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PROSODY.

árduous ; in al, as cápital; in ion, as mention ;

accent the first. k is common for those that deliver the gram 10. Trissyllables ending in co, ent, and ate, mạr of modern languages, to omit their Pro accent the first syllable, as countenance, cona sody." So that of the Italians is neglected by tinence, ármament, imminent, élegant, própaRuomettei ; that of the French by Desmarais; and gate: except they be derived from words have that of the English by Wallis, Cooper, and even

ing the accent on the last, as connivance, acby Feason, though a pqet. But as the laws of quaintance; or the middle syllable hath a metre are included in the idea of a grammar, I vowel before two consonants, as promulgale, hare thought it proper to insert them.

11. Trissyllables ending in y, as entity, Prosady comprises ontbrepy, or the rules of spécify, liberiy, victory, súbsidy, commonly acpronunciation ; and oribometry, or the laws of cent the first syllable, versification.

12. Trissyllables. in re or le, accent the PRONUNCIATION is just, when every first syllable, as légible, ibéatre ; except disletter has its proper sound, and when every ciple, and some words which have a position, syllable has its proper accent, or, which in

as example, epístle. English versification is the same, its

proper

13. Trissyllables in ude commonly accent quantity

the first syllable, as plénitude,

14. Trissyllables ending in ator or atour, The sounds of the letters have been already as creátour; or having in the middle syllable explained; and rules for the accept or quantity are not easily to be given, being subject for two consonants, as doméstick; accent the

a diphthong, as endéávour; or a vowel beto indumerable exceptions. Such however as I

middle syllable. have read or formed, I shall here propose.)

15. Trissyllables chat have their accent on 5. Of dissyllables formed by affixing a ter. the last syllable are commonly French, as mination, the former syHable is commonly acquiesce, repartée, magazine ; or words forma accented; as, childish, kingdom, áctest, ácted, ed by prefixing one or two syllables to an toilsome, lover, scóffer, fáirer, fóremast, zeala acute syllable, as immatúre, overcbárge. cus, fulness, gódly, méckly, ártist.

16. Polysyllables, or words of more than 2. Dissyllables formed by prefixing a syl- three syllables, follow the accents of the lable to the radical word, have commonly words from which they are derived, as árro. the accent on the latter ; 'as 10 beget, to bio galing, cóntinency, incóntinently, commendable, sem, to bestów.

communicableness. We should therefore say, 3. Of dissyllables which are at once nouns dispútable, indisputable, rather than disputable, and verbs, the verb has commonly the accent indisputable; and advertisement, cagher than on the latter, and the poun on the former advertisement. syilable ; as, to descáns, a déscant ; to ceméni, 17. Words in ion have the accent upon the a cément ; to couráci, a contract..

antepenult, as salvation, perturbation, concóca

tion; words in atour or ator on the penult, as This rule has many exceptions. Though dedicátor. Terbs seldom have their accent on the former, 18. Words ending in le commonly have the yet nouns often have it on the latter syllable; as, delight, parfums

accent on the first syllable, as amicable; unless

the second syllable have a vowel before two 4. All dissyllables ending in y, as cránny; consonants, as combustible. in our, as lábour, fávour ; in ow, as willow, 19. Words ending in ous have the accent wallow, except allow; in le, as battle, bible; on the antepenult, as uxórious, voluptuous. in isb, as bánisb; in ck, as cámbrick, cássock; 20. Words ending in ty have their accent in ter, as to bántcr; in age, as courage ; in en, on the antepenult, as pusillanimity, activity. a fásten ; in el, as quiet; accent che former

These rules are not advanced as complete or syllable.

Almost 5. Dissyllable nouns in er, as cánker, búto every rule of every language has its exceptions ;

infallible, but proposed as useful. tet, have the accent on the former syllable. and in English, as in other tongues, much must

6. Dissyllable verbs terminating in a conso- be learned by example and authority. Perhaps nant and e final, as comprise, escape ; or having more and better rules may be given, that have a diphthong in the last syllable, as appéase, escaped my observation.. reveal; or ending in two consonants, as arténd; VERSIFICATION is the arrangement of a have the accent on the latter syllable. certain number of syllables according to cere

7. Dissyllable nouns having a diphthong tain laws. in the latter syllable, have commonly their accent on the latter syllable, as applause;

The feet of our verses are either iambick, except words in ain, as certain, mountain.

as alóft, creáte ; or trochaick, as bóly, lófty. 8. Trissyllables formed by adding a termination, or prefixing a syllable, retain their Qur jambick measure comprises verses accent on the radical word, as loveliness, tén. derness, contemner, wéggoner, pby'sical

, be- of four syllables, spátter, commenting, commending, assurance.

Most good, inost fair, 9. Trissyllables ending in ous, as gráciou, Or things as rare,

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roar

The palace of loud Fame, her seat of pow'r,
Plac'd on the summit of a lofty tow'r.
A thousand winding entries long and wide
Receive of fresh reports a flowing.cide ;
A thousand crannies in the walls are made ;
Nor gate nor bars exclude the busy trade.
'T is built of brass, the better to diffuse
The spreading sounds, and multiply the

news; Where echoes in repeated echoes play: A mart for ever full; and open night and

day. Nor silence is within, nor voice express, Bụt a deaf noise of sounds that never ccase; Confus'd, and chiding, like, the hollow Ofrides receding from th' insulted shore ; Or' like the broken thunder, heard, from

far, When Jove to distance' drives the rolling The courts are fill'a with a túmultuous

'din Of crowds, or issuing forth, or ent'ring

O, A thorough-fare of news; where some de

vise Things never heard, some, mingle truth

with lies : : The troubled air with empty sounds they

beat, Intent to hear, and eager to repeat.

Dryden.

war.

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Of six,

This while we are abroad,

Shall we not touch our 'Igre !
Shall we not sing an ode?

Shall that holy fire
In us that strongly glow'd,

In this cold air expire ?
Though in the utmost Peak

A while we do remain,
Amongst the mountains bleak,

Expos’d to sleet and rain;
No sport our hours shall break,

To exercise our vein.
What though bright Phoebus' beams

Refresh the southern ground,
And though the princely Thames

With beauteous nymphs abound,
And by old Camber's streams

Bę many wonders found :
Yet many rivers clear

Here glide in silver swathes;
And what of all most dear,

Buxton's delicious baths,
Strong ale and noble chear,

T'assuage breem winter's scathes.
In places far and near,

Or famous or obscure,
Where wholsom is the air,

Or where the most impure,
All tinies and every where,

The mase is still in ure. Drayton.

in :

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Of eight, which is the usual measure of short poems.

And may at last my weary age
Find out the peaceful hermitage,
The hairy gown, and mossy cell,
Where I may sit and nightly spell
Of ev'ry star the sky doth shew,
And ev'ry herb that sips the dew.

Milton.

of three syllablcs,

Here we may
Think and pray,

.
Before death
Stops'our breath : * ?
Other joys
Are but toys:

Walion's Angker

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Of ten, which is the common measure of heroick and tragick poetry.

Full in the midst of this crcared space, Betwixt beav'n, earth, and skies, there

stands a place Confining on all three; with triple bound; Whence all things, though remote, are

view'd around, And thither bring their undulating cound.

Fairest piece of well-form'd earth, Urge not thus your haughty birth.

In these measures the accent is to be plac on the odd syllables

Fenton

Dr. Popo.

Dr. Pope

Thiese are the measures which are now in use, into a soft lyrick measure of verses consisting and above the rest those of seven, eight, and ten alternately of eight syllables and six, syllables. Our ancient poets wrote verses sometimes of twelve syllables, as Drayton's Polyal.

She, to receive thy radiant name, bion.

Selects a whiter space..

When all shall praise, and ev'ry lay Of all the Cambrian shires their hands that

Devote a wreath to thee, bear so high,

That day, for come it will, that day" And farth'st survey their soils with an ambia

Shall I lament to see. Lewis ro Popa tious eye, Mervinia for her hills, as for their matchless

Beneath this tomb an infant lies, crowds, The nearest that are said to kiss the wand'ring

To earth whose body lent,

Hereafter shall more glorious rise, clouds,

But not more innocent. Especial audience craves, offended with the

When the Archangel's trump shall blow, throng, That she of all the rest neglected was so

And souls to bodies join,

What crowds shall wish their lives below long;

Had been as short as thine! Wesley Alleging for herself, when through the Sar.

on's pride The godlike race of Brute to Severn's setting

We have another measure, very quick and side

lively, and therefore much used in songs, which Were cruelly enforc'd, her mountains did re may be called the anapestick, in which the aclieve

cent rests upon every third syllable. Those whom devouring war else every where

May Igóvern my passions with absolute swáy, did grieve.

And grow wiser and better as life wears away. And when all Wales beside (by fortune or by

might) Unto ber ancient foe resign'd her ancient

In this measure a syllable is often retrenched right, A constant maiden still she only did remain, from the first foot, as The last her genuine laws which stoutly did retain.

Diógenes súrly and proud. And as each one is prais’d for her peculiar things,

When présent we love, and when absent agrée, So only she is rich in mountains, meres, and I think not of I'ris nor I'ris of me. Dryden.

springs; And holds herself as great in her superfluous These measures are varied by many combine waste,

ations, and sometimes by double endings, either As others by their towns and fruiful tillage with or without rhyme, as, in the heroick meagracid.

sure,

"T is the divinity that stirs wirbin us; And of fourteen, as Chapman's Homer.

T is Heav'n itself that points out an hereafter, And as the mind of such a man, that hath a

And intimates eternity to man. Addison long way gone, And either knoweth not his way, or else So in that of eight syllables, would let alone

They neither added nor confounded, His purpos'a journey, is distract.

They neither wanted nor abounded. Prior The measures of twelve and fourteen sylla. In that of seven, bles were often miogled by our old poets, some For resistance I could fear none, times in alternate lines, and sometimes in alter But with twenty ships had done nate couplets.

What thou, brave and happy Vernon,

Hast archiev'd with six alone. Glover. The verse of twelve syllables, called an Alex. In that of six, andrine, is now only used to diversify heroick lides.

"I was when the seas were roaring

With hollow blasts of wind,

A damsel lay deploring, Waller was smooth, but Dryden taught to All on a rock reclin'd.

Gaye join The varied verse, the full-resounding line, In the anapestick, The leng majestick march, and energy divine. When terrible tempests assail us,

Pope.

And mountainous billows affright,

Nor power nor wealth can avail us, The pause in the Alexandrine must be at the But skilful industry steers right. Ballade aith syllable

To these measures, and their laws, may be rem The verse of fourtcea syllables is now broken duced every species of English verse.

kxxxvi A GRAMMAR OF THE ENGLISH TONGUE.

Our versification admits of few ficences, Thus have I collected rules and examples by except a synalapba, or elision of e in the bea which the English language may be learned, it fore a vowel, as tb' eternal; and more rarely the reader be already acquainted with gram, of o in to, as to accept; and a synæresis

, hy matical terms, or taught by a master to those which two short vowels coalesce into one

that are more ignorant. To have written a syllable, as question, special; or a word is con

grammar for such as are not yet initiated in

the schools, would bave been tedious, and per. tracted by the expulsion of a short vowel be haps at last ineffectual. fore a liquid, as av'rice, comp'rance.

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· A

DICTIONARY

OF THE

ENGLISH LANGUAGE .

ܕܬ

A

A THE first letter of the European is written an, as, an ox, an egg, of which alphabets, has, in the English lan a is the contraction.

guage, three different sounds, 2. A, taken materially, or for itself, is a which may be termed the broad, open, noun; as, a great X, a little a. and slender.

3. A is placed before a participle, or parti. The broad sound, resembling that of the cipial noun ; and is considered by Wallis

German a, is found in many of our as a contraction of at, when it is put be. monosyllables, as all, wall, malt, salt, fore a word denoting some action not in which a is pronounced as au in cause, yet finished ; as, I am a walking. It or uw in lasu. Many of these words also seems to be anciently contracted were anciently written with au, as sault, from at, when placed before local surwaulk; which happens to be still re names; as, Thomas a Becket. In other tained in fault. This was probably the cases it seems to signify to, like the ancient sound of the Saxons, since it is French à. almost uniformly preserved in the rustic A hunting Chloe went.

Prior. pronunciation, and the northern dialects, They go a begging to a bankrupt's door. as maun for man, haund for band.

Dryden. A open, not unlike the a of the Italians,

May peace still slumber by these purling four

tains ! is found in father, rather, and more ob Which we may every year scurely in fancy, fast, &c.

Find when we come a fishing here. Wotton. A slender or close, is the peculiar a of the Now the men fell a rubbing of armour, which English language, resembling the sound a great while had lain oiled.

Wotton. of the French e masculine, or diphthong

He will knap the spears a pieces with his teeth.

Mores Antid, Athm. ai in païs, or perhaps a middle sound

Another falls a ringing a Pescennius Niger, between them, or between the a and e; and judiciously distinguishes the sound of it to to this the Arabic a is said nearly to ap be modern.

Addison on Medals. proach. Of this sound we have examples 4. A has a peculiar signification, denoting in the words place, face, waste; and all the proportion of one thing to another. those that terminate in ation, as relation, Thus we say, The landlord hath a hunda nation, generation.

red a year ; The ship's crew gained a A is short, as glass, grass; or long, as thousand pounds a man. glaze, graze : it is marked long, gene

The river Inn passes through a wide open rally by an e final, plane, or by an i

country, during all its course through Bavaria;

which is a voyage of two days, after the rate of added, as plain. The short a is open,

twenty leagues a day. Addisor on Italy. the long a close. 1. A, an article set before nouns of the s. A is used in burlesque poetry, to length.

en out a syllable, without adding to the singular number ; a man, a tree ; de. noting the number one, as, a man is For cloves and nutmegs to the line-a, coming; that is, no more than one; or And even for oranges to China.

Dryder. an indefinite indication, as, a man may 6. A is sometimes, in familiar writing, come this way, that is, any man. This put by a barbarous corruption for he ; article has po plural signification. Be as, will a come, for will be come. fore a word beginning with a vowel, it 7. A, in composition, seems to have some VOL. I.

B

sense.

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