come about, to come to some certain away. state or point. It has commonly the idea
I have disabled mine estate, of revolution, or gyration.
By shewing something a more swelling port, Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was Than my faint means would grant continuance; come about, after Hannah had conceived, that she Nor do I now make moan to be abrilg'd base a son.
1 Sam. From such a noble rate. Shaks. Merok. I've
They were formerly, by the common law, dis They thought it better to be somewhat hardly charged from pontage and murage; but this pri yoked at home, than for ever abroas, and discreo vilege has been abridged them since by several dited.
Hooker. statutes. Ayliffe's Parergon Juris Canonici. Whosoever offers at verbal translation, shall ABRI'D GED OF. part.
Deprived of; de have the misfortune of that young traveller, who barred from ; cut short.
lost his own langua'e abroad, and brought home'
no other instead of ii. ABRI'D GER. 02. s.
Sir y. Denbam.
What learn our youth abroad, but to resine 1. He that abridges; a shortener.
The homely vices of their native land? Dryden. 2. A writer of compendiums or abridgments. He who sojourns in a foreign country, refers ABRI'DGMENT. 1. s. [abregement, French.) what he secs and hears abroad, to the state of 1. The epitome of a larger work contracted things at home.
Atterbury's Sermons. into a small compass; a compend; a 4. In all directions; this way and that ; summary
with wide expansion. Surely this commandment containeth the law Full in the midst of this infernal road, and the prophets: and, in this one word, is the An elm displays her dusky arms abroad. Drydest. abridgment of all volumes of scripture. Mooker. 5. Without; not within.
Idolatry is certainly the first-born of folly, the Bodies politick being subject, as much as natugreat and leading paradox ; nay, the very abridg ral, to dissolution by divers means, there are un
ment and sum total of all absurdities. South. doubtedly more states overthrown through dis2. A diminution in general.
eases bred within theraselves, than through vioAll trying, by a love of littleness,
lence from abroad.
Hooker. To make abrilaments, and to draw to less TO ABROGATE. v. a. (abrogo, Lat.) To Even that nothing, which at first we were. Donne. take
from a law its force; to repeal; · 3. Contraction ; reduction.
to annul. The constant desire of happiness, and the con Laws have been made upon special occasions, straint it puts upon us, no body, I think, accounts
which occasions ceasing, laws of that kind do abroan abridgment of liberty, or at least an abridgment
Hooler. of liberty to be complained of.
The negative precepts of men may cease by 4. Restraint from any thing pleasing ; con many instruments, by contrary customs, by pubtraction of any thing enjoyed.
lic disrelish, by long omission: but the negative li is not barely a man's abridgment in his ex precepts of God never can cease, but when they ternal accommodations which makes him miser are expressly abrogated by the same authority. able, but when his conscience shall tell him that
Taylor's Holy Living it was his sin and his folly which brought him ABROGA'TION. 11. s. [nbrogaiio, Lat.) The under that abridgment.
act of abrogating; the repeal of a law. ABRO'Ach, adv. (See To BROACH.]
The commissioners from the confederate Rom 1. In a posture to run out, or yield the man catholics demanded the abrogation and repeal liquor contained : properly spoken of
of all those la:ys, which were in force against the
exercise of the Roman religion. Clarendon. vessels. The jarrs of gen'rous wine
TO ABRO'OK. v. a. (from To brook, with a He set abroach, and for the feast prepar'd. Dryd. superabundant: a word not in use.] To
The Templer spruce, while ev'ry spout's abroach, brook; to bear; to endure.
Sweet Nell, ill can thy noble mind abrook
· The abject people gazing on thy face
Shakspeare's Henry vi, ginning as promises a progress.
ABRUPT. adj. [abriiptus, Lat. broken off.]
1. Broken ; craggy. And ripens in the sunshine of his favour,
Resistless, roaring, dreadful, down it comes Would he abuse the count'nance of the king,
From the rude mountain, and the mossy wild, Alack! what mischiefs might be set abroach, Tumbling through rocks abrupt. Thomson's IV in.
In shadow of such greatness? Sbakspeare. 2. Divided ; without any thing intervening. ABROAD. adv. (compounded of a and
Or spread his aery Hight, broad. See BROAD.]
Upborn with indefatigable wings, 1. Without confinement; widely, at large.
Over the vast abrupi, ere he arrive
The happy isle.
Milon's Paradise Lost.
3. Sudden; without the customary or pro-
My lady craves
To know the cause of your abrupt departure.
Sbakspearia Now haunts the cliff, now traverses the lawn,
The abrupt and unkind breaking off the two And files the hated neighbourhood of man. Prior, first parliaments, was wholly imputed to the duke %. Out of the house.
Abrupt, with eagle-speed she cut the sky;
Instant invisible to mortal eye. And subjects' none abroad.
Then first he recogniz'd thethereal guest. Pope
The abrupt stile, which hath many breaches,
but in the spring time, when it comes forth again, ABRU'PTED. adj. [abruptus, Latin : a word
Ray on the Creation little in use.] Broken off suddenly. The effects of their activity are not precipi
ABSCO'NDER. n. s. [from abscond] The tously , abrupied, but gradually proceed to their person that absconds.
Brown's Vulgar Errours. A'xsence. n. s. (See ABSENT.] ABRUPTION. 1. so (abruptio, Lat.] Break 1. The state of being absent : opposed to ing off; violent and sudden separation.
Sir, 'tis fit
Sbakspeare's Coriola adhering to them, or at least marks of its abrup His friends beheld, and pity'd him in vain,
tion from them, on all their sides. Woodward. For what advice can ease a lover's pain?
Might save the fortune, if not cure the mind.
Dryden's Fables. even over itself, suffered her not to enter abruptly
You have given no dissertation upon the abinto questions of Musidorlis.
sence of lovers, nor laid down any methods how Now arissing from their joy so lately found, they should support themselves under those sepaSol:ely found, and so abruptly gone. Par. Reg.
Addison's Spectatur. They both of them punctually observed the 2. Want of appearance : in a legal sense. time 'thuis agreed upon, and that in whatever Absence is of a fourfold kind or species. The company or business they were engaged, they left
first is a necessary absence, as in banished persons; it ubruptly, as soon as the clock warned them to. this is entirely necessary. A second, necessary Tetire. Addison's Spectator.
and voluntary; as upon the account of the comAeru'PTNESS. n. s. [from abrupl.)
mon Wealth, or in the service of the church. 1. An abrupt manner; haste; suddenness;
The third kind the civilians call a probable abuntimely vehemence.
sence; as, that of students on the score of study.
And the fourth, in absence entirely voluntary; 2. The state of an abrupt or broken thing as, on the account of trade, merchandise, and the roughness ; craggedness, as of a fragment like. Some add a fifth kind of absence, which is violently disinince.
committed cum dolo o culpa, by a man's non-apThe crystallized bodies found in the perpendi
pearance on a citation; as, in a contumacious cular intervals, have always their root, as the
person, who, in hatred to his contumacy, is, by jewellers call it, which is only the abruptness at
the law, in some respects reputed as a person prethe end of the body whereby it adhered to the
dylife's Parergon Yuris Canon. stone, or sides of the intervals ; which abruptness 3. Inattention; heedlessness; neglect of is caused by its being broke off from the said the present object. Woodward's Nat. Hist.
I continued my walk, reflecting on the little A'BSCESS. n. s. (abscessus, Lat.] A mor
absences and distractions of mankind. Spectator. bid cavity in the body; a tumour filled 4. It is used with the particle from. with matter: a term of chirurgery:
His absence from his mother oft he'll mourn, If the patient is not relieved, nor dies in eight
And, with bis eyes, look wishes to return. Dryd. days, the inflammation ends in a suippuration and
ABSENT: adj. [absens, Lat]
1. Not present: used with the particle from.
Arbuthnot on Diet.
In spring the fields, in autumn hills I love; ekscess in the mesentery, which, breaking some
At morn the plains, at noon the shady grove; few days after, was discovered to be an apostem
But Delia always: absent froin her sight,
Nor plains at morn, nor groves at noon delight. Hartley on Consumptions.
Pope's Pasf. To AB:CI'm!). Va To cut off; either in Where there is advantage to be giyen, a natural or figurative sense.
Both more and less have given him the revolt; ABSCISSA. [Lat.] Part of the diameter of
And none serve with him but constrained things, a coric section, intercepted between the
Whose hearts are absent too.
Sbakspeart. Vertex and a semiordinate.
Whether they were absent or present, they
Wisdor. Arsei'ssion. 1. so (abscissio, Lat.]
were vexed alike. 1. The act of cutting off.
2. Absent in mind ; inattentive ; regardless Fabricius ab Aquapendente renders the abscis
of the present object. sion of them difficult enough, and not without
I distinguish a man that is absent because he Wiseman's Surgery.
thinks of something else, from him that is absent because he thinks of nothing.
Addison. 2. The state of being cut off.
TO ABSE'NT. V. Q. To withdraw; to forBy cessation of oracles, with Montacutius, we may understand this intercision, not abscission, or
bear to come into presence:
If thou didst ever hold me in thy heart,
Brown's Vulg. Er.
Absent thee from felicity a while,
And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain,
Sbakspeare's Hamlet. view: generally used of persons in debt,
Go---for thy stay, not free, absents thee more. or criminals eluding the law.
Milton's Paradise Lust. The marmotte, or mus alpinus, which absconds
Tho'I am forc'd thus to absent myself all winter, lives on its own fat: for in autum!),
From all I love, I shall contrive some means, when it shuts itself up in its hole, it is very fat ;
Some friendly intervals, to visit thee.
Southern's Spartan Dame,
of the nesentery.
The Arengo is still called together in cases of for performance of that thing whereunto they importance; and if, after due summons, ' any tend.
Hooker. member absents himself, he is to be fined to the What is his strength by land ?-
value of about a penny English. Addison. --Great and increasing: but by sea ABSENTA'NEOUS. adj. Relating to ab
He is an absolute master.
Sbakspeare sence ; absent.
Dict. 2. Unconditional; as, an absolute promise. ABSENTEE', n. s. He that is absent from
Although it runs in forms absolute, yet it is inhis station, or employment, or country.
deed conditional, as depending upon the qualifi
cation of the person to whom it is pronounced. A word used commonly with regard to
South's Sermons. Irishmen living out of their country. 3. Not relative; as, absolute space. In Then was the first statute made against absen
this sense we speak of the ablative case tees, commanding all such as had land in Ireland,
absolute, in grammar. to return and reside thereupon. Sir John Davies on Ireland.
I see still the distinctions of sovereign and inA great part of estates in Ireland are owned by
ferior, of absolute and relative worship, will bear absenters, and such as draw over the profits raised
any man out in the worship of any creature with out of Ireland, refunding nothing.
respect to God, as well at least, as it doth in the ABSI'NTHIATED. part. [from absinthium,
worship of images.
An absolute mode is that which belongs to its Lat. wormwood.} Imbittered ; impreg subject, without respect to any ether beings whatnated with wormwood.
Dict. soever; but a relative mode is derived from the To ABSI'ST. v. n. (absisto, Lat.] To stand regard that one being has to others.
Watts. off; to leave off.
Dict. 4. Not limited; as, absolute power, TO ABSOʻLVE. v. a. (absolvo, Lat.]
My crown is absolute, and holds of none :
I cannot in a base subjection live, I. To clear; to acquit of a crime, in' a
Nor suffer you to take, tho' I would give. Dryden, judicial sense.
5. Positive; certain ; without any hesitaYour great goodness out of holy pity Absolu'd him with an axe.
tion. In this sense it rarely occurs.
Long is it since I saw him,
But time hath nothing blurr'd those lines of favour, As he hopes and gives out, by the influence of
Which then he wore; the snatches in his voire, his wealth, to be here absolved; in condemning
And burst of speaking were as his : I'm absolute, this man, you have an opportunity of belying
'Twas very Cloten. Shakspeare's Cymbeline. that general scandal, of redeeming, the credit lost
A'BSOLUTELY. adv. [from absolute.] by former judgments.
Swift's Miscellanies. 1. Completely; without restriction. 2. To set free from an engagement or pro
All the contradictions which grow in those mise.
minds, that neither absolutely climb the rock of Compellid by threats to take that bloody gath,
virtue, nor freely sink into the sea of vanity. And the act ill, I am absolu'd by both.
Sidney: Waller's Maid's Trag.
What merit they can build upon having joined This command, which must necessarily coni
with a protestant army, under a king they acprehend the persons of our natural fathers, must
knowledge, to defend their own liberties and promean a duty we owe them, distinct from our
perties, is, to me, absolutely inconceivable ; and, obedience to the magistrate, and from which the
I believe, will equally be so for ever. most absolute power of princes cannot absolove is.
Swift's Presb. Pleza Locke.
2. Without relation ; in a state unconnected. 3. To pronounce sin remitted, in the ec
Absolutely we cannot discommend, we cannot clesiastical sense.
absolutely approve either willingness to live, or forwardness to die.
Hooter. But all is calm in this eternal sleep;
These then being the perpetual causes of zeal; Here grief forgets to groan, and love to weep; the greatest good, or the greatest evil; either al Ev'r surerstition loses ev'ry fear;
solutely so in themselves, or relatively so to us; For God, not man, absolves our frailtics here. Pope. it is therefore good to be zealously affected for the 4. To finish ; to complete. This use is one against the other.
Sprat's Sermons. not common.
No sensible quality, as light, and colour, and What cause
heat, and sound, can be subsistent in the bodies Moy'd the Creator, in his holy rest
themselves, absolutely considered, without a relaThrough all eternity, so late to build
tion to our eyes and ears, and other organs of In chaos; and the work begun, how soon
sense. These qualities are only the effects of our Absolu'd Milton's Paradise Lost.
sensation, which arise from the different motions, If that which is so supposed intinitely distant
upon our nerves, from objects without, according from what is now current, is distant from us by
to their various modifications and positions. a tinite interval, and not infinitely, then that one
Beniley's Sermons. circulation which preceded it, inust necessarily be 3. Without limits or dependance. like ours, and consequently absolved in the space
The prince long time had courted fortune's love, of twenty-four hours.
But, once possess'd, did absolutely reign : A'BSOLUTE. adj. (absolutus, Lat.)
Thus with their amazons the heroes strove, 1. Complete : applied as well to persons
And conquer'd first those beauties they would gain.
Dryden's Annus Mirabilis. as things.
4. Without condition. Because the things that proceed from him are And of that nature, for the most part, are perfect, without any manner of defect or maim; things absolutely unto all men's salvation necesit cannot be but that the words of his mouth are sary, either to be held or denied, either to be done absolute, and lack nothing which they should have,