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5. Draw, know, grow, throw, blow, crow On the contrary, the termination less addlike a cock, fly, slay, see, ly, make their pre-, ed to substantives makes adjectives signifying terit drew, knew, grew, ibrew, blew, crew, want; as wortbless, witless, beurress, josựss, flew, slew, saw, lay; their participles passive careless, belpless. Thus comfort, comfortless; by n, drawn, known, grown, tbrown, blown, sap, supless. gown, slain, seen, lien, lain. Yet froin flee is Privation or contrariety is very often demade fled; from go, went, from the old wend, doted by the parciele un prefixed to many the participle is gone. ,
adjectives, or in before words derived from the Latin ; as pleasant, unpleasant ; wise, un.
wise; profitable, unprofitable; patient, impa. Of DERIVATION.
tient. 'Thus unworthy, unbealily, unfruitful,
unuseful, and many more. That the English language may be more easily
The original English privative is ua; but as understood, it is necessary to inquire how it's we often borrow from the Latin, or its descendderivative words are deduced from their pri- ants, words already signifying privation, as inefmitives, and how the primitives are borrowed ficacious, impious, indiscreet
, the inseparable partifrom other languages. In this inquiry I shall cles un and in have fallen into confusion, from sometimes copy Dr. Wallis, and sometimes en which it is not easy to disentangle them. deavour to supply his defects, and rectify his
Un is prefixed to all words originally English; as untrue, untıuıh, untaught, unhandsome.
Un is prefixed to all participles made privative Nouns are derived from verbs.
adjectives, as unfeeling, unassisting, unwided, undeThe thing implied in the verb, as done or lighted, unendeared. produced, is commonly either the present of
Un ought never to be prefixed to a participle the verb; as to love, love; to fright, a fright; present, to mark a forbearance of action, as urto fight, a fight; or the preterit of the verb, sighing; but a privation of habit, as ump-rying. as, to strike, I strick or strook, a struke.
Un is prefixed to most substantives which The action is the same with the partici- jierfectness, which, if they have borrowed termin
have an English termination, as unferti eness, ima ale present, as loving, frigbling, jizoring,
ations, take in or im, as inferri iiy, imperfections ; Striking
une vil, incivilivy; wnactive, iractivity. The agent, or person acting, is denoted by
In borrowing adjectives, if we receive them the syllable er added to the verb, as lover, “ already compounded, it is usual to retain the frigter, striker.
particle prefixed, as indecent, in legun', imite peer; Substantives, adjectives, and sometimes but if we borrow the adjective, and add the other parts
of speech, are changed into verbs: privative particle, we commonly prefix un, as in which case the vowel is often lengthened or
unpolite, wgallant. the consonant softened; as a house, to bouse; The prepositive particles, dis and mis debrass, to braze; glass, to glaze; grass, to zraze; rived from the des and mes of the French, price, 10 prize; breath, to breathe; a fish, 10 signify almost the same as un; yet dis rafisb; oil, 10 oil; further, to furtber; forward, ther imports contrariety ihan privation, since to forward ; hinder, to binder.
it answers to the Latin preposition de M. Sometimes the termination en is added, insinuates some errour, and for the mos especially to adjectives; as haste, to basten; part may be rendered by the Latin word length, io lengtben; strength, to strengthen; male or perperam. To like, to dislike; ho short, to sborlen; fast, 10 fasten; white, io nour, disboxour; to honour, to grace, 10 dis wbilen; black, 19 blacken; hard, to barden; bonour, to disgrace; to deign, 10 disdeiga soft, 10 soften.
chance, hap, michance, misbap; to take, From substantives are formed adjectives mistake; deed, misdeed; to use, 10 misuse; of plenty, by adding the termination y; as a employ, 10 misemploy; to apply, to misapply. louse, lousy; wealth, wealtby; health, be alıby; Words derived from Latin written wir might, mgbly; worth, sworthy; wit, wilig; de or dis « retain the same signification; lust, lusty; water, watry; earth, cariby; distinguish, distinguo; detraci, detrahu; wood, a wood, woody; air, airy; a heart, fume, defamo; deinin, detineo. bearty; a band, bandy.
The termination ly added to substantis Froin substantives are formed adjectives and sometimes to adjectives, forms adjecti of plenty, by adding the termination ful, de that import some kind of similitude or agre noting abundance ; as joy, joyful; fruit, fruit- ment, being formed by contraction of lick ful; youth, youthful; care, careful; use, use- like. ful; delight, deligviful; plenty, plentiful; A giant, ziantly, giantlike; earth, eart help, belpful.
heaven, beavenly; world worldly; God, 30 Sometiines, in almost the same sense, but good, goodly. with some kind of diminution thereof, the The same termination ly added to ad termination some is added, denoting some tives, forms adverbs of like signification thing, or in some degree; as delight, delight. beautiful
, beautifully; sweet, sweetly; tha sume; game, gamesome; irk, irksome; bure in a beautiful manner ; wrib somć degr den, burdensome; trouble, troublesome ; light, sweetness. liyorsume ; hand, bandsome ; alone, lonesome; The termination iso added to adject toil, ro:lsome.
imporis diininution; and added to subs
tives, imports similitude or tendency to a Thus worship, that is, worthship ; whence wor. character; as green, grecnisb; white, whit- shipful, and to worship. išb; soft, softish; a thief, tbievish; a wolf, Some few ending in dom, rick, wick, do wolvis; a child, childisb.
especially denote dominion, at least state or We have forms of diminutives in substan- condition; as kingdom, dukedom, carldom, tives, though not frequent; as a hill, a bila princedom, popedom, christendom, freedom, wisa lock; á cock, a cockrei; a pike, a pickrel; dom, wboredom, bisboprick, bailiwick. this is a French terminacion : a goose, a gos Ment and age are plainly French terminaling; this is a German termination : a lamb, tions, and are of the same import with us as a lambkin ; a chick, a chicken; a man, a mani. among them, scarcely ever occurring, except kin; a pipe, a pipkin; and thus Halkin, whence in words derived from the French, as como the patronimick, Hawkins; Wilkin, Toomkin, mandment, usage. and others.
There are in English often long trains of Yet still there is another form of diminution words allied by their meaning and derivation ; among the English, by lessening the sound it- as to beat, a bat, baron, a barile, a beetle, a bartledoor, self, especially of vowels; as there is a form of to batter, balter, a kind of glutinous composition augmenting them by enlarging, or even length- for food, made by beating different bodies into ening it; and that sometimes not so much by one mass. All these are of similar sigr.ification, change of the letters, as of their pronunciation; and perhaps derived from the Latin batuo. Thus as tu, sip, sap, son, sippet, where, besides the ex- take, touch, tickle
, tack, tackle ; all imply a local tenuation of the vowel, there is added the conjunction, from the Latin tango, ierigi, cattum. French termination et; sop, tip; spit, srout; babe, From rws are formed iwain, eui:e, twenty, baby; bocby, Birmis; great pronounced long, rruelve, twins, twine, twist, swirl, swig, with, especially if with a stronger sound, gree-r; little twinge, between, betwixt, iwilight, twaibił. pronounced long, lec-tle ; ring, tang, rong, im
The following remarks, extracted from Wallis, ports a succession of smaller and then greater sounds; and so in jingle, jangle, ringle, rangle, and dity, and such as perhaps might in' every làn
are ingenious, but of more subtlety than solimany other made words.
Muck k wever of this is arbitrary and fanciful, de guage be enlarged without end. penting wholly on oral ullerance, and therefore scarce
Sn usually imply the nose, and what relates by wrihy the notice of Wallis.
to it. Froin the Latin wasus are derived the Of concrete adjectives are made abstract French nez and the English rose; and nesse, a subscantives, by adding the termination ness; promontory, as projecting like a nose. But as and a few in bood or bead, noting charact:r if from the consonants ns taken from nasius, and or qualities; as white, wbiteness; hard, hard. transposed that they may the better correness; great, greatness; skilful, skilfulness, un
spond, s, denote nases; and thence are derived stilfulness; godbead, manbood, maidenhead, many words that relate to the nose, as snout, widrabond, knigbrbood, priest bood, likelibood, snuft
, snuffle, saft, snarle, snudge
snelx', snore, sport, sneer, smicker, snor, snivel, snite, falsehood.
There is another sn, which may perhaps be There are other abstracts, partly derived derived from the Latin sinuo, as sniki, smeat, snail; from adjectives, and partly from verbs, which snare; so likewise snap, and snaich, smil, smuk. are formed by the addition of the termina Bi imply a blast; as blow, blass, to blusi, io blight, tion tb, a small change being sometimes made; and, metaphorically, io blast one's reputation; as long, lengib; strong,strengib; broad, breadıb; bient, blenk, a bleok place, to look bleak or weawide, widib; deep, depıb; true, frutb; warm,
therbeaten, bleak, bray, bleach, bluster, blurt, blister, warmb; dear, dearib; slow, slowibi merry, blat, d'udder, blet, blister, blabber-liļi', blubbermirtb; heal, bealıb; well, weal, wealit; dry, check', bloed, biste herrings, blası, plaze, to blow, dreng bto; young, youtb; and so moon, montb.
that is, blossom, bloom; and perhaps blood and
blush. Like these are some words derived from
In the native words of our tongue is to be verbs; die, dea!b; till, tiltb; grow, grozulb; found a great agreement between the letters mow, later mozytó, after mow'lb, commonly and the things signified; and therefore the poken and written later math, after matb; sounds of letters smaller, sharper, louder, closer, steal, slealıb; bear, birib; rue, ruh; and proba. softer, stronger, clearer, more obscure, and bly carib from to car or plow; fiy, flight; more stridulous, do very often intimate the like weigb, weig bı; fray, fright; to draw, draugbi. effects in the thing signified.
Thus words that begin with str intimate the These should rather be written fig"th, freigh!h, force and effect of the thing signified, as if proonly that custom will not sufier h to be twice bably derived from spóropeo, or strenuus ; as, repeated.
strong, strength, stresu, sirike, streak, stroke, strip, The same form retain faith, spighi, wreath, scrive, trif, struggli, stroul, strut, strelcb, sorci, tvark, brokk, fratk, briath, socik, work, light, sbrici, stiegħi, that is, narrow, dis ruin, stress, diswight, and the like, whose primitives are either tress, sirim,,, straľ, stream, streamer, strand, strip, entirely obsolete, or seldoin occur. Perhaps they stray, struggle, string", stride, straddle. are derived from fey or føy, spry, wry, wreck, $: in like manner imply strength, but in a brew, mox, fry, bray, say, work.
Tess degree, so fruch only as is sufficient to pre
serve what has been already communicated, raSome ending in ship, imply an office, em ther than acquire any new degree; as if it were ployment, or condition; as kingsbip, ward derived from the Latin sto: for example, siand, 5628, e uardiansbip, parizersbip, stewardship, stay, that is, to remain, or to prop; staff, stay, beadsbep, lordsbep
that is, to oppose ; stop, ro sruft, saft, lo stay, that
is, to stop; a slay, that is an obstacle; sick, siut, wamble, eæble ; but in these there is something stutter, stammer, siagge, sick.C, stick, siaki, a sharp pale, and any thing deposited at play; stak, dem, In nimble, the acuteness of the vowel denotes sting, io sting, stink, stitch, stud, stanchue, stut, stut celerity. lo sparkle, sp denotes dissipation, ar an bles to stub up, stump, whence stumble, s'alb, to acute crackling, k a sudden interruption, / a stalk, step, to stamp with the feet, whence 19 frequent iteration; and in like manner in stamp, that is, to make an impression and a sprinkle, unless in may imply the subtility of the stamp; sow, 19 stow, 10 bestow, steward or s:ow dissipated guttules Thick and ibin differ, in that ard, lead, -zady, steadfast, stabli, a sabie, a stali, 10 the former ends with an obruse consonant, and stall, seogh, stali, srill, stall, stallage, stali, stage, still the latter with an acute. adj. and sell adv. stale, sicut, sturdy, steed, stogi, In like manner, in squeek, squeak, sques!, squell, sel.137, stiff, siark-dead, ro starve with hunger or braul, wraul, y ul, spaul, screek, shriek, sk' i'l, skarp, cold; stune, steel, stera, stanch, so slanck blood, 10 shrivel, wrikle, crack, crash, class, gnash, plazh, stare, sleep, stecple, stair, standard, a stated mea crush, hush, hisse, fisse, whist, soft, jarr, hurl, cul, sorc, slately. In all these, and perhaps some whirl, bus, bustli, spindle, dwindle, twine, ewis', others, u denote something firin and fixed. and in many more, we may observe the agree
Th, imply a more violent degree of motion, ment of such sort of sounds with the thing siga as throw, thrust, skrog, shrob, through, threat, nified: and this so frequently happens, that terialen, ihrall, threes.
scarce any language which I know can be comW, iinply some sort of obliquity or distor- pared with ours. So that one monosyllable tion, as wry, to wreathe, wres', wrestle, wring, word, of which kind are almost all ours, emwrong, wrinch, wrench, wrangle, wrinkle, wraih, phatically expresses what in other languages wreek, wrack, wretch, wrist, wrap.
can scarce be explained but by compounds, or Swimply a silent agitation, or a softer kind decompounds, or sometimes a tedious circumloof lateral inotion; as sway, swag, io sway, szag.
cution. ger, swerve, swedi, sweep, swill, swim, swing, swift,
We hare many words borrowed from the sweet, switch, swinge. Nor is there much difference of sm in smoothing communicated by the intervention of the
Latin ; but the greatest part of them were prug, smile, smisk, smite, which signifies the same as to strike, but is a softer word; smali, smell, Frencia; as grace, face, elegant, elegance, flsmark, smother, smart, a smart blow properly sig: sembie. nifies such a kind of stroke as with an origin
Some verbs which seem borrowed from the ally silent motion, implied in sm, proceeds to a Latin, are formed from the present tense, quick violence, denoted by ar suddenly crided, and some from the supines. as is sbewn by t.
From the present are formed spend, expend, Ci denote a kind of adhesion or tenacity, as in expendo; conduce, conduco ; despise, despicio ; cleave,cluy, cling, climb, clamier, clummy,clasi, co claski, to clip, to clinch cloak, clog, close, to close, a diod, a cher
, approre, approbo; conceive, concipio.
From the supines, supplicate, suppiico; deo as a clo: of blood, clouted cream, a clutlır, a cluster,
Sp imply a kind of dissipation or expansion, monstrate, demonstro; dispose, dispono ; exespecially a quick one, particularly if there be patiale, expatior ; suppress, supprimo; exempi, an, as if it were from sjargs, or separo: for
eximo. example, scal, sping, sjerig, spout, sprinkle, split, Nothing is more apparent than that Wallis sprinter, spil, spis, sputter, spaller.
goes too far in quest of originals. Many of SI denote a kind of silent fall, or a less ob- these which seem selected as immediate deservable motion; as in slime, shde, slip, shipper, scendants from the Latin, are apparently French, siy, sleight, slit, siva, sla é, sligh', s'ing, shop. as conceive, enproté, cxflost, ex
An so likewise a:h, in crash, rash, gask, jush, clash, Lash, slash, plash, trast, indicate something Some words purely French, not derired acting more nimbly and sharply. But ush, in from the Latin, we have transferred into our crush, rush, push, flush, blush, brush, hush, push, im- language; as garden, zorter, borkier, 10 ents ply something as acting more obtusely and
vance, 19 cry, to plead, from the French, jar. dully. Yet in both there is indicated a swift elin, jartier, bouclier, avancer, truer, plaides; and sudden motion, not instantaneous, but gras though i.deed, even of these, part is of Lä. dual, by the continued sound sh.
rin original. Thus in fling, sling, ding, suing, cling, sing, coring, s'ing, the tingling of the termination np, As to many words which we have in com. and the sharpness of the vowel i, imply the mon with the Germans, it is doubtful whethe continuation of a very slender motion or tre the old Teutons borrowed them from the Lamor, at length indeed vanishing, but not sud- tins, or the Latins from the Teutons, or both denly interrupted. But in cink, wirk, sink, clink, had them from some common original; as cuir chink, think, that end in a mute consonant, there vinum; uind, ventus; weni, veni; way, vi: is also indicated a sudden ending,
wall, vallum; wa!!ort, volvo; w901, veilus; eu. If there be an I, as in jingle, ringle, tirkle, mingle, volo; worm, vermis; worth, virtus; wasf, vesp sprinkle, iwinkle, there is implied å frequency, or day, dies; draw, traho; tame, domo, capa se iteration of small acts. And the same frequency of jugum, früyos; ovur, umper, super, uzgi an, su acts, but less subtileby reason of the clearer vowel Eight; breuk, frango; fiy, volo; hlow, fo. a, is indicated in jangle, tangke, spangle, mangle,
no doubt but the Teutonick is more ancia wronge, brangle, dangle; as also in mumble, grum- than the Latin; and it is no less certain, i ble, jumhie, rumble, stumble, rumble, crumble, fumble
. the Latin, which borrowed a great number But at the same time the close u implies some words, not only from the Greek, especially thing obscure or obtunded; and a congeries of Æolick, but from other neighbouriug langua consonants mbi, denotes a confused kind of roll as the Oscan and others, which have long ing or tumbling, as in ramble, scamble, scromb.c, come obsolete, received not a few from
the modern sound of the v consonant was for
fensio, fence; dispensator, spensti; asculto, escout. recolligo, recoil ; severo, squear; stridulus, shrill; so; audere, dare; cavere, ware; whence a-tvari, bewart, wary, warn, warning, for the Latin v merly that of the letter f, that is, the Æolick others whose etymology is acknowledged by digamma, which had the sound of , and the every body; as, Alexander, Eirik, Scanner, Sura modern sound of the letter s was that of the der, Sundy, Sinny; Elizabetha, Elizabeth, Elisabeth, Greek p or ph; ulcus, ulcere, ulcer, sor, and Betty, Bess; Margaretta, Murgaret, Marge, Mega hence wtry, 709, Sorrowful; ingenium, engine,gi.; Peg; Maria, Mary, Mal, Pal, Maliin, Monkin, sealenus, leaning, unless you would rather de Murukes; Matthæus, Mattha, Matthew; Martha, rive it from wind, whence inclino ; infundi. Mart, Put; Gulielmuş, Wilhelmus, Gironx, Guita bulum, furnel; gagates, jett; projectum, to jest laume, William, Will, Bill, Wilkin, Pon, Whey
Teutonick. It is certain, that the English, Ger There are syncopes somewhat harder: from malu
, and other Teutonick languages, retained tempore, time; from nomine, name; domina, some derived from the Greek, which the Latin dome; as the French homme, femme, nom, from hohas not ; 29 ax, ashs, mis, ford, ffurd, daughter, mine, femina, nomine. Thus pagina, page; lechter
, wackie, miegle, moon, seer, grasie, grej, to worhgoy, por ; xumeace, cup; cantharus, can; tengrave, to scrape; zuhole, from ágirn, uitle w oponango torium, tent; precor, pray; præda, prey; specio, Seperig
, moyenasi pusyrów, pain tripés, ypáquy chose speculor, spy; plico, ply; implico, imply; replico, Since they received these immediately from the reply; complico, comply; sedes episcopalis, see. Greeks, without the intervention of the Latin A vowel is also cut off in the middle, that language
, why may not other words be derived the number of the syllables may be lessened ; immediately from the same fountain, though as, amita, aunt; spiritus, spright; debitum, debli they be likewise found among the Latins.? dubito, doubt; comes, comitis, count; clericus,
clerk; quietus, quit, quire; acquieto, to acquir; seOur ancestors were studious to form bor- paro, io spare; stabilis, stable; stabulum, stable; rowed words, however long, into monosyle palatium, palace, place; rabula, ruil; rawl, wraul, lables; and not only cut off the formative tere brawl, rable, brable; quæsitio, quese. minations, but cropped the first syllable, espe. As also a consonant, or at least one of a softer cially in words beginning with a vowel; and sound, or even a whole syllable; rotundus, rejected not only vowels in the middle, but round; fragilis, frail; securus, sure ; regula, rule; likewise consonants of a weaker sound, re
tegula, tile ; subtilis, subtle; nomen, noun; detaining the stronger, which seem the bones dain, scom; 'superare, to soar i periculum, peril;
canus, dean; computo, count ; subitaneus, sudof words
, or changing them for others of the mirabile, marvel; as magnus, main; dignor; same organ, in order that the sound might deign; tingo, stain'; tinctum, teint ; pingo, point ; become the softer; but especially transpos. prædari, reach. ing their order, that they might the more The contractions may seem harder, where readily be pronounced without the interme.' many of them meet: as xupiaxis, kyrk, church; diate vowels. For example: in expendo, spend; presbyter, priest; sacristanus, sexton; frango, exemplum, sample; excipio, scape ; extraneus, fregi, break, breach; fagus, püyor, beech, f changed Strange; extractum, stretcb'd; excrucio, 10 into 6 and g into ch, which are letters near Screw; exscorio, 19 SCOUT ; excorio, to scourge;
a-kin; frigesco, freeze ; frigesco, fresb, sc into sh, excortica , to scratcb; and others beginning and refrigesco, refresh; but viresco, fresh; pble
as above in bishop, fih, so in scapha, skif, skip with ex: as also emendo, 10 mend; episcopus, botomus, peam; bovina, beef; vitulina, val; biskop, in Danish bisp; epistola, episile; hos- scutifer, squire; pænitentia, penance; sanctuapitale , spittle ; Hispania, Spain; historia, rium, sanctuary, senery; quæsitio, chase; perqui,
sitio, purchase; anguilla, cel; insula, isle, ile, island, Many of these etymologies are doubtful, and iland; insuletta, ister, ilet, cyght, and more consome evidently mistaken.
tractedly cy, whence Owsney, Ruley, Ely; exa.
minare, to scan, namely, by rejecting from the beThe following are somewhat harder : Aler- ginning and end e and o, according to the
usual poder, Sander ; Elisabeth", Betty; apis, bet ; aper, manner
, the remainder samin, which the Sarbanii passing into b, as in bishop ; and by cutting ons, who did not use x, write csamen, or scamen, off a from the beginning, which is restored ië is contracted into scan; as from dominus, don'; the middle: but for the old bar or bore, we now
nomine, noun; abomino, ban; and indeed apum Say bore; as for lang, long ; for bein, bane ; for stane,
examen they turned into sciume ; for which we nike ; aprugna,brawn,p being changed into b,and say swarme, by inserting r to denote the murintransposed, as in aper, and g changed into w, as muring ; thesaurus, store ; sedile,
sool; vclàs wer; polithe beginning, and changing into f, as in juice ; catena, cbain : caliga, calga; chause, a fail, pulus, a foal; pater, father, pavor, chausse, Fr. hase: extinguo, stanch, squenck, quensli
, Set polio, file; pleo, impleo, Ful, full
; stint ; foras, forth ; species, spice ; recito, read; adpeak taken from the beginning : apex, a piece; lock; excerpo, scrape, scrabble
, scraw ; extravagus, het hy nike; zophorus
, frihej mesium, suma de stray, traggle ; collectum, cler, clutcb. colligo, ci online and hence serenoscrambos estarum exculpo
, quil; impetere,"lo impeach; augeo
, auxi, uur; het en exterritus, biare; extonitus, 'attonitus, and 'vanesco, vanui, wane syllabare, so spell het die stomacbus, maw ; offendo, fined ; obstipo, puteus, pie ; granum, corn} comprimo, cramp
crump, crumple, crinkle.
Some may seem harsher, yet may not be reare derived from proper names : and there are
forth, a jetty : cucullus, a cow..
Thus cariophyllus, filos; gerofilo, Ital. giriffée, plicated etilition. Hence we call spling whatever gilofer, Fr. gitti fiorver, which the vulgar call juiso has an elastick force; as also a fountain of wa. flower, as if derived from the month July; petro- ter, and thence the origin of any thing; and to selinum, parsley ; portulaca, purslain ; cydonium, spring, to germinate; and spring, one of the four guince; cydoniarum, quiddeny; persicum, peach; seasons. From the same spar, and out, is formed eruca, eruke, which they corrupt to ear-wig, as sperout, and with the termination ig, sprig; of if it took its name from the ear; annulus gem which the following, for the most part, is the minus, a girama', or gimbai-ring; and thus the difference: sprout, of a grosser sound, imports a word gimbal and jumbal is transferred to other fatter or grosser bud; sprig, of a slenderer things thus interwoven; quelques choses, kick- sound denotes a smaller shoot. In like manner, shaws. Since the origin of these, and many from st of the verb strive, and out, come srout others, liowever forced, is evident, it ought to and struit. From the same stry and the terminaappear no wonder to any one if the anieients tion uggle, is made struggle; and this glimports, have thus disfigured many, especially as they but without any great noise, by reason of the 60 much affected monosyllables; and, to make obscure sound of the vowel . In bike manner, them sound the softer, took this · liberty of from throw and rollis made trott; and almost in maiming, taking away, changing, transposing, the same sense is trundle, from throro or thrust and softening them.
and ruridle. Thus gruff or grough is compounded But while we derive these from the Latin, 1 of grave and rough; and irudge from trad or tree do not mean to say, that many of them did not and drudge. immediately come to tis from the Saxon, Danish, Durch, and Teutonick languages and other dia In these observations it is easy to discover lects, and some taken more lately from the great sagacity and great extravagance, an French or Italians, or Spaniards.
ability to do much defeated by the desire of The same word, according to its different sig- doing more than enough. It may be renifications, often has a different origin; as to marked, bear a burden, from fero; but to bear, whence 1. That Wallis's derivations are often so birth, born, bairn, comes from pario; and a bear, made, that by the same licente any language at least if it be of Latin original, from fera: may be deduced from any other. Thus fierch, a fish, from perca, but fierch, a mea
2. That he makes no distinction between sure, from pertica, and likewise io perch. To spell is from yliaba; but spell, an enchantment, words immediately derived by us from the by which it is believed that the boundaries are
Latin, and those which, being copied from só fixed in lands, that none can pass theme other languages, can therefore afford to exagainst the master's will, from expello; and ample of the genius of the English language, spell, a messenger, from epistola; whence gospel, or its laws of derivation. good-spel, or godepel
. Thus freese, or freeze, from 3. That he derives from the Latin, often frigesco; but frieze, an architeetonic word, from with great harshness and violence, words apmphorus; but freese, for cloch, from Frisia; or per- parently Teutonick; and tierefore, accord, haps from frigesce, as being more ft than any ing to his own declaration, probably older other for keeping out the cold,
than the tongue to which he refers them. There are many words among us, even mo
4. That some of his derivations are apposyllables, compounded of two or more words, at least serving instead of compounds, and.com. paréntly erroneous. prising the signification of more words than one; as from script and roll comes scroll; from proud and dance, prance; from st of the verb slag,
SYNTAX or stand, and cut, is made strur; from stour and hardy, siurdy; from sp of spil or spew, and out, The established practice of grammarians recomes sprout; froin the same sp, with the ter. quires that I should here treat of the Syntax; mination in, is spin;, and adding out, spin outs but our language has so little inflection, or vaand from the same spy with it, is spit, which riety of terminations, that its construction neionly differs from spout in that it is smaller, and ther requires nor admits many rules. Wallis with less noise and force; but spurter is, because therefore has totally neglected it; and Jonson, of the obscure , something between spit and whose desire of following the writers upon the sfout; and by reason of adding », it intimates a
learned languages made him think a syntax infrequent iteration and noise, but obscurely con dispensably necessary, has published such perty fused: whereas spatter, on account of the sharper observations as were better omitted. and clearer vowel a, intimates a more distinct noise, in which it chiefly differs from spulter. From the sanie sf and the termination ark,
The verb, as in other languages, agrec: comes purk, signifying a single emission of fire with the nominative in number and person with a noise ; namely, sp the emission, or the as Thou fliest from good; be runs to dealb. more acute noise, and the mute consonant
Our adjectives and pronouns are inva intimates its being suddenly terminated ; but by riable. adding /, is made the frequentative spurkit. The of two substantives the noun possessive same sp by adding “, that is spr, implies a more lively impetus of diffusing or expanding itself; the genitive; as, His fatber's glory; The sun to which adding the termination ing it becomes beat. spring ; its vigour spor imports; its sharpness the
Verbs transitive require an oblique case termination ing; and lastly in acute and trem as He lors me ; You feur kim. otis, ending in the mute consonante, denotes the All prepositions require an eblique cas sudden ending of any mocion, that it is ineant in as. II gave ibis to me; He took this from a its primary significaciou, of a single, not a cpm He
ibis of me; He came with me.