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As if we had them not. Spirits are not finely touch'd
But to fine issues; nature never lends
The smallest scruple of her excellence; '
But like a thrifty goddess she determines :
Herself the glory of a creditor, i
Both thanks and use. But I do bend my speech
To one that can in my part me advertise.
Hold therefore, Angelo
In our remove be thou at full ourself,
Mortality and mercy in Vienna
Live in thy tongue and heart : Old Escalus,
Though first in question, is thy secondary :
Take thy commission.

Shakes. Meas. for Meas.

ARGUING.

Arguing requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, and emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand; it assumes somewhat of authority, as if fully convinced of the truth of what it pleads for, and sometimes rises to great vehemence and energy of assertion; the voice clear, bold, distinct, and firm, as in confidence.

Reasoning with deference to others,

Ay, but yet Let us be keen, and rather cut a little, Than fall and bruise to death. Alas! this gentleman, Whom I would save, had a most noble father! Let but your honour know, (whom I believe To be most straight in virtue,) That in the working of your own affections, Had time coher'd with place, or place with wishing, Or that the resolute acting of your blood Could have attain'd th' effect of your own purpose, · Whether you had not some time in your life Err'd in this point which now you censure him, And pulled the law upon you. Shakes. Meas. for Meas.

Reasoning warmly.

By my white beard,
You offer him, if this be so, a wrong,

Something unfilial; Reason, my son
Should choose himself a wife ; but as good reason,
The father, (all whose joy is nothing else
But fair posterity) should hold some counsel
In such a business.

Ibid. Winter's Tale.

Argument asserting right to Property.

As I was banish’d, I was banish'd Hereford ;
But as I come, I come for Lancaster :
And, noble uncle, I beseech your grace,
Look on my wrongs with an indifferent eye :
You are my father, for, methinks, in you
I see old Gaunt alive ; O, then, my father!
Will you permit that I should stand condemn'd
A wand'ring vagabond ; my rights and royalties
Pluck'd from my arms perforce, and given away
To upstart unthrifts? Wherefore was I born ?
If that my cousin king be king of England,
It must be granted, I am duke of Lancaster.
You have a son, Aumerle, my noble kinsman ;
Had you first dy'd, and he been thus trod down,
He should have found his uncle Gaunt a father,
To rouse his wrongs, and chase them to the bay,
I am deny'd to sue my livery here,
And yet my letters-patents give me leave :
My father's goods are all distrain'd and sold;
And these, and all, are all amiss employ'd,
What would you have me do? I am a subject,
And challenge law : Attornies are deny'd me;
And therefore personally I lay my claim
To my inheritance of free descent. Shakes. Rich. II.

ADMONITION. Admonition assumes a grave air, bordering on severity ; the head is sometimes shaken at the person we admonish, as if we felt for the miseries he was likely to bring upon himself; the right hand is directed to the person spoken to, and the fore-finger, projects ed from the rest, seems to point out more particularly the danger we give warning of ; the voice assumes a low tone, bordering on a monotone, with a mixture of severity and sympathy, of pity and reproach.

Admonition to execute Laws strictly.

'Tis one thing to be tempted, Escalus, Another thing to fall. I not deny, The jury, passing on the prisoner's life, May, in the sworn twelve, have a thief or two, Guiltier than him they try ; what's open made to justice, That justice seizes. What know the laws That thieves do pass on thieves ? 'tis very pregnant, The jewel that we find, we stoop and take it, Because we see it ; but what we do not see, We tread upon, and never think of it. You may not so extenuate his offence, For I have had such faults ; but rather tell me, When I that censure him, do so offend, Let mine own judgment pattern out my death, And nothing come in partial. Sir, he must die.

Shakesp. Meas. for Meas.

Admonition to beware of complaisance in Friendship.

Ever note, Lucilius, When love begins to sicken and decay, It useth an enforced ceremony. There are no tricks in plain and simple faith : But hollow men, like horses hot at hand, Make gallant shew, and promise of their mettle : But when they should endure the bloody spur, They fall their crests, and, like deceitful jades, Sink in the trial. Comes his army on? Ibid. Jul. Cas.

Admonition to act justly.

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Remember March, the ides of March remember!
Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake ?
What villain touch'd his body, that did stab,
And not for justice ? What, shall one of us,
That struck the foremost man of all this world,
But for supporting robbers ; shall we now
Contaminate our fingers with base bribes ?
And sell the mighty space of our large honours,
For so much trash, as may be grasped thus ?
I'd rather be a dog, and bay the moon,
Than such a Roman.

Ibid. Jul. Caso AUTHORITY.

Authority opens the countenance, but draws down the eye-brows a little, so as to give the look an air of gravity.

Authortity forbidding Combatants to fight.

Let them lay by their helmets and their spears,
And both return back to their chairs again :-
Withdraw with us, and let the trumpets sound,
While we return these dukes what we decree.
Draw near-
And list what with our council we have done.
For that our kingdom's earth should not be soil'd
With that dear blood which it hath fostered ;
And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect
Of civil wounds, plough'd up with neighbour's swords,
Therefore we banish you our territories :
You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death,
Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields,
Shall not regreet our fair dominions,
But tread the stranger paths of banishment. '

Ibid. Richard. II.

COMMANDING.

the order is giccompanied byne command bicht hand is

Commanding requires an air a little more peremptory, with a look a little severe, or stern. The hand is held out, and moved towards the person to whom the order is given, with the palm upwards, and sometimes it is accompanied by a nod of the head to the person commanded. If the command be absolute, and to a person unwilling to obey, the right hand is extended and projected forcibly towards the person commanded.

Commanding Combatants to fight.
We were not born to sue, but to command ;
Which since we cannot do to make you friends,
Be ready, as your lives shall answer it,
At Coventry, upon St. Lambert's day;

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There shall your swords and lances arbitrate
The swelling difference of your settled hate.
Since we cannot atone you, you shall see
Justice decide the victor's chivalry.
Lord Marshal, command our officers at arms,
Be ready to direct these home alarms. Shakes. Rich. II.

FORBIDDING. Forbidding draws the head backwards, and push. és the arm and hand forwards, with the palm down. wards, as if going to lay it upon the person, and hold him down immoveable, that he may not do what is forbidden him: the countenance has the air of aver. sion, the voice is harsh, and the manner peremptory.

Forbidding to break Orders.

On pain of death, no person be so bold,
Or daring hardy, as to touch the lists,
Except the marshal, and such officers
Appointed to direct these fair designs.

Ibid,

AFFIRMING.

Affirming, with a judicial oath, is expressed by lifting the right hand and eyes towards heaven; or if conscience is appealed to, by laying the right hand open upon the breast, exactly upon the heart; the voice low and solemn, the words slow and deliberate: but when the affirmation is mixed with rage or resentment, the voice is more open and loud, the words quicker, and the countenance has all the confidence of strong and peremptory assertion.

Affirming an Accusation.

My lord Aumerle, I know your daring tongue :
Scorns to unsay what once it hath deliver'di.
In that dead time when Glo'ster's death was plotted,

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