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You have been bred to business; you can ci- to. Circles of the German empire. Such pher; I wonder you never used your pen and provinces and principalities as have a ink.
right to be present at diets. They are To CI'PHER. V. a. To write in occult
in number ten. characters.
To CIRCLE. v. a. [from the noun.] He frequented sermons, and penned notes: his notes he ciphered with Greek characters.
1. To move round any thing. Hayward
The lords, that were appointed to circle the To CI'RCINATE. v. a. (circino, Lat.) To
hill, had some days before planted themselves in places convenient.
Bacon. make a circle ; to compass round, or Another Cynthia her new journey runs, turn round.
Bailey: And other planets circle other suns. CIRCINATION. n. s. [circinatio, Lat.) 2. To enclose; to surround. An orbicular motion ; a turning round;
What stern ungentle hands a measuring with the compasses. Bailey.
Have lopp'd and hew'd, and made thy body bare
Of her two branches, those sweet ornaments CIRCLE. n. s. (circulus, Lat.]
Whose circling shadows kings have sought to 1. A line continued till it ends where it
Shakspeare began, having all its parts equidistant While these fond arms, thus circling you, may from a common centre.
prove Any thing that moves round about in a circle, More heavy chains than those of hopeless love. in less time than our ideas are wont to succeed
Prior. one another in our minds, is not perceived co Unseen, he glided thro' the joyous crowd, move ; but seems to be a perfect intire circle of With darkness circled andan ambient cloud. Popes that matter, or colour, and not a part of a circle in motion.
To Circle in. To confine; to keep Locke.
3. By a circle I understand not here a perfect geo
together. metrical circle ; but an orbicular figure, whose We term those things dry which have a conlength is equal to its breadth ; and which, as to
sistence within themselves, and which, to enjoy sense, may seem circular.
a determinate figure, do not require the stop or Then a deeper still,
hindrance of another body to limit and circle In circle following circle, gathers round
Digby or Bodies, To close the face of things. Thomsen's Summer. To CI'RCLE, v. n. To move circularly; 2. The space included in a circular line. to end where it begins. 3. A round body; an orb.
The well fraught bowl It is he that sitteth upon the circle of the carth.
Circles incessant; whilst the humble cell
Isaiab. With quavering laugh and rural jests resounds. 4. Compass; enclosure.
Philips A great magician,
Now the circling years disclose Obscured in the circle of the forest. Sbakspeare. CIRCLED. adj. [from circle.] Having the
'The day predestin'd to reward his woes. Pope. s. An assembly surrounding the principal
form of a circle ; round. person. To have a box where eunuchs sing,
Th' inconstant moon, And, foremost in the circle, eye a king. Pope. CIRCLET. n. s. [from circle.] A circle ;
That monthly changes in her circled orb. Sbak. 6. A company; an assembly.
I will call over to him the whole circle of an orb: properly, a little circle. beauties that are disposed among the boxes.
Then take repast, till Hesperus display'd
Addison. His golden circlet in the western shade. Pope. Ever since that time, Lisander visits in every CI'RCLING. particip. adj. [from To circle.] circle.
Having the form of a circle; circular; 7. Any series ending as it begins, and
round. perpetually repeated. There be fruit trees in hot countries, which
Round he surveys; and well might, where he
stood have blossoms and young fruit, and young fruit
So high above the circling canopy and ripe fruit, almost all the year, succeeding
Of night's extended shade. Milton's Par. Lost. one another; but this circle of ripening cannot be but in succulent plants, and hot countries.
CIRCUIT. n. s. [circuit, Fr. circuitus,
Bacon. Latin.] Thus in a circle runs the peasant's pain, 1. The act of moving round any thing. And the year rolls within itselt again. Dryden. There are four moons also perpetually rolling 8. An inconclusive form of argument, in round the planet Jupiter, and carried along with which the foregoing proposition is him in his periodical circuit round the sun.
Watts on the Mind, proved by the following, and the following proposition inferred from the 2. The space enclosed in a circle.
He led me up foregoing That heavy bodies descend hy gravity; and
A woody mountain, whose high top was plain,
A circuit wide inclos'd. 'Milton's Par. Lost. again, that gravity is a quality whereby an heavy body descends; is an impertinent circle, and 3. Space, or extent, measured by travel. teacheth nothing. Glanville's Scepsis.
ling round. That fallacy called a circle, is when one of the
He attributeth unto it smallness, in respect of premisses in a syllogism is questioned and op
Hooker. posed, and we intend to prove it by the conclu
The lake of Bolsena is reckoned one-andsion.
Addison on Italy. 9. Circumlocution ; indirect form of words. 4. A ring; a diadem; that by which any Has he given the lye
thing is incircled. In circle, or oblique, or semicircie,
And this fell tempest shall not cease to rage, Or direct parallel? you must challenge him. Until the golden circuit on my head,
Fletcher's Q. of Cor. Do calm che fury of this mad-brain'd ilaw. Sbal,
5. The visitations of the judges for hold. The heavens have no diversity or difference, ing assizes.
but a simplicity of parts, and equiformity is The circuits, in former times, went but round motion, continually succeeding each other; about the pale; as the circuit of the cynosura
so that, from what point soever we compute, about the pole.
the account will be common unto the whole 6. The tract of country visited by the CIRCULARLY. adv. (from circular.]
Bretre. judges. 7. Long deduction of reason.
1. In form of a circle. Up into the watch tower get,
The internal form of it consists of several reAnd see all things despoild of fallacies;
gions, involving one another like orbs about the Thou shalt not peep thro' lattices of eyes,
same centre; or of the several elements cast airNor hear thro' labyrinths of ears, nor learn
cularly about each other.
Bured. By circuit or collections to discern. Donne.
2. With a circular motion. CIRCUIT of action. [In law.] Is a longer
Trade, which, like blood, should circularing
flow, course of proceeding to recover the
Stopp'd in their channels, found its freedom kost thing sued for than is needful. Cowell.
Dryden. To CI'RCUIT. v. n. (from the noun.] To
Every body, moved circularly about any ceo move circularly:
tre, recedes, or endeavours to recede, from that Pining with equinoctial heat, unless
centre of its motion,
Rojo The cordial cup perpetual motion keep,
To CI'RCULATE. v. n. (from circulus.] Quick circuiting.
1. To move in a circle ; to run round; to CIRCUITE'ER. n. s. [from circuit.] One
return to the place whence it departed that travels a circuit.
in a constant course. Like your fellow circuiteer, the sun, you tra
If our lives motions theirs must imitate, vel the round of the earth, and behold all the
Our knowledge like our blood must circulate
Deabus, iniquities under the heavens.
Nature is a perpetual motion; and the work CIRCUITION. n. s. [circuitio, Lat.)
of the universe circulates without any interval 1. The act of going round any thing.
L'Estrast 2. Compass; maze of argument.
2. To be dispersed. To apprehend by what degrees they lean to
As the mints of calumny are perpetually as things in show, though not in deed, repugnant
work, a great number of curious inventions, isone to another, requíreth more sharpness of wit,
sued out from time to time, grow current amunt more intricate circuitions of discourse, and depth the party, and circulate through the whole kingof judgment, than common ability doth yield.
Hooker. To CI'RCULATE. v.a. To put about CIRCULAR. adj. [circularis, Lat.]
In the civil wars, the money spent on bech 1. Round, like a circle ; circumscribed
sides was circulated at home; by a circle.
. The frame thereof seem'd partly circular,
CIRCULA'TION. n. s. [from circulate.] And part triangular.
1. Motion in a circle; a course in which He first inclos'd for lists a level ground; the motion tends to the point from The form was circular, Dryden's Fables,
which it began. Nero's port, composed of huge moles running What more obvious, one would think, than round it in a kind of circular figure. Addison. the circulation of the blood, unknown till the last 2. Successive in order ; always returning.
Burnet's Theery. From whence th' innumerable race of things As much blood passeth through the lungs as By circular successive order springs. Roscom. through all the rest of the body: the circulatia 3. Vulgar; mean; circumforaneous. is quicker, and heat greater, and their texture
Had Virgil been a circular poet, and closely extremely delicate. Arbutbrot en Alicante adhered to history, how could the Romans have 2. A series in which the same order is alhad Dido?
Dennis. ways observed, and things always re4. Ending in itself: used of a paralogism, turn to the same state.
where the second proposition at once As, for the sins of peace, thou hast brough proves the first, and is proved by it. upon us the miseries of war; so, for the sins of
One of Cartes's first principles of reasoning, war, thou seest fit to deny us the blessings of after he had doubted of every thing, seems to be peace, and to keep us in a circulation of miseries
. too circular to safely build upon; for he is for proving the being of God from the truth of our God, by the ordinary rule of nature, permits faculties, and the truth of our faculties from the this continual circulation of human things. Swifl.
being of a God. Baker's Reflect. on Learning. 3. A reciprocal interchange of meaning. 3. CIRCULAR Letter. A letter directed to When the apostle saith of the Jews, that they several persons, who have the same in.
crucified the Lord of glory; and when the Son terest in some common affair ; as in the
of man, being on earth, affirmeth that the Son
of man was in heaven at the same instant, there convocation of assemblies.
is in these two speeches that mutual circulation 6. CIRCULAR Lines. Such straight lines before mentioned.
as are divided from the divisions made CIRCULATORY. n. s. [from circulate.! A in the arch of a circle ; as the lines of chymical vessel, in which that which sines, tangents, and secants, on the rises from the vessel on the fire is colplain scale and sector.
lected and cooled in another fixed upor 7. CIRCULAR Sailing, is that performed it, and falls down again. on the arch of a great circle.
CI'RCULATOR Y. adj[from circulate.] CIRCULA'RITY. n. s. [from circular.) A Circulatory Letters are the same with circular form.
CIRCULAR Letters. :
no publick debes
CIRCUMA'MBIENCY. n. s. [from circum
Behind him cast: the broad circumference ambient.] The act of encompassing.
Hung on his shoulders like the moon. Milton, Ice receiveth its figure according unto the sur. To CIRCUMFERENCE. w.a. [from the face it concreteth, or the circumambiency which noun.] To include in a circular space. conformeth it.
'Brown. CIRCUMA'MBIENT. adj. [circum and
Nor is the vigour of this great body included ambio, Latin.] Surrounding; encom
only in itself, or circumference by its surface; but
diffused at indeterminate distances. Brown. passing ; enclosing.
CIRCUMFERE'NTOR. n. s. (from circumThe circumambient coldness towards the sides
fero, Lat. to carry about.) An instru. of the vessel, like the second region, cooling and condensing of it.
ment used in surveying, for measuring To CIRCUMA'MBULATE. v. n. (from cir.
angles, consisting of a brass, circle, an cum and ambulo, Latin.) To walk round
index with sights, and a compass, and about.
mounted on a staff, with a ball and TO CIRCUMCI'SE. v. a. [circumcido,
Chambers. Latin.) To cut the prepuce or fore. CIRCUMFLEX. n. s. [circumflexus, Lat.] skin, according to the law given to the
An accent used to regulate the proJews.
nunciation of syllables, including or They came to circumcise the child. Luke. participating the acute and grave.
One is alarmed at the industry of the whigs, in The circumflex keeps the voice in a middle aiming to strengthen their routed party by a re
tune, and therefore in the Latin is compounded inforcement from the circumcised. Swift.
of both the other,
Holder. CIRCUMCISION. n. s. (from circumcisé.] CIRCU'MFLUENCE. n. s. [from circum
The rite or act of cutting off the fore fuent.] An enclosure of waters. skin.
CIRCU'MFLUENT. adj. [circumfluens, They left a race behind
Lat.) Flowing round any thing. Like to themselves, distinguishable scarce
I rule the Paphian race, From gentiles, but by circumcision vain. Milton. Whose bounds the deep circumfluent waves emTO CIRCUMDU'CT. v.a. [circumduct,
brace; Lat.) To contravene ; to nullify: a
A duteous people, and industrious isle. Pope.
CIRCU'MFLUOUS. adj. [circumfluus, Lat.] term of civil law.
Environing with waters. Acts of judicature may be cancelled and cire
He the world cumducted by the will and direction of the judge; as also by the consent of the parties liti
Built on circumfluous waters calm, in wide
Crystalline ocean. Milton's Paradise Lost. gant, before the judge has pronounced and given
Aylife's Parergon. CIRCUMPOR A'Neous. adj. (circumfora
Laertes'son, girt with circumfluous tides. Pope. CIRCUMDU'CTION. n. s. [from circumduct.]
neus, Latin.] Wandering from house to 1. Nullification; cancellation.
house : as, a circumforaneous fiddler, The citation may be circumducted, though the one that plays at doors. defendant should not appear; and the defendant TO CIRCUMFU'SE. v. a. [circumfusus, must be cited, as a circumduction requires.
Lat.) To pour round; to spread every
Aylife's Parergan. 2. A leading about.
Mien see better, when their eyes are against By long circumduction perhaps any truth may
the sun, or candle, if they put their hand before
Hooker. be derived from any other truth.
their eye. The glaring sun, or candle, weakens CIRCU'MFERENCE. n. s. [circumferen the eye; whereas the light circumfused is enough tia, Latin.)
for the perception. Bacon's Natural History. 1. The periphery; the line including and
His army, circumfus'd on either wing. Milt.
Earth, with her nether ocean circumfis'd, surrounding any thing.
Their pleasant dwelling-house. Milton. Extend thus far thy bounds,
This nymph the god Cesiphus had abus'd, This be thy just circumference, O world! Milton.
With all his winding waters circumfus'd. Addis. Because the hero is the centre of the main CIRCUMFU'SILE. adj. [circum and fusilis, action, all the lines from the circumference tend
Lat.] That may be poured or spread to him alone.
round any thing. circle, makes the whole circumference appear like
Artist divine, whose skilful hands infold a circle of fire,
Newton. The victim's horn with circumfusile gold. Popes 2. The space enclosed in a circle. CIRCUMFU'sion. N. s. [from circumfuse.] So was his will
The act of spreading round; the state Pronounc'd among the gods; and by an oath, of being poured round. That shook heav'n's whole circumference, con
TO CIRCU'MGYRATE. v. a. [circum firm'd.
gyrus, Lat.) To roll round. The whole circumference a mile around. Dryden.
All the glands of the body be congeries of va. 3. The external part of an orbicular body.
rious sorts of vessels curled, circumg yrated, and The bubble, being looked on by the light of
complicated together. Ray on the Creation. the clouds reiected from it, seemed red at its CIRCUMGYRA'TION. n. s. [from circumapparent circumference. If the clouds were viewed gyrate.] The act of running round. through it, the colour at its circumference would The sun turns round his own axis in twentybe blue.
Necuton's Opticks. five days, from his first being put into suctia 4. An orb; a circle ; any thing circular circumg yration.
Chezine. or orbicular.
CIRCUMJ'ACEXT, adj. (circumjanti, His pond'rous shield, large and round,
Lying round any thing; bordering on Therefore must his choice be circumscriby
Unto the voice and yielding of that body CIRCUMI'TION. n. s. [from circumeo, cir.
Whereof he's head.
Sbakspeare cuinitum, Lat.) The act of going round.
He form'd the pow'rs of heav'n.
Such as he pleas'd, and circumscribd their
Dict. CIRCUMLIGATION. n. 5. [circumligo,
The action great, yet circumscrib'd by time; Lat.)
The words not forc'd, but sliding into rhime. 1. The act of binding round.
Dryder 2. The bond with which any thing is en
The external circumstances which do accom. compassed.
pany men's acts, are those which do circumscri
and limit them. CIRCUMLOCU’TION. 1. s. [circumlocutio,
You are above Latin.)
The little forms which circumscribe your sex 1. A circuit or compass of words; peri
CIRCUMSCRI'Prion, n.s. (circumscriptio, Virgil, studying brevity, could bring these Latin.) words into a narrow compass, which a translator 1. Determination of particular forin or cannot render without circumlocutions. Dryden. , I much prefer the plain Billingsgate way of
magnitude. calling names; because it would save abundince
In the circumscription of many leaves, flowers
, of time lost by circumlocution.
fruits, and seeds, nature affects a regular figure.
Savift. 2. The use of indirect expressions.
Rayon tbe Creaties
2. Limitation ; boundary ; contraction; These people are not to be dealt withal, but by a train of mystery and circumlocution, L'Estr.
confinement. CIRCUMMU'RED adj. ( circum and murus,
I would not my unhoused free condition Lat.] Walied round; encompassed CIRCUMSCRI'PTIVE. adj. [from circum
Put into circumscription and confine. Sbakspeart. with a wall. He hath a gardeu circummured with bricks.
scribe.] Enclosing the superficies; mark. Sbakspeare.
ing the form or limits on the outside. CIRCUMNA'VIGABLE, adj. [from circum Stones regular, are distinguished by their exnavigate ] That may be sailed round.
ternal forms: such as is circumscriptier, or de The being of antipodes, the habitableness of
pending upon the whole stone, as in the eaglethe torrid zone, and the rendering the whole
stone, is properly called the figure. Gres terraqueous globe circumnavigable. Ray.
CIRCUMSPE'CT. adj. (circumspeitus, To CIRCUMNA' IGATE. v a. [circum
Lat.] Cautious; attentive to every and navigo, Lat.] To sail round. thing ; watchful on all sides. CIRCUMNAVIGATION. n. s. [from cir.
None are for me,
That look into me with consid’rate eyes: cumnavigate.] The act of sailing round. What he says concerning the circumnavigation
High reaching Buckingham grows circun sporta
Sbatsport of Africa, from the straits of Gibraltar io the
Men of their own nature circumspect and slot, Red Sea, is very remarkable. Arbutb. on Coins.
but at the time discountenanced and discontent. CIRCUMNA'VIGATOR. N. S. One that sails round.
The judicious doctor had been very watchtal CIRCUMPLICA’TION, n. so (circumplico, and circumspect, to keep himself from being imLat.]
posed upon. 1. The act of enwrapping on every side.
CIRCUMSPE'CTION. n.s. (from circum. 2. The state of being enwrapped.
spect.] Watchfulness on every side ; CIRCUMPO'LAR. adj. (from circum and
caution ; general attention. polar.] Stars near the north pole, which
Observe the sudden growth of wickedness,
from want of care and circumspection in the mist move round it, and never set in the
impressions. northern latitudes are said to be cir.
So saying, his proud step he scornful turn d, cumpolar stars.
But with sly circumspection. Milton's Pur. Lt.t. CIRCUMPOSITION, 9. s. [from circum CIRCUMSPE'CTIVE. adj. [circumspite
and position.] The act of placing any circumspectum, Latin.] Looking round thing circularly.
every way; attentive; vigilant ; cautious. Now is your season for circumposition, by tiles No less alike the politick and wise, or baskets of earth. Evelyn's Kalendar,
All sly slow men with circumspective eyes, CIRCUMRA'STON. 11. 5. [circumrasio, Lat.]
The act of slaving or paring round. Dici. CIRCUMSPECTIVELY. adv. (from cir CIRCUMROTA’TION. n. s. (circum and cuinspective.] Cautiously; vigilantly: roto, Lat.]
attentively; with watchfulness crers 1. The act of whirling round with a mo way ; watchfully.
tion like that of a wheel; circumvolu. CI'RCUMSPECTLY. adv. [from circum. tion ; circurigyration.
spect.] With watchfulness every waji 2. The state of being whirled round.
cautiously; watchfully ; vigilantly. TO CIRCUMSCRIBE. v. a. (circum and Their authority weighs more with me, than scribo, Lat.]
the concurrent suffrages of a thousand eyes 1. To enclose in certain lines or boundaries. who never examined the things so carefully and 2. To bound; to limit; to confine.
Ci'rCUMSPectness. n. s. (from circium
Shakspeare. who at home are nursed in security. Witisko
on the Creation.
CIRCUMSTANCE. n. s. [circumstantia, Virtue's but anguish, when 't is several,
By occasion wak'd, and circumstantial. DORNA,
He had been provoked by men's tedious and
circumstantial recitals of their affairs, or by their
multiplied questions about his own. Prior. cumstances of contempt, they do kindle their
Bacon's Essays. CIRCUMSTANTIALITY. n. s. [from cirOur confessing or concealing persecuted truths, cumstantial.] The appendage of circumvary and change their very nature, according to stances; the state of any thing as modidifferent circumstances of time, place, and per fied by circumstances.
GIRCUMSTA'NTIALLY. adv. [from ciro %. The adjuncts of a fact, which make it
1. According to circumstance; not essen-
tially ; accidentally.
Of the fancy and intellect, the powers are
only circumstantiallydifferent. Glanville's Scepsis.
2. Minutely ; exactly; in every circum-
stance or particular.
Davies, 1. To place in particular circumstances; 4. Incident; event: generally of a minute to invest with particular accidents or or subordinate kind.
2. To place in a particular condition, as
with regard to power or wealth. The poet has gathered those circumstances
A number infinitely superiour, and the best which most territy the imagination, and which
circumstantiated imaginable, are for the succession
of Hanover. really happen in the raging of a tempest. Addison.
TO CIRCUMVA'LLATE. v. a. [circum5. Condition; state of affairs. It is fre.
vallo, Lat.] To enclose round with quently used with respect to wealth or
trenches or fortifications. poverty; as, good or ill circumstances.
None but a virtuous man can hope well in all CIRCUMYALLATIon, n. s. [from cir-
When men are easy in their circumstances, they of circumvallation and contravallation at the siege
of a town in Livonia.
(from the 2. The fortification or trench thrown up
This gave respite to finish those stupendous
circumvallations and barricadoes, reared up sea
CIRCUMVE'CTION, n. s. [circumvectio,
1. The act of carrying round. CH'RCUNSTANT. adj. [circumstans, Lat.] 2. The state of being carried round. Surrounding ; environing.
TO CIRCUMVE'NT. v.a. [circumvenio,
Lat.] To deceive; to cheat; to impose
Digby on the Soul. upon ; to delude.
He fearing to be betrayed or circumvented by CIRCUMSTA'NTIAL. adj.
his cruel brother, fled to Barbarossa. Knolles. alis, low Lat.)
As his malice is vigilant, he resteth not to cir1. Accidental; not essential.
cumvent the sons of the first deceived. Brown,
Fall circumvented thus by fraud. Milton.
To die undaunted, and to circumvent. Dryden. old as christianity; and those circumstantial addi- CIRCUMVENTION.11.5.[from circumvent.] tions of secular encouragernent, christian princes 1. Fraud ; imposture ; cheat ; delusion. thought necessary
The inequality of the match between him and from our own in the circumstantials, before one
the subtlest of us, would quickly appear by a that differs from it in the essentials?
fatal circumvention: there must be a wisdom from Addison.
above to over-reach this heilish wisdom. Soutb. 2. Incidental; happening by chance ; If he is in the city, he must avoid haranguins casual.
against circumvention in commerce.