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Soldiers who are actuated by the spirit of adventure, the Fisheries will afford ample and profitable employment: And the extensive and fertile regions of the West will yield a most happy asylum to those who, fond of domestick enjoyment, are seeking personal independence. Nor is it possible to conceive that any one of the United States will prefer a national bankruptcy, and the dissolution of the Union, to a compliance with the requisitions of Congress, and the payment of its just debts; so that the Officers and Soldiers may expect considerable assistance in recommencing their civil occupations, from the sums due to them from the publick, which must and will most inevitably be paid. In order to effect this desirable purpose, and to remove the prejudices which may have taken possession of the minds of any of the good people of the States, it is earnestly recommended to all the Troops, that, with strong attachments to the Union, they should carry with them into civil society the most conciliating dispositions; and that they should prove themselves not less virtuous and useful as citizens, than they have been persevering and victorious soldiers. What though there should be some envious individuals, who are unwilling to pay the debt the publick have contracted, or to yield the tribute due to merit; yet let such unworthy treatment produce no invective, or any instance of intemperate conduct; let it be remembered, that the unbiased voice of the free citizens of the United States has promised the just reward, and given the merited applause; let it be known and remembered, that the reputation of the Federal Armies is established beyond the reach of malevolence; and let a consciousness of their achievements, and fame, still excite the men who composed them to honourable actions, under the persuasion that the private virtues of economy, prudence, and industry, will not be less amiable in civil life, than the more splendid qualities of valour, perseverance, and enterprize were in the field. Every one may rest assured that much, very much, of the future happiness of the Officers and Men will depend upon the wise and manly conduct which shall be adopted by them, when they are mingled with the great body of the community. And although the General has so frequentfrequently given it as his opinion, in the most publick and explicit manner, that unless the principles of the Federal Government were properly supported, and the powers of the Union increased, the honour, dignity, and justice of the Nation would be lost forever; yet he cannot help repeating, on this occasion, so interesting a sentiment, and leaving it as his last injunction to every Officer, and every Soldier, who may view the subject in the same serious point of light, to add his best endeavours to those of his worthy fellow-citizens, towards effecting these great and valuable purposes, on which our very existence, as a Nation, so materially depends.

The Commander-in-Chief conceives little is now wanting to enable the soldier to change the military character into that of the citizen, but that steady and decent tenour of behaviour, which has generally distinguished not only the Army under his immediate command, but the different Detachments and separate Armies, through the course of the War. From their good sense and prudence he anticipated the happiest consequences: And while he congratulates them on the glorious occasion which renders their services in the field no longer necessary, he wishes to express the strong obligations he feels himself under for the assistance he has received from every class, and in every instance.

He presents his thanks, in the most serious and affectionate manner, to the General Officers, as well for their counsel on many interesting occasions, as for their ardour in promoting the success of the plans he had adopted; to the Commandants of Regiments and Corps, and to the Officers for their zeal and attention in carrying his orders promptly into execution; to the Staff, for their alacrity and exactness in performing the duties of their several departments; and to the Non-commissioned Officers and Private Soldiers, for their extraordinary patience in suffering, as well as their invincible fortitude in action. To the various branches of the Army the General takes this last and solemn opportunity of professing his inviolable attachment and friendship: He wishes more than bare professions were in his power, that he was really able to be useful to them all in future life; He flatters himself, however, they will do him the justice to believe, that whatever could with propriety be attempted by him, has been done. And being now to conclude these his last publick Orders, to take his ultimate leave, in a short time, of the military character, and to bid a final adieu to the Armies he has so long had the honour to command, he can only again offer, in their behalf, his recommendations to their grateful country, and his prayers to the God of armies. May ample justice be done them here, and may the choicest of Heaven's favours, both here and hereafter, attend those who, under the Divine auspices, have secured innumerable blessings for others! With these wishes, and this benediction, the Commander-in-Chief is about to retire from service. The curtain of separation will soon be drawn-and the military scene, to him, will be closed forever.

To his Excellency General WASHINGTON, Commander-inChief of the Armies of the United States of America : We, the Officers of the part of the Army remaining on the banks of the Hudson, have received your Excellency's serious Farewell Address to the Armies of the United States. We beg you to accept our unfeigned thanks for the communication, and your affectionate assurances of inviolable attachment and friendship. If your attempts to insure to the Armies the just, the promised rewards, of their long, severe, and dangerous services, have failed of success, we believe it has arisen from causes not in your Excellency's power to control. With extreme regret do we reflect on the occasion which called for such endeavours. But while we thank your Excellency for these exertions in favour of the Troops you have so successfully commanded, we pray it may be believed, that in this sentiment our own particular interests have but a secondary place; and that even the ultimate ingratitude of the people, (were that possible,) could not shake the patriotism of those who suffer by it. Still, with pleasing wonder and with grateful joy, shall we contemplate the glorious conclusion of our labours. To that merit in the Revolution which, under the auspices of Heaven, the Armies have displayed, posterity will do justice; and the sons will blush whose fathers were their foes.

Most gladly would we cast a veil on every act which sullies the reputation of our country-never should the page of history be stained with its dishonour-even from our memories should the idea be erased. We lament the opposition to those salutary measures which the wisdom of the Union has planned; measures which alone can recover and fix, on a permanent basis, the credit of the States; mea

sures which are essential to the justice, the honour, and the interest of the Nation. While she was giving the noblest proofs of magnanimity, with conscious pride we saw her growing fame; and, regardless of present sufferings, we looked forward to the end of our toils and dangers, to brighter scenes in prospect. There we beheld the Genius of our country dignified by sovereignty and independence, supported by justice, and adorned with every liberal virtue. There we saw patient Husbandry fearless extend her cultured fields, and animated Commerce spread her sails to every wind. There we beheld fair Science lift her head, with all the Arts attendant in her train. There, blest with Freedom, we saw the human mind expand; and, throwing aside the restraints which confined it to the narrow bounds of country, it embraced the world. Such were our fond hopes, and with such delightful prospects did they present us. Nor are we disappointed. Those animating prospects are now changed and changing to realities; and actively to have contributed to their production is our pride, our glory. But justice alone can give them stability. In that justice we still believe. Still we hope that the prejudices of the misinformed will be removed, and the arts of false and selfish popularity, addressed to the feelings of avarice, defeated: Or, in the worst event, the world, we hope, will make the just distinction: We trust the disingenuousness of a few will not sully the reputation, the honour, and dignity, of the great and respectable majority of the States.

We are happy in the opportunity just presented, of congratulating your Excellency on the certain conclusion of the Definitive Treaty of Peace. Relieved, at length, from long suspense, our warmest wish is to return to the bosom of our country, to resume the character of citizens; and it will be our highest ambition to become useful ones.

To your Excellency this great event must be peculiarly pleasing For, while at the head of her Armies, urged by patriot virtues and magnanimity, you persevered, under the pressure of every possible difficulty and discouragement, in the pursuit of the great objects of the War-the freedom and safety of your country; your heart panted for the tranquil enjoyments of Peace. We cordially rejoice with you


that the period of indulging them has arrived so soon. contemplating the blessings of liberty and independence, the rich prize of eight years' hardy adventure, past sufferings will be forgotten; or if remembered, the recollection will serve to heighten the relish of present happiness. We sincerely pray God this happiness may long be yours; and that when you quit the stage of human life, you may receive from the unerring Judge, the rewards of valour exerted to save the oppressed, of patriotism, and disinterested virtue.

West-Point, November 15, 1783.


New-York, December, 1783.

The guards having been posted for the security of the citizens, General WASHINGTON accompanied by Governour Clinton, and attended by many civil and military Officers, and a large number of respectable inhabitants on horseback, made his publick entry into the city, where he was received with every mark of respect and attention. His military course was now on the point of terminating; and

previous to divesting himself of the supreme command, he was about to bid adieu to his comrades in arms.

This affecting interview took place on the fourth of December. At noon, the principal Officers of the Army assembled at France's tavern; soon after which their beloved Commander entered the room. His emotions were too strong to be concealed. Filling a glass, he turned to them and said, "With a heart full of love and gratitude, I now "take leave of you; I most devoutly wish that your lat"ter days may be as prosperous and happy, as your former "ones have been glorious and honourable." Having drunk, he added, "I cannot come to each of you to take my leave, "but shall be obliged to you, if each of you will come and "take me by the hand." General Knox, being nearest, turned to him. Incapable of utterance, WASHINGTON grasped his hand, and embraced him. In the same affectionate manner he took leave of each succeeding Officer. In every eye was the tear of dignified sensibility; and not a word was articulated to interrupt the majestick silence, and the tenderness of the scene. Leaving the room, he passed through the Corps of Light Infantry, and walked to White-Hall, where a barge waited to convey him to Powles Hook. The whole company followed in mute and solemn procession, with dejected countenances, testifying feelings of delicious melancholy, which no language can describe. Having entered the barge, he turned to the company, and waving his hat, bade them a silent adieu. They paid him the same affectionate compliment, and after the barge had left them, returned in the same solemn manner to the place where they had assembled.


Annapolis, December 23, 1783. General WASHINGTON having informed Congress of his intention to resign the Commission he had the honour to hold in their service, during the Revolutionary War, they resolved that it should be done in a publick audience; and At a proper

appointed this day for the interesting scene. moment, General WASHINGTON appeared and addressed the President in the following words: Mr. President:

The great events,. on which my resignation depended, having at length taken place, I have now the honour of offering my sincere congratulations to Congress, and of presenting myself before them, to surrender into their hands the trust committed to me, and to claim the indulgence of retiring from the service of my country.

Happy in the confirmation of our Independence and Sovereignty, and pleased with the opportunity afforded the United States of becoming a respectable Nation, I resign, with satisfaction, the appointment I accepted with diffidence; a diffidence in my abilities to accomplish so arduous a task, which, however, was superceded by a confidence in the rectitude of our cause, the support of the supreme power of the Union, and the patronage of Hea


The successful termination of the War has verified the most sanguine expectations; and my gratitude for the interposition of Providence, and the assistance I have received from my countrymen, increases with every review of the momentous contest.

While I repeat my obligations to the Army in general, I should do injustice to my own feelings not to acknowledge, in this place, the peculiar services and distinguished merits of the gentlemen who have been attached to my person during the War. It was impossible the choice of confidential Officers, to compose my family, should have been more fortunate. Permit me, sir, to recommend in particular, those who have continued in the service to the present moment, as worthy of the favourable notice and patronage of Congress.

I consider it as an indispensable duty to close this last solemn act of my official life, by commending the interests of our dearest country to the protection of Almighty God, and those who have the superintendence of them, to his holy keeping.

Having now finished the work assigned me, I retire from the great theatre of action, and bidding an affectionate farewell to this august body, under whose orders I have so long acted, I here offer my Commission, and take my leave of all the employments of publick life.


New-York, April 30, 1789.

This day the great and illustrious WASHINGTON, the favourite son of Liberty, and deliverer of his country, entered upon the execution of the office of First Magistrate of the United States of America; to which important station he had been unanimously called by the united voice of the people. The ceremony which took place on this occasion was truly grand and pleasing, and every heart seemed anxious to testify the joy it felt on so memorable an event. His Excellency was escorted from his house, by a Troop of Light Dragoons, and the Legion under the command of Colonel Lewis, attended by a Committee of the Senate and House of Representatives, to Federal Hall, where he was formally received by both Houses of Congress, assembled in the Senate Chamber; after which he was conducted to the gallery in front of the Hall, ac

To which the President of Congress returned the fol-companied by all the Members, when the oath prescribed lowing Answer:

SIR: The United States in Congress assembled, receive, with emotions too affecting for utterance, the solemn resignation of the authorities under which you have led their Troops with success, through a perilous and a doubtful War.

Called upon by your country to defend its invaded rights, you accepted the sacred charge, before it had formed alliances, and whilst it was without funds or a Government to support you.

You have conducted the great military contest with wisdom and fortitude, invariably regarding the rights of the civil power, through all disasters and changes. You have, by the love and confidence of your fellow-citizens, enabled them to display their martial genius, and transmit their fame to posterity. You have persevered, till these United States, aided by a magnanimous King and Nation, have been enabled, under a just Providence, to close the War in freedom, safety, and independence; on which happy event we sincerely join you in congratulations.

Having defended the Standard of Liberty in this new world: Having taught a lesson useful to those, who inflict, and to those who feel oppression, you retire from the great theatre of action, with the blessings of your fellow-citizens; but the glory of your virtues will not terminate with your military command; it will continue to animate remotest ages.

We feel, with you, our obligations to the Army in general, and will particularly charge ourselves with the interests of those confidential Officers, who have attended your person to this affecting moment.

We join you in commending the interests of our dearest country to the Almighty God, beseeching him to dispose the hearts and minds of its citizens, to improve the opportunity afforded them of becoming a happy and respectable Nation. And for you, we address to him our earnest prayers, that a life so beloved, may be fostered with all his care; that your days may be happy as they have been illustrious; and that he will finally give you that reward which this world cannot give.

by the Constitution was administered to him by the Chancellor of this State, who then said, "Long live GEORGE WASHINGTON, President of the United States;" which was answered by an immense concourse of citizens, assembled on the occasion, by the loudest plaudit and acclamation, that love and veneration ever inspired. He then made the following Speech:

Fellow-Citizens of the Senate, and

of the House of Representatives:

Among the vicissitudes incident to life, no event could have filled me with greater anxieties than that of which the notification was transmitted by your order, and received on the fourteenth day of the present month: on the one hand, I was summoned by my country, whose voice I can never hear but with veneration and love, from a retreat which I had chosen with the fondest predilection and, in my flattering hopes, with an immutable decision, as the asylum of my declining years, a retreat which was rendered every day more necessary, as well as more dear to me, by the addition of habit to inclination, and of frequent interruptions in my health, to the gradual waste committed on it by time. On the other hand, the magnitude and difficulty of the trust, to which the voice of my country called me, being sufficient to awaken in the wisest and most experienced of her citizens, a distrustful scrutiny into his qualifications, could not but overwhelm, with despondence, one, who, inheriting inferiour endowments from nature, and unpractised in the duties of civil administration, ought to be peculiarly conscious of his own deficiencies. In this conflict of emotions, all I dare aver, is, that it has been my faithful study to collect my duty from a just appreciation of every circumstance by which it might be affected. All I dare hope, is, that if, in executing this task, I have been too much swayed by a grateful remembrance of former instances, or by an affectionate sensibility to this transcendent proof of the confidence of my fellow-citizens, and have thence too little consulted my incapacity as well as disinclination for the weighty and untried cares before me, my errour will be palliated by the motives which misled me, and its consequences be judged by my country, with some share of the partiality in which they originated.

Such being the impressions under which I have, in obedience to the publick summons, repaired to the present station, it would be peculiarly improper to omit in this first official act, my fervent supplications to that Almighty Being who rules over the Universe-who presides in the Councils of Nations-and whose Providential aids can supply every human defect, that his benediction may consecrate to the liberties and happiness of the People of the United States, a Government instituted by themselves for these essential purposes: and may enable every instrument, employed in its administration, to execute with success the functions allotted to his charge. In tendering this homage to the great Author of every publick and private good, I assure myself that it expresses your sentiments not less than my own, nor those of my fellow-citizens at large, less than either. No people can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand, which conducts the affairs of men, more than the People of the United States. Every step by which they have advanced to the character of an independent Nation, seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency. And, in the important revolution just accomplished, in the system of their united Government, the tranquil deliberations and voluntary consent of so many distinct communities, from which the event has resulted, cannot be compared with the means, by which most Governments have been established, without some return of pious gratitude, along with a humble anticipation of the future blessings which the past seems to presage. These reflections, arising out of the present crisis, have forced themselves too strongly on my mind to be suppressed. You will join with me, I trust, in thinking that there are none under the influence of which, the proceedings of a new and free Government can more auspiciously commence.

and the solid rewards of publick prosperity and felicity: since we ought to be no less persuaded, that the propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a Nation that disregards the eternal rules of order and right, which Heaven itself has ordained: and since the preservation of the sacred fire of Liberty, and the destiny of the republican model of Government, are justly considered as deeply, perhaps, as finally staked, on the experiment intrusted to the hands of the American People.

Besides the ordinary objects submitted to your care, it will remain with your judgement to decide, how far an exercise of the occasional power, delegated by the fifth article of the Constitution, is rendered expedient at the present juncture, by the nature of objections which have been urged against the system, or by the degree of inquietude which has given birth to them. Instead of undertaking particular recommendations on this subject, in which I could be guided by no lights derived from official opportunities, I shall again give way to my entire confidence in your discernment and pursuit of the publick good; for I assure myself that whilst you carefully avoid every alteration which might endanger the benefits of an united and effective Government, or which ought to await the future lessons of experience; a reverence for the characteristick rights of freemen, and a regard for the publick harmony, will sufficiently influence your deliberations on the question, how far the former can be more impregnably fortified, or the latter be safely and advantageously promoted.

To the preceding observations I have one to add, which will be most properly addressed to the House of Representatives. It concerns myself, and will, therefore, be as brief as possible. When I was first honoured with a call into the service of my country, then on the eve of an arduous struggle for its liberties, the light in which I contemplated my duty required that I should renounce every pecuniary compensation. From this resolution I have in no instance departed. And being still under the impressions which produced it, I must decline, as inapplicable to myself, any share in the personal emoluments, which may be indispensably included in a permanent provision for the Executive Department; and must, accordingly, pray that the pecuniary estimates for the station in which I am placed, may, during my continuance in it, be limited to such actual expenditures as the publick good may be thought to require.

Having thus imparted to you my sentiments, as they have been awakened by the occasion which brings us to

By the article establishing the Executive Department, it is made the duty of the President" to recommend to your "consideration, such measures as he shall judge necessary "and expedient." The circumstances under which I now meet you, will acquit me from entering into that subject, farther than to refer you to the great constitutional charter under which you are assembled; and which, in defining your powers, designates the objects to which your attention is to be given. It will be more consistent with those circumstances, and far more congenial with the feelings which actuate me, to substitute, in place of a recommendation of particular measures, the tribute that is due to the talents, the rectitude, and the patriotism which adorn the characters selected to devise and adopt them. In these honour-gether, I shall take my present leave; but not without reable qualifications, I behold the surest pledges, that as, on one side, no local prejudices, or attachments, no separate views, nor party animosities, will misdirect the comprehensive and equal eye which ought to watch over this great assemblage of communities and interests; so on another, that the foundations of our national policy will be laid in the pure and immutable principles of private morality; and the pre-eminence of free Government, be exemplified by all the attributes which can win the affections of its citizens, and command the respect of the world. I dwell on this prospect with every satisfaction, which an ardent love for my country can inspire: since there is no truth more thoroughly established, than that there exists in the economy and course of nature, an indissoluble union between virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, between the genuine maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy,

sorting once more to the benign Parent of the human race
in bumble supplication, that since he has been pleased to
favour the American People, with opportunities for delib-
erating in perfect tranquillity, and dispositions for deciding
with unparalleled unanimity on a form of Government, for
the security of their Union, and the advancement of their
happiness; so his divine blessing may be equally conspi-
cuous in the enlarged views, the temperate consultations,
and the wise measures on which the success of this Go-
vernment must depend.

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SIR We, the Senate of the United States, return you our sincere thanks for your excellent Speech, delivered to both Houses of Congress, congratulate you on the complete organization of the Federal Government, and felicitate ourselves and our fellow-citizens, on your elevation to

the office of President, an office highly important by the powers constitutionally annexed to it, and extremely honourable from the manner in which the appointment is made. The unanimous suffrage of the elective body in your favour, is peculiarly expressive of the gratitude, confidence and affection of the citizens of America, and is the highest testimonial at once of your merit, and of their esteem. We We are sensible, sir, that nothing but the voice of your fellowcitizens could have called you from a retreat, chosen by the fondest predilection, endeared by habit, and consecrated to the repose of declining years. We rejoice, and with us, all America, that, in obedience to the call of our common country, you have returned once more to publick life. In you all parties confide, in you all interests unite, and we have no doubt that your past services, great as they have been, will be equalled by your future exertions; and that your prudence and sagacity as a statesman, will tend to avert the dangers to which we were exposed, to give stability to the present Government, and dignity and splendour to that country, which your skill and valour as a soldier, so eminently contributed to raise to independence and empire.


When we contemplate the coincidence of circumstances, and wonderful combination of causes, which gradually prepared the people of this country for independence; when we contemplate the rise, progress, and termination of the late war, which gave them a name among the nations of the earth, we are, with you, unavoidably led to acknowledge and adore the great Arbiter of the Universe, by whom Empires rise and fall. A review of the many signal instances of Divine interposition in favour of this country, claims our most pious gratitude. And permit us, sir, to observe, that among the great events which have led to the formation and establishment of a Federal Government, we esteem your acceptance of the office of President, as one of the most propitious and important.

In execution of the trust reposed in us, we shall endeavour to pursue that enlarged and liberal policy, to which your Speech so happily directs. We are conscious that the prosperity of each State is inseparably connected with the welfare of all, and that in promoting the latter, we shall effectually advance the former. In full persuasion of this truth, it shall be our invariable aim to divest ourselves of local prejudices and attachments, and to view the great assemblage of communities and interests committed to our charge with an equal eye. We feel, sir, the force, and acknowledge the justice of the observation, that the foundation of our national policy should be laid in private morality. If individuals be not influenced by moral principles, it is in vain to look for publick virtue, it is, therefore, the duty of legislators to enforce, both by precept and example, the utility, as well as the necessity, of a strict adherence to the rules of distributive justice. We beg you to be assured, that the Senate will, at all times, cheerfully cooperate in every measure, which may strengthen the Union, may strengthen the Union, conduce to the happiness, or secure and perpetuate the liberties of this great confederated Republick.

We commend you, sir, to the protection of Almighty God, earnestly beseeching him long to preserve a life so valuable and dear to the people of the United States; and that your Administration may be prosperous to the Nation, and glorious to yourself.

Signed by order:

JOHN ADAMS, President of the Senate of the United States.

IN SENATE, May 16, 1789.

GENTLEMEN: I thank you for your Address, in which the most affectionate sentiments are expressed in the most obliging terms. The coincidence of circumstances which led to this auspicious crisis; the confidence reposed in me by my fellow-citizens, and the assistance I may expect from counsels which will be dictated by an enlarged and liberal policy, seem to presage a more prosperous issue to my administration, than a diffidence of my abilities had taught me to anticipate. I now feel myself inexpressibly happy in a belief, that Heaven, which has done so much for our infant Nation, will not withdraw its providential influence before our political felicity shall have been completed; and in a conviction that the Senate will, at all times, co-operate in every measure which may tend to promote the welfare of the confederated Republick.

Thus supported by a firm trust in the great Arbiter of the Universe, aided by the collected wisdom of the Union, and imploring the divine benediction on our joint exertions in the service of our country, I readily engage with you in the arduous but pleasing task of attempting to make a Nation happy. Go. WASHINGTON.

SIR: The Representatives of the People of the United States, present their congratulations on the event by which your fellow-citizens have attested the pre-eminence of your merit. You have long held the first place in their esteem; you have often received tokens of their affection; you now possess the only proof that remained of their gratitude for your services, of their reverence for your wisdom, and of their confidence in your virtues. You enjoy the highest, because the truest honour, of being the First Magistrate, by the unanimous choice of the freest People on the face of the earth.

We well know the anxieties with which you must have obeyed the summons, from the repose reserved for your declining years, into publick scenes, of which you had taken your leave forever; but the obedience was due to the occasion. It is already applauded by the universal joy which welcomes you to your station, and we cannot doubt that it will be rewarded with all the satisfaction, with which an ardent love for your fellow-citizens must review successful efforts to promote their happiness.

This anticipation is not justified merely by the past experience of your signal services. It is particularly suggested by the pious impressions under which you commence your administration, and the enlightened maxims by which you mean to conduct it. We feel with you the strongest obligations to adore the invisible hand which has led the American People through so many difficulties, to cherish a conscious responsibility for the destiny of Republican Liberty, and to seek the only sure means of preserving and recommending the precious deposite in a system of legislation, founded on the principles of an honest policy, and directed by the spirit of a diffusive patriotism.

The question arising out of the fifth article of the Constitution, will receive all the attention demanded by its importance, and will, we trust, be decided under the influence of all the considerations to which you allude.

In forming the pecuniary provisions for the Executive Department, we shall not lose sight of a wish resulting from motives which give it a peculiar claim to our regard. Your resolution, in a moment critical to the liberties of your country, to renounce all personal emolument, was among the many presages of your patriotiek services,

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