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Resolved, unanimously, Whereas, the Delegates of all which seems to be peculiarly designed by Providence for the Colonies, from Nova-Scotia to Georgia, in Congress the display of human greatness and felicity: Here they assembled, have unanimously chosen GEORGE WASHING- are not only surrounded with every thing that can contriTON, Esq., to be General and Commander-in-Chief of such

bute to the completion of private and domestick enjoyment, Forces as are, or shall be, raised for the maintenance and but Heaven has crowned all its other blessings, by giving preservation of American Liberty; this Congress doth now a surer opportunity for political happiness than any other declare, that they will maintain and assist him, and adhere Nation has ever been favoured with. Nothing can illusto him, the said GEORGE WASHINGTON, with their lives trate these observations more forcibly than the recollection and fortunes in the same cause.

of the happy conjuncture of times and circumstances, under which our Republick assumed its rank among the Nations.


of ignorance and superstition, but at an epocha when age the rights of mankind were better understood and more

clearly defined, than at any former period: Researches of Circular Letter from his Excellency GEORGE WASHING- the human mind after social happiness have been carried to

TON, Commander-in-Chief, of the Armies of the United a great extent: The treasures of knowledge acquired by States of America, to the Governours of the several the labours of Philosophers, Sages, and Legislators, through States.

a long succession of years, are laid open for use, and their Head.Quarters, Newburgh, June 18, 1783.

collected wisdom may be happily applied in the establishSir: The great object for which I had the honour to ment of our forms of Government: The free cultivation hold an appointment in the service of my country, being of Letters, the unbounded extension of Commerce, the accomplished, I am now preparing to resign it into the progressive refinement of manners, the growing liberality bands of Congress, and return to that domestick retire. of sentiment, and, above all, the pure and benign light of ment, which, it is well known, I left with the greatest re- revelation, have had a meliorating influence on mankind, luctance; a retirement for which I have never ceased to and increased the blessings of society. At this auspicious sigla through a long and painful absence, in which (remote period the United States came into existence as a Nation, from the noise and trouble of the world) I meditate to pass and if their citizens should not be completely free and the remainder of life in a state of undisturbed repose; but, happy, the fault will be entirely their own, before I carry this resolution into effect, I think it a duty Such is our situation, and such are our prospects; but incumbent on me to make this my last official communi- notwithstanding the cup of blessing is thus reached out to cation, to congratulate you on the glorious events which us, notwithstanding happiness is ours, if we have a dispoHeaven has been pleased to produce in our favour; to sition to seize the occasion, and make it our own; yet it offer my sentiments respecting some important subjects appears to me, there is an option still left to the United which appear to me to be intimately connected with the States of America, whether they will be respectable and tranquillity of the United States ; to take my leave of prosperous, or contemptible and miserable as a Nation. your Excellency as a publick character, and to give my This is the time of their political probation ; this is the final blessing to that country in whose service I have spent moment, when the eyes of the whole world are turned the prime of my life; for whose sake I have consumed so upon them; this is the time to establish or ruin their namany anxious days and watchful nights; and whose happi- tional character forever ; this is the favourable moment to pess being extremely dear to me, will always constitute no give such a tone to the Federal Government, as will enable inconsiderable part of my own.

it to answer the ends of its institution ; or this may be the Impressed with the liveliest sensibility on this pleasing ill-fated moment for relaxing the powers of the Union, occasion, I will claim the indulgence of dilating the more annihilating the cement of the Confederation, and exposing copiously on the subject of our mutual solicitation. When us to become the sport of European politicks, which may we consider the magnitude of the prize we contended for, play one State against another, to prevent their growing the doubtsul nature of the contest, and the favourable importance, and to serve their own interested purposes. manner in which it has terminated, we shall find the great- For, according to the system of policy the States shall est possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing: This is a adopt at this moment, they will stand or fall; and, by their theme that will afford infinite delight to every benevolent confirmation or lapse, it is yet to be decided, whether the and liberal mind, whether the event in contemplation be Revolution must ultimately be considered as a blessing or considered as a source of present enjoyment, or the parent a curse; a blessing or a curse, not to the present age alone, of future happiness; and we shall have equal occasion to for with our fate will the destiny of unborn millions be felicitate ourselves on the lot which Providence has assigned involved. us, whether we view it in a natural, a political, or a moral With this conviction of the importance of the present point of view.

crisis, silence in me would be a crime. I will, therefore, The citizens of America, placed in the most enviable speak to your Excellency the language of freedom and condition, as the sole lords and proprietors of a vast tract sincerity, without disguise. I am aware, however, those of Continent, comprehending all the various soils and cli- who differ from me in political sentiments, may perhaps mates of the world, and abounding with all the necessa- remark, I am stepping out of the proper line of my duty; ries and conveniences of life, are now, by the late satisfac- and they may possibly ascribe to arrogance or ostentation, tory pacification, acknowledged to be possessed of absolute what I know is alone the result of the purest intention ; freedom and independency; they are from this period to but the rectitude of my own heart, which disdains such be considered as the actors on a most conspicuous theatre, unworthy motives, the part I have hitherto acted in life, the determination I have formed of not taking any share in much blood and treasure have been lavished for no purpublick business hereafter, the ardent desire I feel and pose; that so many sufferings have been encountered withshall continue to manifest, of quietly enjoying in private out a compensation, and that so many sacrifices have been life, after all the toils of war, the benefits of a wise and made in vain. Many other considerations might here be liberal Government, will, I flatter myself, sooner or later adduced to prove, that without an entire conformity to the convince my Countrymen, that I could have no sinister spirit of the Union, we cannot exist as an independent views in delivering with so little reserve, the opinions con- Power. It will be sufficient for my purpose, to mention tained in this Address.

but one or two, which seem to me of the greatest imporThere are four things which I humbly conceive are tance. It is only in our united character, as an Empire, essential to the well-being, I may even venture to say, to that our independence is acknowledged, that our power the existence of the United States as an independent can be regarded, or our credit supported among foreign Power:

Nations. The treaties of the European Powers with the 1st. An indissoluble union of the States under one United States of America, will have no validity on the disFederal head.

solution of the Union. We shall be left nearly in a state 2dly. A sacred regard to publick justice.

of nature ; or we may find, by our own unhappy experiBdly. The adoption of a proper Peace Establishment. ence, that there is a natural and necessary progression from And,

the extreme of anarchy to the extreme of tyranny ; and 4thly. The prevalence of that pacifick and friendly dis- that arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins position among the People of the United States, which of liberty abused to licentiousness. will induce them to forget their local prejudices and policies, As to the second article, which respects the performance to make those mutual concessions which are requisite to of publick justice, Congress have, in their late Address to the general prosperity, and, in some instances, to sacrifice the United States, almost exhausted the subject; they have their individual advantages to the interest of the commu- explained their ideas so fully, and have enforced the oblinity,

gations the States are under to render complete justice to These are the pillars on which the glorious fabrick of all the publick creditors, with so much dignity and energy, our independency and national character must be sup- that, in my opinion, no real friend to the honour and indeported. Liberty is the basis, and whoever would dare to pendency of America can hesitate a single moment resap the foundation, or overturn the structure, under what- specting the propriety of complying with the just and hoever specious pretext he may attempt it, will merit the nourable measures proposed. If their arguments do not bitterest execration and the severest punishment which produce conviction, I know of nothing that will have greater can be inflicted by his injured country.

influence, especially, when we reflect that the system reOn the three first articles I will make a few observa- | ferred to, being the result of the collected wisdom of the tions, leaving the last to the good sense and serious con- Continent, must be esteemed, if not perfect, certainly the sideration of those immediately concerned.

least objectionable of any that could be devised ; and that, Under the first head, although it may not be necessary if it should not be carried into immediate execution, a naor proper for me, in this place, to enter into a particular tional bankruptcy, with all its deplorable consequences, disquisition of the principles of the Union, and to take up will take place, before any different plan can possibly be the great question which has been frequently agitated, whe- proposed or adopted; so pressing are the present circumther it be expedient and requisite for the States to delegate stances, and such is the alternative now offered to the a large proportion of power to Congress, or not; yet it States. will be a part of my duty, and that of every true patriot, The ability of the country to discharge the debts which to assert without reserve, and to insist upon the following have been incurred in its defence, is not to be doubted. positions : That unless the States will suffer Congress to An inclination, I flatter myself, will not be wanting ; the exercise those prerogatives they are undoubtedly invested path of our duty is plain before us ; honesty will be found, with by the Constitution, every thing must very rapidly on every experiment, to be the best and only true policy. tend to anarchy and confusion. That it is indispensable to Let us then, as a Nation, be just ; let us fulfil the publick the happiness of the individual States, that there should be contracts which Congress had undoubtedly a right to make, lodged, somewhere, a supreme power, to regulate and govern for the purpose of carrying on the War, with the same good the general concerns of the confederated Republick, with- faith we suppose ourselves bound to perform our private out which the Union cannot be of long duration. That engagements. In the meantime, let an attention to the there must be a faithful and pointed compliance on the cheerful performance of their proper business, as indivipart of every State with the late proposals and demands of duals, and as members of society, be earnestly inculcated Congress, or the most fatal consequences will ensue. That on the citizens of America ; then will they strengthen the whatever measures have a tendency to dissolve the Union, bands of Government, and be happy under its protection. or contribute to violate or lessen the sovereign authority, | Every one will reap the fruit of his labours ; every one ought to be considered as hostile to the liberty and inde- will enjoy his own acquisitions, without molestation, and pendency of America, and the authors of them treated ac- without danger. cordingly. And lastly, that unless we can be enabled, by In this state of absolute freedom and perfect security, the concurrence of the States, to participate of the fruits who will grudge to yield a very little of his property to supof the Revolution, and enjoy the essential benefits of civil port the common interests of society, and insure the prosociety, under a form of Government so free and uncor- tection of Government? Who does not remember the frerupted, so happily guarded against the danger of oppres- quent declarations at the commencement of the War, that sion, as has been devised and adopted by the Articles we should be completely satisfied, if at the expense of one of Confederation, it will be a subject of regret, that so half, we could defend the remainder of our possessions ? Where is the man to be found, who wishes to remain in- | diers, it is sufficient that the uniform experience of every debted, for the defence of his own person and property, to

Nation of the world, combined with our own, proves the the exertions, the bravery, and the blood of others, without utility and propriety of the discrimination. Rewards, in making one generous effort to pay the debt of honour and proportion to the aid the publick draws from them, are unof gratitude ? In what part of the Continent shall we find questionably due to all its servants. In some Lines, the any man, or body of men, who would not blush to stand Soldiers have, perhaps, generally had as ample compensaup, and propose measures purposely calculated to rob the tion for their services, by the large bounties which have Soldier of his stipend, and the publick creditor of his due ? been paid them, as their Officers will receive in the proAnd, were it possible that such a flagrant instance of injus- posed commutation ; in others, if besides the donation of tice could ever happen, would it not excite the general in- land, the payment of arrearages of clothing and wages in dignation, and tend to bring down, upon the authors of such which articles all the component parts of the Army must measures, the aggravated vengeance of Heaven ? If, after be put upon the same footing) we take into the estimate, all, a spirit of disunion, or a temper of obstinacy and per- the bounties many of the Soldiers have received, and the verseness should manifest itself in any of the States; if such gratuity of one year's full pay, which is promised to all, an ungracious disposition should attempt to frustrate all the possibly their situation, (every circumstance being duly conhappy effects that might be expected to flow from the sidered,) will not be deemed less eligible than that of the Union ; if there should be a refusal to comply with the Officers. Should a further reward, however, be judged requisitions for funds to discharge the annual interest of the equitable, I will venture to assert, no man will enjoy greatpublick debts, and if that refusal should revive all those er satisfaction than myself, in an exemption from taxes for jealousies, and produce all those evils which are now hap- a limited time, (which has been petitioned for in some inpily removed-Congress, who have, in all their transac- stances,) or any other adequate immunity or compensations, shown a great degree of magnanimity and justice, tion granted to the brave defenders of their country's cause. will stand justified in the sight of God and man! And that But neither the adoption nor rejection of this proposition State alone, which puts itself in opposition to the aggregate will, in any manner affect, much less militate against the wisdom of the Continent, and follows such mistaken and Act of Congress, by which they have offered five years' pernicious councils, will be responsible for all the conse- full pay, in lieu of the hall-pay for life, which had been quences.

before promised to the Officers of the Army. For my own part, conscious of having acted while a ser- Before I conclude the subject on publick justice, I canvant of the publick, in the manner I conceived best suited not omit to mention the obligations this country is under to to promote the real interests of my country ; having, in that meritorious class of veterans, the Non-commissioned consequence of my fixed belief, in some measure pledg- Officers and Privates, who have been discharged for inaed myself to the Army, that their country would, final- bility, in consequence of the Resolution of Congress, of ly, do them complete and ample justice, and not willing the twenty-third of April, 1782, on an annual pension for to conceal any instance of my official conduct from the life. Their peculiar sufferings, their singular merits and eyes of the world, I have thought proper to transmit to claims to that provision need only to be known, to interest your Excellency the enclosed collection of papers, relative the feelings of humanity in their behalf. Nothing but a to the half-pay and commutation granted by Congress to punctual payment of their annual allowance can rescue them the Officers of the Army: From these communications, from the most complicated misery ; and nothing could be my decided sentiment will be clearly comprehended, to- a more melancholy and distressing sight, than to behold gether with the conclusive reasons which induced rne, at those who have shed their blood, or lost their limbs in the an early period, to recommend the adoption of this mea- service of their country, without a shelter, without a friend, sure in the most earnest and serious manner.

and without the means of obtaining any of the comforts or ceedings of Congress, the Army, and myself, are open to necessaries of life, compelled to beg their daily bread from all, and contain, in my opinion, sufficient information to re- door to door. Suffer me to recommend those of this demove the prejudice and errours which may have been en- scription, belonging to your State, to the warmest patronage tertained by any, I think it unnecessary to say any thing of your Excellency and your Legislature. more, than just to observe, that the resolutions of Congress, It is necessary to say but a few words on the third topick now alluded to, are as undoubtedly and absolutely binding which was proposed, and which regards, particularly, the upon the United States, as the most solemn acts of confe- defence of the Republick. As there can be little doubt but deration or legislation.

Congress will recommend a proper Peace Establishment As to the idea, which I am informed, has in some instances for the United States, in which a due attention will be paid prevailed, that the balf-pay and commutation are to be re- to the importance of placing the Militia of the Union upon garded merely in the odious light of a pension, it ought to be a regular and respectable footing ; if this should be the case, exploded forever : That provision should be viewed, as it I should beg leave to urge the great advantage of it in the really was, a reasonable compensation offered by Congress, strongest terms. at a time when they had nothing else to give to Officers of The Militia of this country must be considered as the the Army, for services then to be performed : It was the palladium of our security, and the first effectual resort in only means to prevent a total dereliction of the service; it case of hostility : It is essential, therefore, that the same was a part of their hire. I may be allowed to say it was system should pervade the whole ; that the formation and the price of their blood, and of your independency ; it is, discipline of the Militia of the Continent should be absotherefore, more than a common debt, it is a debt of honour; lutely uniform : and that the same species of arms, accouit can never be considered as a pension or gratuity, nor trements, and military apparatus, should be introduced in cancelled until it is fairly discharged.

every part of the United States. No one, who has not With regard to the distinction between Officers and Sol- learned it from experience, can conceive the difficulty, ex


As the pro

pense, and confusion which result from a contrary system, have served in the field; and finally, that he would most or the vague arrangements which have hitherto prevailed. graciously be pleased to dispose us all to do justice, to love

If, in treating of political points, a greater latitude than mercy, and to demean ourselves with that charity, humility, usual has been taken in the course of the Address, the im- and pacifick temper of the mind, which were the characportance of the crisis, and the magnitude of the objects in teristicks of the divine Author of our blessed religion ; discussion, must be my apology : It is, however, neither without an humble imitation of whose example, in these my wish nor expectation, that the preceding observations things, we can never hope to be a happy Nation. should claim any regard, except so far as they shall appear I have the honour to be, with much esteem and respect, to be dictated by a good intention ; consonant to the im- sir, your Excellency's most obedient, and most humble mutable rules of justice ; calculated to produce a liberal servant,

Go. WASHINGTON. system of policy, and founded on whatever experience may have been acquired by a long and close attention to publick business. Here I might speak with more confidence, from

RESOLUTIONS OF CONGRESS TO ERECT AN EQUESTRIAN STAmy actual observations; and if it would not swell this letter

TUE OF WASHINGTON-HIS VISIT TO PRINCETON AT THE (already to prolix) beyond the bounds I had prescribed my- REQUEST OF CONGRESS—THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESSself, I could demonstrate to every mind, open to conviction,

WASHINGTON'S REPLY. that in less time, and with much less expense than has been The following Resolutions were passed on the 7th of incurred, the war might have been brought to the same August, 1783 : happy conclusion, if the resources of the Continent could

By the United States in Congress assembled, Resolved have been properly called forth ; that the distresses and unanimously, ten States being present, That an Equestrian disappointments which have very often occurred, have, in Statue of General WASHINGTON be erected at the place too many instances, resulted more from a want of energy where the residence of Congress shall be established. in the Continental Government, than a deficiency of means Resolved, That the Statue be of bronze, the General in the particular States : That the inefficacy of the mea- to be represented in a Roman dress, holding a truncheon sures, arising from the want of an adequate authority in the in his right hand, and his head encircled in a laurel wreath: supreme power, from a partial compliance with the requi- The Statue to be supported by a marble pedestal, on which sitions of Congress in some of the States, and from a failure are to be represented, in basso relievo, the following prinof punctuality in others, while they tended to damp the cipal events of the War, in which General WASHINGTON zeal of those who were more willing to exert themselves, commanded in person, viz: The Evacuation of Bostonserved also to accumulate the expenses of the War, and to the Capture of the Hessians at Trenton—the Battle of frustrate the best concerted plans; and that the discourage- Princeton—the Action of Monmouth—and the Surrender ment occasioned by the complicated difficulties and embar- of York. On the upper part of the front of the pedestal rassments, in which our affairs were by this means involved, to be engraved as follows : “ The United States in Conwould have long ago produced the dissolution of an Army, “gress assembled, ordered this Statue to be erected in the less patient, less virtuous, and less persevering than that “year of our Lord, 1783, in honour of GEORGE WASHINGwhich I have had the honour to command. But while I " TON, the illustrious Commander-in-Chief of the Armies mention those things, which are notorious facts, as the de- “ of the United States of America, during the War, which fects of our Federal Constitution, particularly in the prose- “ vindicated and secured their liberty, sovereignty, and incution of a War, I beg it may be understood, that as I have dependence.” ever taken pleasure in gratefully acknowledging the assist- Resolved, That a Statue conformable to the above plan, ance and support I have derived from every class of citi- be executed by the best Artist in Europe, under the suzens; so shall I always be happy to do justice to the un- perintendence of the Minister of the United States at the paralleled exertions of the individual States, on many inte-Court of Versailles, and that money to defray the expense resting occasions.

of the same, be surnished from the Treasury of the United I have thus freely disclosed what I wished to make known States. before I surrendered up my publick trust to those who com- Resolved, That the Secretary of Congress transmit to mitted it to me: The task is now accomplished. I now

the Minister of the United States at the Court of Verbid adieu to your Excellency, as the Chief Magistrate of sailles, the best resemblance of General Washington that your State; at the same time I bid a last farewell to the can be procured for the purpose of having the above Stacares of office, and all the employments of publick life. tue erected, together with the fittest description of the

It remains, then, to be my final and only request, that events which are to be the subject of the basso relievo. your Excellency will communicate these sentiments to your Legislature, at their next meeting ; and that they may General Washington, at the request of Congress, probe considered as the Legacy of one who has ardently ceeded to Princeton on the 26th of August, 1783, and bewished, on all occasions, to be useful to his country, and ing introduced by two Members, the President addressed who even in the shade of retirement, will not fail to im- him as follows : plore the Divine benediction upon it.

“Sır: Congress feel particular pleasure in seeing your I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would have “ Excellency, and in congratulating you on the success of you, and the State over which you preside, in his holy «a War in which you have acted so conspicuous a part. protection; that he would incline the hearts of the citizens 6. It has been the singular happiness of the United States, to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to “ that during a War so long, so dangerous, and so imporGovernment ; to entertain a brotherly affection and love “tant, Providence has been graciously pleased to preserve for one another, for their fellow citizens of the United “the life of a General, who has merited and possessed the States at large; and, particularly, for their brethren who uninterrupted confidence and affection of bis fellow-citi


"zens. In other Nations many have performed services row, which Proclamation having been communicated in the “ for which they have deserved and received the thanks of publick papers for the information and government of all " the publick; but to you, sir, peculiar praise is due, your concerned; it only remains for the Commander-in-Chief “ services have been essential in acquiring and establishing to address himself once more, and that for the last time, to " the freedom and independence of your country ; they de- the Armies of the United States, (however widely dispersed

serve the grateful acknowledgements of a free and inde- individuals who compose them may be,) and to bid them “pendent Nation; those acknowledgements Congress have an affectionate, a long farewell. “the satisfaction of expressing to your Excellency.

But before the Commander-in-Chief takes his final leave “ Hostilities have now ceased, but your country still of those he holds most dear, he wishes to indulge himself “needs your services; she wishes to avail herself of your a few moments in calling to mind a slight review of the “ talents in forming the arrangements which will be neces- past : He will, then, take the liberty of exploring, with his sary

for her in the time of Peace; for this reason your military friends, their future prospects; of advising the gen“ attendance at Congress has been requested. A Commit- eral line of conduct which, in his opinion, ought to be pur“ tee is appointed to confer with your Excellency, and to sued; and he will conclude the Address, by expressing the receive

your assistance in preparing and adjusting plans obligations he feels himself under for the spirited and able “ relative to those important objects."

assistance he has experienced from them, in the perform

ance of an arduous office. To which His Excellency made the following Reply:

A contemplation of the complete attainment, (at a pe« Mr. President :

riod earlier than could have been expected,) of the object “I am too sensible of the honourable reception I have

for which we contended against so formidable a power, now experienced, not to be penetrated with the deepest cannot but inspire us with astonishment and gratitude.feelings of gratitude.

The disadvantageous circumstances on our part, under Notwithstanding Congress appear to estimate the value

which the War was undertaken, can never be forgotten. “of my life beyond any services I have been able to ren

The singular interpositions of Providence in our feeble con“ der the United States, yet I must be permitted to consider dition, were such as could scarcely escape the attention of “the wisdom and unanimity of our National Councils, the

the most unobserving; while the unparalleled perseverance “ firmness of our citizens, and the patience and bravery of of the Armies of the United States, through almost every our troops, which have produced so happy a termination possible suffering and discouragement, for the

, space of eight “ of the War, as the most conspicuous effect of the Divine long years, was little short of a standing miracle. “interposition, and the surest presage of our future happi

It is not the meaning, nor within the compass of this

Address, to detail the hardships peculiarly incident to our “ Highly gratified by the favourable sentiments which service, or to describe the distresses which, in several inCongress are pleased to express of my past conduct, and stances, have resulted from the extremes of hunger and na“ amply rewarded by the confidence and affection of my

kedness, combined with the rigours of an inclement season; “ fellow-citizens, I cannot hesitate to contribute my best nor is it necessary to dwell on the dark side of our past af" endeavours towards the establishment of the National fairs. Every American Officer and Soldier must now con“ security in whatever manner the sovereign power may

sole himself for any unpleasant circumstances which may “think proper to direct, until the ratification of the Defini- have occurred, by a recollection of the uncommon scenes “tive Treaty of Peace, or the final evacuation of our coun

in which he has been called to act no inglorious a part, and “ try by the British forces ; after either of which events, I the astonishing events of which he has been a witness ; “shall ask permission to retire to the peaceful shade of pri

events which have seldom, if ever before, taken place on vate life.

the stage of human action, nor can they, probably, ever “ Perhaps, sir, no occasion may offer more suitable than happen again. For who has before seen a disciplined army “the present to express my humble thanks to God, and formed, at once, from such raw materials? Who, that was “my grateful acknowledgements to my country, for the not a witness, could imagine that the most violent local “ great and uniform support I have received in every vicis- prejudices would cease so soon, and that men who came “situde of fortune, and for the many distinguished honours

from the different parts of the Continent, strongly disposed “ which Congress have been pleased to confer upon me in by the habits of education to despise and quarrel with each " the course of the War."

other, would instantly become but one patriotick band of brothers ? Or who, that was not on the spot, can trace the steps by which such a wonderful revolution has been effect

ed, and such a glorious period put to all our warlike toils ? FAREWELL ORDERS OF GENERAL WASHINGTON TO THE AR


pects of happiness, opened by the confirmation of our independence and sovereignty, almost exceed the

power of Rocky-Hill, near Princeton, November 2, 1783. description : And shall not the brave men who have conThe United States in Congress assembled, after giving tributed so essentially to these inestimable acquisitions, rethe most honourable testimony to the merits of the Fede- tiring victorious from the field of war to the field of agriral Armies, and presenting them with the thanks of their culture, participate in all the blessings which have been country, for their long, eminent, and faithful service, having obtained ? In such a Republick, who will exclude them thought proper, by their Proclamation, bearing date the from the rights of citizens, and the fruits of their labours ? 18th of October last, to discharge such part of the Troops In such a country, so happily circumstanced, the pursuits as were engaged for the War, and to permit the Officers of commerce, and the cultivation of the soil, will unfold to on furlough to retire from service, from and after to-mor- industry the certain road to competence. To those hardy


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