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must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial recur, to moderate the fury of party spirit, to warn against ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politicks, or the the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the imordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships, or postures of pretended patriotism; this hope will be a full enmities.
recompense for the solicitude of your welfare, by which Our detached and distant situation invites and enables us they have been dictated. to pursue a different course. If we remain one People, How far, in the discharge of my official duties, I have under an efficient Government, the period is not far off, been guided by the principles which have been delineated, when we may defy material injury from external annoy- the publick records and other evidences of my conduct ance; when we take such an attitude as will cause the must witness to you and to the world. To myself, the neutrality we may, at any time resolve upon, to be scrupu- assurance of my own conscience is, that I have, at least, lously respected; when belligerent Nations, under the im- believed myself to be guided by them. possibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly In relation to the still subsisting War in Europe, my hazard the giving us provocation; when we may choose Proclamation of the 22d of April, 1793, is the index to Peace or War, as our interest, guided by justice, shall my plan. Sanctioned by your approving voice, and by that counsel.
of your Representatives in both Houses of Congress, the Why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation ? spirit of that measure has continually governed me; uninWhy quit our own to stand upon foreign ground? Why, Auenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of Eu
After deliberate examination with the aid of the best rope, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of lights I could obtain, I was well satisfied that our country, European ambition, rivalship, interest, humour, or caprice ? under all the circumstances of the case, had a right to
It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral with any portion of the foreign world; so far, I mean, as position. Having taken it, I determined, as far as should we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be under depend upon me, to maintain it with moderation, persestood as capable of patronising infidelity to existing engage- verance, and firmness. ments. I hold the maxim no less applicable to publick The considerations which respect the right to hold this than to private affairs, that honesty is always the best poli-conduct, it is not necessary, on this occasion, to detail. I cy. I repeat it, therefore, let those engagements be ob- will only observe, that according to my understanding of served in their genuine sense. But, in my opinion, it is
the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of unnecessary, and would be unwise, to extend them. the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all.
Taking care always to keep ourselves, by suitable Estab- The duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, lishments, on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely without any thing more, from the obligations which justice trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies. and humanity impose on every Nation, in cases in which it
Harmony, and a liberal intercourse with all Nations, are is free to act, to maintain in violate the relations of peace recommended by policy, humanity and interest. But and amity towards other Nations. even our commercial policy should hold an equal and im- The inducements of interest for observing that conduct partial hand; neither seeking nor granting exclusive favours will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. or preferences ; consulting the natural course of things; With me a predominant motive has been, to endeavour to diffusing and diversifying, by gentle means, the streams of gain time to our country to settle and mature its yet recent commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing, with powers institutions, and to progress, without interruption, to that deso disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define gree of strength and consistency, which is necessary to give the rights of our Merchants, and to enable the Govern- | it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes. ment to support them; conventional rules of intercourse, Though, in reviewing the incidents of my administrathe best that present circumstances and mutual opinion tion, I am unconscious of intentional errour, I am, neverwill permit, but temporary, and liable to be from time to theless, too sensible of my defects not to think it probable time abandoned or varied, as experience and circumstan- that I may have committed many errours. Whatever ces shall dictate ; constantly keeping in view, that it is they may be, I fervently beseech the Almighty to avert or folly in one Nation to look for disinterested favours from mitigate the evils to which they may tend. I shall also another; that it must pay, with a portion of its indepen- carry with me the hope that my country will never cease dence, for whatever it may accept under that character; to view them with indulgence; and that, after forty-five that by such acceptance, it may place itself in the condition years of my life dedicated to its service, with an upright of having given equivalents for nominal favours, and yet of zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest. There can be no greater errour than to expect or calcu- Relying on its kindness, in this as in other things, and late upon real favours from Nation to Nation. It is an actuated by that fervent love towards it, which is natural illusion which experience must cure, which a just pride to a man, who views in it the native soil of himself and ought to discard.
bis progenitors for several generations, I anticipate, with In offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of pleasing, expectation, that retreat, in which I promise an old an affectionate friend, I dare not hope they will myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of make the strong and lasting impression I could wish ; that partaking, in the midst of my fellow-citizens, the benign they will control the usual current of the passions, or pre- influence of good laws under a free Government—the vent our Nation from running the course which has hitherto ever favourite object of my heart, and the happy reward, marked the destiny of Nations: But if I may even flatter as I trust, of our mutual cares, labours and dangers. myself that they may be productive of some partial ben
Go. WASHINGTON. efit, some occasional good; that they may now and then UNITED STATES, 17th September, 1796.
LETTER OF WASHINGTON ACCEPTING THE COMMAND OF
THE AMERICAN ARMY.
and organize the Army, which you think I can afford. I
take the liberty also to mention, that I must decline having Mount Vernon, July 13, 1798. my acceptance considered as drawing after it any immediDEAR SIR: I had the honour, on the evening of the 11th ate charge upon the publick; or that I can receive any emoinstant, to receive from the hand of the Secretary of War, luments annexed to the appointment, before entering into a your favour of the 7th, announcing that you had, with the situation to incur expense. advice and consent of the Senate, appointed me “ Lieu- The Secretary of War being anxious to return to the seat "tenant General and Commander-in-Chief of all Armies of Government, I have detained him no longer than was “raised, or to be raised, for the service of the United necessary to a full communication upon the several points 6 States.”
he had in charge. I cannot express how greatly affected I am at this new With very yreat respect and consideration, I have the proof of publick confidence, and the highly flattering man- honour to be, dear sir, your most obedient humble servant, ner in which you have been pleased to make the commu
Go. WASHINGTON, nication ; at the same time, I must not conceal from you
John Adams, my earnest wish, that the choice had fallen upon a man President of the United States. less declined in years, and better qualified to encounter the usual vicissitudes of war.
You know, sir, what calculation I had made relative to the probable course of events, on my retiring froin office,
On the character of General WASHINGTON, late Presiand the determination I had consoled myself with, of clos
dent of the United States : Pronounced at the request ing the remnant of my days in my present peaceful abode ;
of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, before you will, therefore, be at no loss to conceive and appreci
the President of the United States, and the Members ate the sensations I must have experienced, to bring my
of both Houses of Congress ; on the twenty-second day mind to any conclusion, that would pledge me, at so late a
of February, eighteen hundred, in the German Reformperiod of life, to leave scenes I sincerely love, to enter upon
ed Church, Philadelphia. By Major William Jackson, the boundless field of publick action, incessant trouble, and
Aid-de-Camp to the late President of the United States, high responsibility.
and Secretary-General of the Cincinnati. was not possible for me to remain ignorant of, or indifferent to, recent transactions.
To consecrate the memory of illustrious men, to record The conduct of the Directory of France towards our their actions, and to celebrate their praise, has been the country ; their insidious hostility to its government; their laudable practise of every age, and the grateful duty of various practices to withdraw the affections of the people every people. from it; the evident tendency of their acts, and those of their The rudest Nations have thus dispensed the reward and agents, to countenance and invigorate opposition ; their dis- the motives of virtue, while the arts and sciences of polishregard of solemn treaties and the laws of Nations; their war ed society have contributed their noblest efforts to this, their upon our defenceless commerce; their treatment of our min- best and highest application. isters of peace, and their demands, amounting to tribute, Conforming to this venerable usuge, and influenced by all could not fail to excite in me corresponding sentiments, with the nobler affections, the veteran associates of the immorthose my countrymen have so generally expressed in their tal WASHINGTON have dedicated this auspicious day to the affectionate addresses to you. Believe me, sir, no one can review of his glorious achievements, and the celebration of more cordially approve of the wise and prudent measures his unrivalled fame. of your admininistration. They ought to inspire universal But their too partial choice has devolved on incompetent confidence, and will, no doubt, combined with the state of powers, the performance of that duty, to which the highest things, call from Congress such laws and means as will en- order of genius would have been unequal. able you to meet the full force and extent of the crisis. Who shall delineate a faithful portrait of that character,
Satisfied, therefore, that you have sincerely wished and which was perfect in all its relations or in what language endeavoured to avert war, and exhausted, to the last drop, shall the story of that life be told, whose every action was the cup of reconciliation, we can with pure hearts appeal to above all praise ? Heaven for the justice of our cause ; and may confidently To confer the just meed of eulogium on this inestimable trust the final result to that kind Providence who has here- character—to entwine the blended glories of the Hero and tofore, and so often, signally favoured the People of these the Statesman—with them to mingle the milder radiance United States.
of religion and morals, would require an inspiration, not only Thinking in this manner, and feeling how incumbent it of those sentiments, which pervade every class of men in is upon every person, of every description, to contribute at this extensive Nation—but of those opinions, which his unall times to his country's welfare, especially, in a moment equalled worth has impressed throughout the world : like the present, when every thing we hold dear and sacred The sentiments and opinions of Legislators, to whose lais so seriously threatened ; I have finally determined to ac- bours and honours he was associated by all that was useful cept the Commission of Commander-in-Chief of the Ar- and diguified. mies of the United States, with this reserve only ; that I of Armies, to whom he was endeared by every obligashall not be called into the field until the Army is in a situa- tion of gratitude and glory. tion to require my presence, or it becomes indispensable by Of a People, by whom he was regarded as their Father, the urgency of circumstances.
Guide, and Protector. In making this reservation, I beg it may be understood, Of the holy Ministers of Religion, by whom he was bethat I do not mean to withhold any assistance to arrange loved and admired,
Of his Enemies in War, by whom he was at once dread- monstrance had been exhausted—when the alternative of ed and revered.
resistance alone remained to an injured people—when every Of the Wise and Just of all Nations, of whom he was hazard was preferred to abject submission—and when that the ornament and the example.
people had resolved to meet their Parent State in arms— In contemplating this appropriate subdivision of the pa- to whose care was the palladium of their liberties entrusted ? negyrick, which I am called to pronounce, this most re- On whom did the unanimous choice of their enlightened spectable audience will be led to indulge a candour, pro- Representatives devolve the dangerous honour of conductportioned to the magnitude of the subject, and the powers ing this last, this dread appeal ? of the organ, to whom the arduous duty has been confided. To the virtue, to the wisdom, to the valour, and the for
The suffrages, perhaps the prejudices of mankind, have titude of your immortal WASHINGTON! To the Hero, who concurred in assigning to the profession of arms, the first was at once the sword and buckler of his country, was the station in the ranks of glory.
momentous trust confided. On the present occasion, however, the decision is of no To him was assigned the defence of our hearths and our importance.
altars—the protection of our women and children and the The Hero, whom we now commemorate, was alike pre- preservation of all that was dear to freemen-our National eminent in council, and in the field-the olive and the lau-Honour. rel had equally contributed their honours to form the chap- How well, how faithfully, the sacred trust was discharged, let of his renown.
let the splendid and important scenes of seven years' conIt is only, therefore, in the order of his distinguished Alict proclaim to an admiring world! services, that our attention is first attracted to his military Impressed by a perfect sense of the high responsibility
attached to his exalted station—and conscious of the preNor is it the less interesting, that the first display of his eminence in toil and danger, to which he was called, he brilliant genius in war, should have been made in concert yielded implicit obedience to the summons—and, resigning with the troops of that Nation, whose banners he was here- the utmost enjoyment of domestick felicity, he was solely after to brave—and whose legions he was destined to en- devoted to those duties, which involved the safety and hapcounter in the defence of his country, and in the mainte-piness of his country. nance of her freedom and independence.
Repairing to the immediate theatre of military operation, Equally interesting is the singular fact, that a parent's in the vicinity of Boston, he instantly communicated to the fond solicitude had been the happy instrument of preserv- patriotick bands of New-England, that spirit of confidence, ing him to that country, and to the high destination of his which was the result of his presence, and that observance future honours—for, impelled by the martial disposition of of order, which was essential to effective force. his mind, he was about to engage in the Naval Service of The extraordinary spectacle was exhibited, of a veteran Great Britain at the infant age of fifteen years. But, re- army invested by the hasty levies of a people, whom it had strained by filial affection, he yielded to the anxious entrea- been sent to coerce, and of that army indignantly expelled ties of his mother, and relinquished the object of his choice. the land, which it had been commissioned to subdue. Who does not bless the memory of this tender Mother? This great event, which was, to some, the termination Who does not reverence the piety of her exalted Son ? of their toil, and the period of their danger, was, to him,
Thus was the stupendous fabrick of his fame placed on but the renewal of equal labours, the commencement of the everlasting basis of virtue—and thus were the immense more anxious cares. advantages, which flowed to his country, derived from the The invading army strengthened by a vast accession of purest source of a private duty.
force, and supported by a powerful marine, resumed its Summoned to the lists of glory at an age, when talents operations—and, under leaders of distinguished bravery and are unaided by experience, and when the ardour of youth talents, extended its menace to the entire subjugation of our is but little tempered by the rules of prudence, he formed, country. in his first essay in arms, a rare example of the most heroick Success, correspondent to these immense preparations, valour, combined with the most consummate skill.
for a season, obtained. The one was exerted to stem the torrent of victory ob- The firm, but unavailing, efforts of our intrepid Chief tained by a vindictive foe—the other was employed to rescue
were restrained to defensive measures. Yet the hopes of from ruin the devoted remnant of an unfortunate army. America were reposed on that skilful policy, which he
Admiring veterans resigned to the youthful warriour the adopted to protract the war—and on that consummate pruprotection of their discomfited Troops, and to his superi- dence, by which he gave to defence the highest advantages our judgement the conduct of a retreat, which covered him of which it was susceptible. with glory, and wreathed his brow with the laurel of suc- The retreat from Long-Island, which excited the aston
ishment, and extorted the praise of his enemy, will pass to The brave, but unhappy, Braddock expired in the an- posterity as a consummation in the Art of War. guish of defeat—the gallant and sympathizing WASHING- While the victorious enterprise of Trenton, and the sucTON was consoled by the safety and honoured with the ap- cessful attack at Princeton, will be commemorated as the plause of his surviving friends.
restoration of publick confidence, and the rescue of our deThe high promise, which was here given, of a vast ca- clining cause. pacity for war, was nobly realized in the command and Where is the war-worn Soldier, whose ebbing pulse does guidance of those armies, by whose active valour and in- not beat bigh at these remembrances ? inflexible fortitude, the liberty and sovereignty of the United Where is the emulous and gallant youth, who does not States were maintained and established.
thence anticipate his own achievements in his country's In that eventful moment, when representation and re
Advancing to meet the incursion of a powerful army, he duct, by which the operations of our armies were directed, encountered their force at the Brandywine—where his gal- and the hopes of our country were completely realized. lant Troops, though confident in the conduct, and animated It is with regret, as it is of necessity, that I pass, in sumby the example of their Heroick Leader, were compelled to mary relation, the judicious instructions issued to subordiresign to discipline and numbers, the hard won honours of nate commands and detachments--the unremitting exertions the field.
by which the organization and discipline of a new-formed Repulsed, but not dismayed, he was soon in a capacity army were effected the anxious cares, by which that army to resume the offensive—and deeply impressing the ener- was supplied--the sublime influence by which it was congies of his character, and displaying the vast resources of tinued in active service, through the rigour of the most inhis mind, in the battle of Germantown, he unnerved the clement seasons, and under the pressure of discouragement, plans of subjugation, and invigorated the hopes of his coun- which the mind shudders to review.
On these topicks the delighted historian will dilate with The movements of the main army of the enemy were increasing praise--and instructed posterity dwell with graarrested by the formidable position, which was occupied by titude and pride. our skilful Chief-and their further attempts were limited At the approach of peace an occasion arose, in which to the partial operation of detachments.
the best faculties of his superiour mind were summoned to In assaulting the intrenched post at Red Bank, the Ger- their utmost exertion--and in which the sensibilities of his man auxiliary troops, led by the gallant Donop, were re- heart were to meet in strong collision with the dictates of pulsed with dreadful slaughter, and their wounded leader his judgement, and a paramount sense of publick duty. was left a prisoner on the field.
That Army, by whose unshaken fidelity, and invincible The godlike WASHINGTON despatched from his camp an fortitude, the glory and fortunes of America had been upOfficer to assure him of his personal concern, and to offer held, in all the vicissitudes of the War, was on the eve of every attention, which his situation might require he was dispersion. even charged with the care of his removal, if it should be Those faithful comrades in honour and misfortune, were desired, within the British lines.
to separate forever, under the most afflicting circumstances The profound sensibility of the hostile chief was express
of individual adversity. ed in the following message :
To their country they had secured the blessings of peace “Convey, sir, to General WASHINGTON, the deep im- and the boon of independence and to every class of their pression of my gratitude; my situation admits not, at this fellow-citizens a full participation in those blessings, ens time, of a personal acknowledgement; but the first mo- hanced by the enjoyment of that property, which, in their “ments of my recovery, should such be the will of Hea- protected avocations, they had been enabled to preserve or
ven, shall be devoted to place before him the homage of to acquire. “my heart."
To the disbanded veteran, in the decline of life, was Where is the testimonial of equal impression with the opened the cheerless prospect of extreme penury, aggrapraise of a dying enemy?
vated, in many instances, by wounds and inability to labour What powers of eulogy shall reach the pathos of such -his honour and his arms," the instruments of his glory," praise ?
were all that he possessed.
The British army, alarmed for its safety in an untenable Maimed, and mutilated by honourable scars, he was be
position, prepared to concentrate its force, and to reoccupy come a stranger in the place of his nativity—and he was the post of New-York.
no longer remembered by the companions of his early years, The strenuous efforts of the American Chief to engage His long-left home was in the occupancy of another, and a battle, and intercept their retreat, were rendered abor- his future abode was only certain to be wretched. tive by an errour in the conduct of a subordinate attack, at While oppressed by these sensations, and assailed by the the Plains of Monmouth, which enabled the British Gene- angry passions, which their situation excited, the Army ral to accomplish his purpose.
were invited, by every consideration, which the most sePassing to the last scene of our military drama, we are ductive persuasion could suggest, to redress their wrongs, called to contemplate, on this great occasion, the vast and and resent the alleged ingratitude of their country. various powers, by which the Hero of our country was Argument and eloquence were exhausted to effect the distinguished.
adoption of this fatal advice, Genius to conceive-wisdom to combine-prudence to To counteract the dangerous measure to preserve inconceal-judgement to direct—and valour to execute a plan violate the honour of his Troops, and the safety of his of operations, the most important in its consequences, which country, the wisdom and firmness of the virtuous Washthe Annals of War can furnish, were eminently exemplified INGTON were immediately interposed. in the whole train of measures, by which the investment With his heart wrung by the sufferings of the Armyand capture of the British army, at Yorktown, were formed with his mind deeply affected by the counsel, which had and achieved.
been offered to remedy their grievances-conscious of their The limits of this Discourse do not admit a recital, which merits, and no less sensible to the inability of the country would include the varied incidents of the Revolutionary to fulfil its stipulations—he convened his Officers and preWar.
senting himself as a mediator between the distresses of the Compelled to abridge even the enumeration of events, I Troops, and the publick incapacity, at that time, to relieve have only endeavoured to give to the most prominent points them-he addressed himself to their judgement, their hoof action, distinguished by the presence of our gallant Chief, nour, and their patriotism. such illustration as might mark the progress of the contest, His opinions, framed on the irresistible conclusions of and tend to designate the wisdom and vigour of that con- truth, and urged with all the force of reason and sentiment, were instantly adopted and the sublime spectacle was ex- our several interests, to his just construction of what was hibited, of “ an Army victorious over its enemy, victorious required to reconcile them-no less than to his skill and over itself.”
valour in the day of battle, are we indebted for a large porIn the last exercise of his military functions, the social tion of our national harmony, and social happiness. interests of his country engaged his benevolent attention, It is not in language to appreciate, with just estimation, and a solicitude to promote her political prosperity, employ- the advantages, which, on this great emergency, were deed the reflections of his patriotick mind.
rived to his country, from the mild dignity of his manner, Addressing to the Executive of the several States an af- and the harmonizing character of his deportment. sectionate farewell, he unfolded to their view the matured In them was personified that accommodation which the lessons of experience, in a system of advice, eminently cal- crisis demanded, and which the great instrument of our naculated to advance the happiness of their constituents and tional safety, most happily, proclaims in all its provisions. worthy to be transmitted, in indelible characters, to distant On the adoption of this auspicious substitute to our imposterity.
perfect Confederation when the voice of United America Thus was the splendid structure of his military character was to designate the most deserving citizen, to administer completed--and thus was reared, to the glory of confede- the important duties of the Executive Department—the rated America, an ever enduring monument of the purest choice was conformed to the gratitude of the Nation, and patriotism, and the most important publick services. to the high desert of her most beloved, and most respected
The rights of his country maintained—her independence Patriot. acknowledged the complaints of his meritorious, suffering The illustrious WASHINGTON was, again, the object of Army appeased-and his high trust, in all its relations, sa- undivided esteem, and the depository of the publick confi, credly fulfilled, he appeared before the great Council of the dence. Nation, to claim the indulgence of retirement, and to re- To him, as to an unerring guide, were committed the sign the authority, with which he had been invested. difficult and delicate arrangements of a new formed Govern
A more august scene has never been displayed. The ment, co-extensive with the limits, and embracing the vatriumph of virtue and freedom was complete. He retired, rious interests of " our wide-spreading Empire.” amid the blessings and applause of grateful millions, to the Renouncing the pleasures and the elegancies of his choshade of private life, and to the enjoyment of that domes- sen retreat, he consented to embark the rich treasure of his tick felicity, from which, during eight years of anxiety, toil, fame on an untried element--and, solely actuated by the and danger, he had been detained by an abstracted devo- will of his country, he resigned to her wishes the evening tion to publick duty.
of that life, whose morn and meridian had been devoted to However desirous to call your attention to the useful, the her service. virtuous, and exemplary tenour of his private life--yet the To trace the merits of his civil administration—to rerapid succession of publick events, which scarcely permit- mark the judgement and impartiality with which its most ted him to repose from the toils of war, obliges me to refer delicate duties were discharged—to observe the unwearied this interesting topick to a subsequent part of the discourse. investigation, on which his judicious selection to office was
The voice of his country, to which he was ever obe- grounded—to review those opinions, which were submitted, dient, was again raised to call him from his tranquil and for co-operation, to the other branches of Government—to happy retirement.
notice the scrupulous delicacy, with which he abstained That frame of government, which in a period of danger, from encroachment on the province of their authorityand under the pressure of foreign hostility had been suffi- while he maintained, with undeviating firmness, the powcient to consolidate the interests, and to educe the resour- ers which the Constitution had exclusively assigned to the ces of the United States, was found incompetent, in the Executive organ, would far exceed the limits of an eulorelaxation of peace, and fancied security, to control those gium. objects of national concern, which were essential to the They are classed in the highest order of precedents, and safety and happiness of the American People.
are most usefully referred to the historical amplification of The fair prospect of our rising Empire was obscured-the his instructive life. failure of our national engagements—the dissolution of our The immediate effects of so much virtue, wisdom, and Union—the consequent evils of rivalry—and the eventual exertion, were obvious to the most superficial observer. horrours of war, were all impending.
Under the auspices of that Government, which the weight The crisis was alarming beyond expression, and required of his opinions had so largely contributed to frame, and to an immediate interposition of the most patriotick exertions establish, and under the happy influence of such an adminto avert the threatened calamities.
istration of its provisions, the prosperity of our country was In the delegated wisdom and patriotism of the several advanced beyond the most sanguine expectations of patriStates, the sage and virtuous WASHINGTON was again dis- otism. tinguished, and again pre-eminent.
Hope and happiness were substituted for gloom and misElected by an unanimous suffrage, to preside over those fortune—and national respect succeeded to national degradeliberations, on which the fate of a mighty Nation, and dation. the felicity of millions were suspended, the dignity of his The labour of the husbandman, the industry of the mecharacter, and the influence of his example, gave to the chanick, the enterprise of the merchant, were all protected discussion, of different interests, a spirit of conciliation, and rewarded. which resulted in the noblest concessions—and an impres- The surplus products of our soil were exchanged in prosion of national deference, in which subordinate considera- fitable barter—the busy hum of men was again heard in tions were merged and extinguished.
our deserted harbours and the canvass of our commerce Yes, my fellow-citizens, to his accurate perception of was spread to every gale.