« ZurückWeiter »
sands, ruith whom thou woulist not, for any in Easy it may be to contrive new postures, and terest, cbange thy fortune and condition.
ring other changes upon the same beils. Norris. Taylor's Rule of living boly. 6. Tnat which makes a variety; that 4. To alter; to make other than it was. which may be used for another of the Thou shalt not see me blush,
same kind. Nor change my countenance, for this arrest;
I will now put forth a riddle unto you; if you A heart unspotted is not easily daunted. Sbads.
can find it out, then I will give you thirty sheets, Whatsoever is brought upon thee, take chear and thirty change of garmeilts.
Judges fully, and be patient when thou art chunged to a low estate.
7. Small money, which may be given for For the elements were changed in themselves
larger pieces. by a kind of harmony; like as in a psaltery notes
Wood buys up our old halfpence, and from cóange the name of the tune, and yet are always thence the present want of charge arises; but sounds.
Wisdom. supposing not one firthing of cbana in the nae
tion, five-and-twenty thousand pounds would be s. To mend the disposition or mind. sufficient.
Szi I would she were in heaven, so she could latreat some pow'r to cbange this currish Jew.
8. Change for exchange; a place where Shakspeared
persons meet to traffick and transact 6. To discount a larger piece of money in
The bar, the bench, the change, the schools to several smaller.
and pulpits, are full of quacks, jugglers, and A shopkeeper might be able to change a gui
L'Estrengt. nea, or a moidore, when a customer comes for
CHS'NGEABLE. adj. (from change.] a crown's worth of goods.
1. Subject to charge; fickle ; inconstant. 9. To change a horse, or to change hand,
A steady mind will admit steady methods and is to turn or bear the horse's head from counsels; there is no measure to be taken of a one hand to the other, from the left to ebangeable humour.
L'Estrange the right, or from the right to the left.
As I am a man, I must be changeable; and Farrier's Dict.
sometimes the gravest of us all are so, even TO CHANGE. V. n.
upon ridiculous accidents.
2. Possible to be changed. 1. To undergo change; to suffer altera
The fibrous or vascular parts of vegetables tion : as, his fortune may soon change, seem scarce changeable in the alimentary duct. though he is now so secure.
Arbutbrot en Alimenti One Julia, that his changing thought forgot, 3. Having the quality of exhibiting dif. Would better tit his chamber,
Shakspears. ferent appearances. 2. To change, as the moon; to begin a Now the taylor make thy doublet of charge new monthly revolution.
able taffeta; for thy mind is a very opal. Sbuk. I am weary of this moon; would he would CHANGES BLENESS, n. s. [from change change.
Sbakspeare. able.) CHANGE. n. s. [from the verb.]
1. Inconstancy ; fickleness. 1. An alteration of the state of any thing. At length he betrothed himself to one wor. Since I saw you last,
thy to be liked, if any worthiness might excuse There is a change upon you. Sbakspeare. so unworthy a changeableness.
Sidna. 2. A succession of one thing in the place
There is no temper of mind more unmanly of another.
than that chant, ableness, with which we are tos O wond'rous changes of a fatal scene,
justly branded by all our neighbours. Addises. Still varying to the last!
Dryden. 2. Susceptibility of change.
If how long they are to continue in force, be obange and variety of company, and that of per
no where expressed, then have we no light to die suns above us.
Locke. roct our judgment concerning the chargeablesas Empires by various turns shall rise and set;
or immutability of them, but considering the While thy abandon'd tribes shall only know nature and quality of such laws. Heckst. A difi’rent master, and a change of time. Prior. CHA'N GEABLY. adv. (from changeabl.)
Hear how Timotheus' varied lays surprize, Inconstantly And bid alternate passions fall and rise! CHA'NGEFUL. adj. [from change and fill.] While, at each change, the son of Libyan Jove
Full of change; inconstant ; uncertain; Now burns with fury, and now melts with love.
mutable; subject to variation ; fickle. 3. The time of the moon in which it be
Unsound plots, and changeful orders, are daily
devised for her goud, yet never effectpally progins a new monthly revolution.
secuted. Take seeds or roots, and set some of them iin
Britain, changeful as a child at play, mediately after the charge, and others of the Now calls in princes, and now turns away. Pepe
same kind immediately after the full. Bacon. 4. Novelty; a state different from the CHA'NGELING. 1. s. [from change; the
word arises from an odd superstitious former. The hearts
opinion, that the fairies steal away child. Of all his people shall revolt from him,
ren, and put others that are ugly and And kiss the lips of unacquainted change. Shak. stupid in their places.]
Our fathers did, for cbarze, to France repair; 1. A child left or taken in the place of an. And they, for change, will try our Engiish air. other.
Dryden. And her base elfin breed there for thee left: 5. [In ringing.) An alteration of the order
Such men do changeling's call, so chang'i by in which a set of bells is sounded.
fairies theft. Spenser's Fairy Ques, Four bells admit twenty-four changes in
She, as her attendant, hath ringing, and five bells one hundred and twenty. A lovely boy stol'n from an Indian king;
Holler's Elements of Speech. She never bad se sweet a changeling. Steindre
2. An idiot; a fool: a natural.
They chant to the sound of the viol, and ina
vent to themselves instruments of musick. Amos. Cbangelings and fools of hear'n, and thence shut out,
Ileav'n heard his song, and hasten'd his relief; Wildly we roam in discontbrit about. Dryden. And chang'd to snowy plumes his hoary hair, Would any one be a changeling, because he is
And wing d his fight to chant aloft in air. Dryd. less determined by wise considerations than a
CHANT. n. š. (irom the verb.] Song ; wise man?
Licke. melody 3. One apt to change; a waverer.
A pleasant grove, Of fickle changelings and poor discontents,
With cbant of tuneful birds resounding loud. That gape and rub the elbow at the new's
Milton. Of hurly-burly innovation. Sbakspeare. CHA'NTER: n. s. [from chant.] A singer; 'Twas not long
à songster. Before from world to world they swung;
You curious chanters of the wood; As they had turn'd from side to side,
That warble forth dame Nature's lays. Wotton. And as the changelings liv?d, they died. Hudib. Jove's etherial lays, resistless fire, 4. Any thing changed and put in tne The chanter's soul and raptur'd song inspire, place of another: in ludicrous speech.
Instinct divine! nor blame severe his choice, I Folded the writ up in form of the other, Warbling the Grecian woes with harpand voice. Subscrib'd it, gave the impression, Flac'd it safely,
Pope. The ebangeling never known. Sbudspeare'. CHA'N TICLEER. n. s. [from chanter and CHA'NCER. n. s. [from change.) One that clair, Fr.] The name given to the
is employed in changing or discounting cock, from the clearness and loudness money; moneychanger.
of his crow. CHANNEL. n. s. [canal, Fr. canalis,
And chearful chanticleer, with his note shrill, Lat.]
Had warned once, that Phabus' fiery car 1. The hollow bed of running waters.
In haste was climbing up the castern hill. Spenso
Hark, hark, I hear It is not so easy, now that things are grown
The strain of strutting chanticleer. Sbakspeare. into an habit, and have their certain course, to
Stay, the cheariul chanticleer change the cbannel, and turn their streams an
Tells you that the time is near.
Ben Youson. Spenser's State of Ireland.
These verses were mentioned by Chaucer in Draw them to Tyber's bank, and wery your the description of the sudden stir, and panical tears
fear, when Chanticleer the cock was carried away Into the channel, till the lowest stream
by Reynard che fox. Camden's Remains. Do kiss the most exalted shores of all. Smksh.
Within this homestead liv'd, without a peer So th' injur'd sea, which, from her wonted,
For crowing loud, the noble chanticleer. Dryden. course,
CHA'N TRESS. 11. s. (from chaní.] Awa To gain some acres, avarice did force;If the new banks, neglected once, decay,
man singer No longer will from her old channel stay. Waller.
Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly, Had not the said strata been dislocated, some
Most musical, most melancholy ! of them elevated, and others depressee', there Thee, chantress, oft, the woods among, would have been no cavity or channel to give re
I woo to hear thy even-song.
Milton. ception to the water of the sea. Wodavari. CHI'NT «Y. n. s. [from chant.] A church
The tops of mountains and bills will be con or chapel endowed with lands, or other tinually washed down by the rains, and the chan
yearly revenue for the maintenance of neds of rivers abraded by the streams. Beritley.
one or more priests, daily to sing mass 3. Any cavity drawn longwise.
for the souls of the donors, and such Complaint and hot desires, the lover's hell, And scalding tears, that wore a cb1nnel where
others as they appoint. Cowell. they fell Dryden's Fables.
Now go with me, and with this holy man, 3. A strait or narrow sea, between two
Into the cbantry by;
And, underneath that consecrated roof, countries : as the British Channel, between Britain and France ; St. George's CHA'OS. n. s. [chaos, Lat. y.19.]
Plight me the full assurance of your faith. Shaks. Channel, between Britain and Ireland.
1. The mass of matter supposed to be in 4. A gutter or furrow of a pillar. TO CHA'NNEL, v. a. [from the noun.]
confusion before it was divided by the
creation into its proper classes and eleTo cut any thing in channels
ments. No more shall trenching war charned her fields,
The whole universe would have been a conNor bruise her flow'rets with the armed hoots
fused chaos, without beauty or order. Bentley. The body of this column is perpetually chan
2. Confusion ; irregular mixture. nelled, like a thick plaited gown.
Had I followed the worst, I could not have Torrents, and loud impetuous cataracts,
brought church and state to such a chars of cone Roll down the lofty mountain's channel!d sides, fusions, as some have done. K. Charles. And to the vale convey their foaming vides.
Their reason sleeps, but mimick fancy wakes,
Blackmore. Supplies her parts, and wild ideas takes
From words and things, ill sorted, aad misois'!;
Fairy Queen. 3. Any thing where the parts are widelse 3. To celebrate by song.
i tinguished The poets chant it in the theatres, the shep
We shall have nothing but darkness and a herds in the mountains.
cbaos within, whatever order and lighi there le Brambal!. in things without us.
Locke. 3: To sing in the cathedral service.
Pleas d with a work, where nothing 's just or TO CHANT. v. n. To sing ; to make me fit, lody with the voice.
One glaring chaos and wild heap of wit. Pop
Of hostile paces.
1. To sing.
CHAO'TICK. adj. [from chaos.] Resem- CHA'PELE1!. alj. [from chape.) Wantbling chaos; confused.
ing a chafe. When the terraqueous globe was in a ebaotick An old rusty sword, with a broken hil, ani state, and the earthy particles subsided, then ebapeless, with two broken points. Shakspeare those several beds were, in all probability, re CHAPE'LLANY. n. s. (from chapel.] posited in the earth.
Derbarn. A chapellany is usually said to be that which TO CHAP. v. a. [kappen, Dutch, to cut. does not subsíst of itself, but is built and founded This word seems originally the same
within some other church, and is dependez
thereon. with chop; nor were they probably dis
Ayliffe's Parerger tinguished at first, otherwise than by CHAPELRY. n. s. [from chapel.] The accident ; but they have now' a meaning
jurisdiction or bounds of a chapel
. something different, though referable CHAPERON. n. s. (French.) A kind of to the same original sense.] To break
hood or cap worn by the knights of the into hiatus, or gapings.
garter in their habits. . Ic weakened more and more the arch of the
I will omit the honourable habiliments, as earth, drying it immoderately, and cbapping it in
robes of state, parliament robes, cbaperers, and
caps of state. sundry places.
Burnet. Then would unbalanc'd heat licentious reign, CHA'PPALN, adj. [from chap and fall.] Crack the dry hill, and cbap the russet plain.
Having the mouth shrunk.
Blackmore. A charfiln beaver loosely hanging by CHAP. n. s. [from the verb.] A cleft;
The cloven helm.
Dresse an aperture ; an opening; a gaping ; a
CH A'PITER. n. s. (chapiteau, Fr.] The chink.
upper part or capital of a pillar, What moisture the heat of the summer sucks He overlaid their chapiters and their filles out of the earth, it is repaid in the rains of the
with gold. next winter ; and what ebaps are made in it, are
CHA'PLAIN. n. s. [capellanus, Latin.) filled up again.
Burnet's Tbeory. 1. He that performs divine service in 2 CHAP. n. s. (This is not often used, ex chapel, and attends the king, or olber
cept by anatomists, in the singular.] person, for the instruction of him and *The upper or under part of a beast's his family, to read prayers, and preach. mouth. Froth fills his chaps, he sends a grunting sound,
Wishing me to permit And part he churns, and part befoams the John de la Court, my cbaplain, a choice hour
Dryden. To hear from him a matter of some moment. The nether chap in the male skeleton is half
Sbalskette an inch broader than in the female.
Chaplain, away! thy priesthood
Stadspeare CHAPE. n. s. [chappe, Fr.]
2. One that officiates in domestick worship. 1. The catch of any thing by which it is A chief governour can never fail of sources
beld in its place; as the hook of a scab worthless illiterate chaplain, fond of a title as bard by which it sticks in the belt ; the
precedence. point by which a buckle is held to the
CH A'PLAINSHIP. n. s, [from chaplain.) back strap.
1. The office or business of a chaplain. This is monsieur Parolles, that had the whole
2. The possession or revenue of a chape! theory of the war in the knot of his scarf, and CH A'PLESS. adj. [from chap.] Without the practice in the chape of his dagger. Sbaksp. any flesh about the mouth. 2: A brass or silver tip or case, that Now chapless, and knocked about the murzad strengthens the end of the scabbard of
with a sexton's spade. a sword. Phillips' World of Words,
Shut me nightly in a charnel-house,
With reeky Slanks and yellow chapless bones CHAPEL. n. s. [capella, Lat.). A chapel
Sbakiupset1 is of two sorts, either adjoining to a CHA'PLET. n. s. [chapelet, Fr.] church, as a parcel of the same, which 1. A garland or wreath to be worn about men of worth build ; or else separate the head. from the mother church, where the Upon old Hyems' chin, and icy
parish is wide, and is commonly called An od 'rous cbaplet of sweet summer's buts, a chapel of ease, because it is built for Is, as in mockery, set. the ease of one or more parishioners,
I strangely long to know,
Whether they nobler chaplets wear, that dwell too far from the church, and
Those that their mistress' scorn did bear, is served by some inferiour curate, pro Or those that were us'd kindly. vided for at the charge of the rector, or
All the quire was gracid, of such as have benefit by it, as the With chaplets green, upon their foreheads pia? composition or custom is. Cowell.
She went in among those few trees, so closed The winding ivy chaplet to invade, in the tops together, as they might seem a little And folded fern, that your fair forehead shzie
Sidney. Will you dispatch us here under this tree, or They made an humble chaplat for the king shall we go with you to your chapel ? Shaksp.
Where truth erecteth her church, he helps errour to rear up a cbafel hard by. Howel,
2. A string of beads used in the Romisk A chapel will I build with large endowment. church for keeping an account of the
Dryden. number rehearsed of pater-nósters as A free chapel is such as is founded by the king
ave-marias. A different sort of completi * England.
Ayliffe's Parergon. is also used by the Mahometaan
sares thy life.
3. [In architecture.) A little moulding
The abbottakes the advice and consent of his carved into round beads, pearls, or
chapter, before he enters on any matters of in: olives.
Addison on Italy. 4. (In horsemanship.] A couple of stir. 4. The place where delinquents receive
discipline and correction. Ayliffe rup leathers, mounted each of them with
s. A decretal epistle.
Azlife. a stirrup, and joining at top in a sort of 6. Chapter-house; the place in which asleather buckle, which is caīled the head
semblies of the clergy are held. of the chaplet, by which they are fast
Though the canonical constitution does strictly ened to the pummel of a saddle, after require it to be made in the cathedral, yet it they have been adjusted to the length matters not where it be made, either in the and bearing of the rider. Farrier's Dict.
choir or chapter-bouse. Ayliffe's Parergon. 5. A tuft of feathers on the peacock's head. CHA'PTREL. n. s. (probably from chapiCHA'YMAN, n. s. [ceapman, Sax.] А ter.] The capitals of pillars, or pilascheapener; one that offers as a purchaser.
ters, which support arches, commonly Fair Diomede, you do as chapmen do,
called imposts. Dispraise the thing that you intend to buy.
Let the keystone break without the arch, so
Sbakspeare. much as you project over the jaums with the Yet have they seen the maps, and bought 'em cbaptrels.
CHAR. n. s. [of uncertain derivation.) A And understand 'em as most chapmen do.
fish found in Winander mere, in Lan.
Ben Jonson. There was a collection of certain rare manu
cashire, and a few other places. scripts, exquisitely written in Arabick; these TO CHAR. v. a. (See CHARCOAL.] To were upon sale to the Jesuits at Antwerp, li
burn wood to a black cinder. quorish chapmen of such wares. Wotton.
Spraywood, in cbarring, parts into various He dressed two, and carried them to Samos, cracks.
Woodward. as the likeliest place for a chapman. L'Estrange. CHAR. n. s. (cynne, work, Sax, Lye. It Their cbapmen they betray;
is derived by Skinner, either from charge, Their shops are dens, the buyer is their prey:
Fr. business; or carc, Saxon, care ; or CHAPs. n. s. [from chap.]
keeren, Dutch, to sweep.] Work done 1. The mouth of a beast of prey.
by the day; a single job or task. So on the downs we see
A meer woman, and commanded A hastcn'd hare from greedy greyhound go,
By such poor passion, as the maid that milks,
And does the meanest cbars. Shakspeare. And past all hope, his chaps to frustrate so.
She, harvest done, to char work did aspire;
Sidney: Their whelps at home expect the promis'd
Meat, drink, and two-pence, were her daily hire.
Dryden. food, And long to temper their dry chaps in blood.
TO CHAR. v. n. [from the noun.] To Dryden.
work at others houses by the day, with. 2. It is used in contempt for the mouth out being a hired servant. of a man.
CHA'R-WOMAN, n. s. [from char and was Open your mouth; you cannot tell who's man.) A woman hired accidentally for your friend; open your chaps again.' Sbakspeare. odd work, or single days.
Get three or four char-women to attend you CHAPPED. } The part. pass. of To chap
constantly in the kitchen, whom you pay only Like a table upon which you may run your
with the broken meat, a few coals, and all the finger without rubs, and your nail cannot find a
Swift. joint ; not horrid, rough, wrinkled, gaping, or CHARACTER. n. s. [character, Lat chapt.
Ben Jonson. χαρακτής.]
1. A mark; a stamp; a representation.
In outward also her resembling less skins they laid. Dryden's Fablés.
His image, who made both; and less expressing CHA'PTER. n. s. (chapitre, Fr. from ca. The cbaracter of that dominion giv'n pitulum, Lat.]
O'er other creatures.
Paradise Lost. 1. A division of a book.
2. A letter used in writing or printing. The first book we divide into three sections ;
But his neat cookery!-whereof the first is these three chapters.
He cut our roots in cbaracters. Sbakspeare.
Burnet's Tbeory. The purpose is perspicuous, even as substance If these mighty men at chapter and verse, can Whose grossness little cbaracters sum up. Sbaks. produce then no scripture to overthrow our It were much to be wished, that there were church ceremonies, I will undertake to produce throughout the world but one sort of character
scripture enough to warrant them. Soutb. for each letter, to express it to the eye; and 2. From this comes the proverbial phrase,
that exactly proportioned to the natural alphabet
formed in the mouth. Holder's Elements of Speecb. to the end of the chapter ; throughout; to the end.
The hand or manner of writing. 3.
I found the letter thrown in at the casement Money does all things : for it gives and it
of my closet.—You know the character to be takes away, it makes honest men and knaves,
Sbakspeare. Mols and philosophers; and so forward, mutatis 1. Mlandis, lo ibe end of the chapter. L'Estrange
. 4. A si presentation of any man as to his 3. Chapter, from capitulum, signifieth, in
pronal qualities. our common law, as in the canon law,
Each drew fair characters, yet none
Of these they feign'd excels their own. Denham. whence it is borrowed, an assembly of Homer has excelled all the heroick poets that the clergy of a cathedral or collegiate ever wrote, in the multitude and variety of his church.
Cowell. sbaracters ; every god that is admitted into his
poem, acts a part which would have been suite They may be called anticipations, préroticos able to 110 other deity.
Addison. or sentiments cbaracterized and engraven in the 3. An account of any thing as good or soul, born with it, and growing up with it. bad.
Male's Origin of Mankisk This subterraneous passage is much mended, 3. To mark with a particular stamp of since Seneca gave so bad a character of it.
Addison on Italy, There are faces not only individual, bue gèz6. The person with his assemblage of
tilitious ani national; European, Asiatick, lequalities; a personage.
nese, African, and Grecian faces are durea terized.
Arbuthnetur In a tragedy, or epick poem, the hero of the piece must be advanced foremost to the view of CH A'RACTERLESS, a ij. [from character. the reader or spectator; he must outshine the Without a character. rest of all the characters; he must appear the When water-drops have worn the stones of prince of them, like the sun in the Copernican
'Troy, system, encompassed with the less nuble planets. And blind oblivion swallow'd cities up,
Dryden. And inighty stares characterks are grated 7. Personal qualities; particular consti To dusty nothing.
Sbakspeert tution of the mind.
CH A'R ACTERY, 1. sa (from character.] Nothing so true as what you once let fall, Impression ; mark; distinction : a. Most women have no characters at all. Pope. cented ancicntly on the second syllable. 8. Adventitious qualities impressed by a Fairies use flowers for their characters. Seks post or office.
All my engagements I will construe to thee, The chiei honour of the magistrate consists in All the charactery of my sad brows. maintaining the dignity of his character by suit CHA'RCOAL. n. s. [imagined by Skinner able actions.
Atterbury: to bc derived from char, business; blá, TO CHARACTER. v. a. (from the noun.] by Lye, from To chark, to burn.] Coal
To inscribe ; to engrave. It seems to made by burning wood under turf. I have had the accent formerly on the is used in preparing metals. second syllable.
Seacoai lasts longer than charcoal; and earned These few precepts in thy memory of roots, being coaled into great pieces, l See thou character.
Sbakspeare. longer than ordinary cbarcoal. Bacon's Nat. Kit Shew me one scarcharacter'd on thy skin. Shak. Love is a fire that burns and sparkles
O Rosalind! these trees shall be my books, In men as nat'rally as in charcoals, And in their barks my thoughts I'll character. Which sooty chymists'stop in holes,
Sbakspeare. When out of wood they extract coals. Hadibres The pleasing poison
Is there who, luck'd from ink and paper
, The visage quite transforms of him that drinks,
scrawls And the inglorious likeness of a beast
With desp’rate charcoal round his darken'derak? Fixes instead, unmoulding rcason's mintage, Cbaracter'd in the face.
Milton. CHARD. n. s. [charde, French.] CHARACTERISTICIL. adj. [from cha 1. Chards of artichokes, are the leaves a CHARACTERISTICK. Sracterize. ] That fair artichoke plants, tied and wrapped
constitutes the character, or marks the up all over but the top, in straw, durin peculiar properties, of any person or the autumn and winter ; this mate: thing.
them grow white, and lose somet! There are several others that I take to have their bitterness. been likewise such, to which yet I have not ventured' to prefix that characteristick distinction.
2. Chards of beet, are plants of this Wudward on Fossils. beet transplanted, producing great top The shining quality of an epick hero, his which, in the midst, have a large, wbite
, magnanimity, his constancy, his patience, his thick, downy, and cotton-like man piety, cr whatever characteristical virtue his poét shoot which is the true chard. Mertime
gives him, raises our admiration. Drg:len. To CHARGE. v. CHARACTERISTICALNESS. n. s. [from characteristical.] The quality of being
care, Ital, from carrus, Lat.]
1. To entrust; to commission for a couple peculiar to a character; marking a cha
tain purpose: it has svith before the racter.
thing entrusted. CHARACTERISTICK. 17. s. That which And the captain of the guard charged Josep
constitutes the character ; that which with them, and he served them. distinguishes any thing or person from What you have charged me witb, that I have others.
done. This vast invention exerts itself in Homer, in 2. To impute as a debt: with on before a manner superior to that of any poèt; it is the the debtor. great and peculiar characteristick which distin
My father's, mother's, brocher's death I pas guishes him from all others.
don : CHARACTERISTICK of a Logarithm. That 's somewhat, sure; a mighty sun of murd's The same with the index or exponent.
Of innocent and kindred blood, struck of: TO CHARACTERIZE. V. a. (from charac
My prayers and penance shall discount for these ter.]
And beg of Heav'n to charge the bill en nie 1. To give a character or an account of the personal qualities of any man.
3. To impute: with on before the persua
to whom any thing is imputed. · It is some commendation, that we have avoided publickly to characterize any person, without
No more accuse thy
pen, but cbarge the che long experience.
On native sloth, and negligence of time. Drzwi
Swift. It is easy to accou m. To engrave, or imprint.
Oberges on the peripatetick doctrine
a. [charger, Fr. cari
for the difficulties