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the clause. It is generally attached to the first word, with whicn it must be taken in construing.

31. Argiva] Juno, under her Greek name Hera, was wor shipped at Argos in the Peloponnesus from very early times. Ovid says the procession at Falerii is like those at Argos; and according to some ancient writers Falerii was built by Greeks. Ovid adopts that tradition, and says the founder was Halesus, a natural son of Agamemnon king of Mycenae in Argolis Agamemnon on his return from Troy was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her paramour Aegisthus, and Ovid says Halesus fled from the scene of the crime and left his father's wealth behind him. He speaks of him elsewhere as being 'Atridæ fatis agitatus' and giving his name to the Faliscan territory. (Fasti vi. 73.)


36. semper amica] Let them be ever favourable to me and to their people.' This is meant for a pious way of taking leave of the place.


On leaving Rome.-P. 9.


1. subit] Comes up to my mind.'

2. Urbe] is Rome, which is often named Urbs simply.

6. Ausoniae] Ausones was the name given by the Greeks to one of the earliest tribes of Italy. The name in later times was used, by the poets only, for the whole of that country, and here for the Roman empire. Tomi, the town to which Ovid was sent, was in Moesia, a country bordering on the Euxine and south of the Danube, which was made a Roman province in the time of Augustus. Finibus' is the ablative.

7. Nec mens nec spatium] I had neither heart nor leisure for getting ready suitable things.' 'Spatium' means 'spatium temporis.'

8. Torpuerant] His heart, he says, had grown dull with long suspense. He had been petitioning Augustus to pardon him, and after much suspense had been ordered to quit the city immediately; so that he had no time to make his arrangements and choose his slaves or a friend to accompany him, and get his clothes and other necessaries (opis') for his exile.

9. legendi] Legendorum' must be understood for servorum,' as legendi belongs to 'comitis.' The older Latin writers used the gerund with the case that the verb which it belongs to would take; for instance, they would say 'legendi servos,' 'legendi comitem.' In later writers we more commonly find legendorum servorum,' 'legendi comitis.' This, however, applies only to

gerunds from transitive verbs (verbs which take the accusative), if we except the four reflective verbs uti,' 'frui,' 'fungi,'' potiri.' (Key's Lat. Gr. § 1287.) Properly speaking the gerund is a neuter substantive formed from a verb, and is declined in all the cases of the noun as, N. faciendum, G. faciendi, D. faciendo, Acc. ad faciendum, Abl. a faciendo.

13. animi nubem] He was stupefied by the severity of the sentence, and a cloud had come over his mind, which however the pain of his grief dispelled, and when he came to his senses he bade farewell to his friends, who once were many, but now in his disgrace were but one or two (unus et alter'). Modo' is used as an adverb, and means of late.' It is a word of measure, the ablative of modus,' and when referring to time it limits the time to a short space.


17. Uxor amans] See p. 7, v. 1 n. As to 'indignas,' see p. 5, v. 3 n.


19. diversa] Far away,'' separated from me.' His daughter's name was Perilla as well as his wife's. She was married and absent at this time in Africa. Certior esse,' 'certior fieri,' are used commonly for being informed.'


22. intus] Indoors, he says, there was all the appearance of a noisy funeral. At funerals mourners were hired to wail for the dead, and doleful music was played.

23. Femina virque] The singular is used for the plural. See note on p. 5, v. 56.


23. funere] He speaks as if his departure were his funeral.
26. quum caperetur] While it was being taken.'
28. equos] P. 5, v. 56.

29. ab hac.] By her light.' The Capitolium was an enclosure containing temples of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, on one of the hills of Rome. Near to this was Ovid's house, But he says that neighbourhood was of no use to him. Lares' was the name given to the good spirits of a family that were supposed to watch over each house (see p. 3, v. 7 n.). The poets used the word 'lar' to signify the house itself.


32. Jamque]From henceforth.'

'Jam' is a word of time referring to the past, present, or future: jam feci' means 'I have just done;' jam facio,' 'I am at this moment doing;' 'jam faciam,' 'I shall presently do.' It also combines present and future, meaning 'from this very time forward,' as here.

33. Quirini] This is a name of Romulus, the origin of which is uncertain. It is commonly derived from Cures, a town of the Sabines.

34. Este salutati] This is equivalent to 'receive ye my farewell;' salve!' (the usual word for greeting, with which 'salutare' is connected), and vale!' (the usual word on parting), having the same meaning, 'be thou well.' 'Salutem dicere for greeting or parting.

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35. clipeum post vulnera] Clipeus' is sometimes written clupeus;' as 'lacrima' is written lacruma,' but never lacryma,' much less lachryma,' in good MSS. This is a proverb, meaning to do a thing too late, as it is too late to lift one's shield after the blow has been struck. Ovid means to say, though it is too late to defend my conduct now that my banishment is ordered, yet do ye, O gods! deliver that banishment from the burden of the emperor's displeasure, by telling him how I was deceived, lest he count that for a crime which was only an error.'

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39. Ut quae sentitis] He addresses the gods as if they knew his innocence, and prays that what they know the author of his punishment (Augustus) may know too: for he could be at least not miserable if that divinity, as he calls Augustus, were pacified.

43. ante Lares] Images of the Lares were set up in the atrium, the front sitting-room of a house, near the fireplace. Here Perilla prostrated herself and prayed to the Lares and kissed the fireplace, in which the fire was now extinguished because the master of the house was leaving it. Focus was a fixture of stone or brick, usually in the middle of the room, on which wood was laid.


45. Penates] See p. 3, v. 7. There were images of the Penates in the penetralia or inner court of most houses. These she also prayed to. The Penates are described as turning their faces away from her prayers, which were not destined to prevail ('non valitura'), p. 2, v. 45 n.

47. nox praecipitata] The setting of night.' This means that the night was coming to an end. Night falling with us means night coming on, because the shadows appear to fall upon the earth. The ancient poets represented night as declining down the western sky as the light came up the eastern. 'Praecipitare' isto cast head foremost' (prae, caput).

48. Parrhasis Arctos] Parrhasia was a district in Arcadia. Arctos is the Greek for a bear, and is the name of the two northern constellations, the Greater and Lesser Bear, also called

by the Greeks the waggons. The Romans named the Great Bear the Septentriones or Seven Oxen. The fable is, that Callisto, daughter of Lycaon king of Arcadia, was turned into a bear, and her son Arcas pursuing her in that form also became a bear, and they were transferred to the skies. From this connection with Arcadia, Arctos is called Parrhasis, which is a feminine adjective.

48. Versaque ab axe] The axis about which Arctos is said to turn is what we call the polar star, which seems to remain stationary while the other stars turn round it. Versa ab axe means turned away from the axis,' that is, to the side opposite to that on which it was at the beginning of the night.


52. Vel quo festines] When he saw any one hastening the preparations for departure, he bade him consider whither he was in such a hurry to go, and what a home they were going from.

53. Ah quoties] He often pretended, when they would have him make haste, that he had fixed in his own mind upon a particular hour as being most propitious for departure. But this was not true, and only an excuse for delay. The ancients thought to ascertain, by omens and in other ways, the times that were favourable and unfavourable for beginning a journey.

60. pignora cara] Pignora,' which means pledges,' and should be so translated, is often used for children, as strengthening the love of husband and wife. It is also used as here (but more rarely) for all near relations.

61. Scythia] The Romans, without much discrimination (especially the poets) called the nations north of the Danube Scythians. The position of Tomi, to which Ovid was going, is not accurately known, but it was on the west side of the Euxine, and south of the Danube.

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62. utraque justa mora] Each is just a cause for lingering,' namely, that he is going to a barbarous place, and that he is leaving Rome.

66. Thesea] Theseus king of Athens had a friend named Peirithoüs. Many stories are told showing their attachment, which, like that between Orestes and Pylades, mentioned before (p. 1, v. 15 n), became proverbial. Ovid therefore says the hearts of his friends were united to his own with a fidelity like that of Theseus.

68. In lucro] Ovid says the hour's delay that was allowed him was so much in the way of luck or gain, as it enabled him to take leave of his friends.

70. proxima quaeque] 'All that was nearest to my heart.' 72. Lucifer] The planet Venus when it appears as a morning star was called Lucifer, as introducing the light or day. The Greeks called it Phosphorus in the same sense (p. 5, v. 56).

80. exsulis exsul] This word is derived from the same root (sed-) which is in sedes,' a home or habitation.' Exsilium' is another form of 'ec-sidium,' as 'consilium,' with which consul' is connected, is of 'considium,' 'a sitting together or council.' So 'praesul,' 'a president,' is connected with 'praesidium.'

81. ultima tellus] That furthest land,' to which her husband was going.

84. Pietas haec mihi Caesar erit] She says her love shall be to her a Caesar: as Augustus Caesar lad ordered her husband into exile, so her love should order her. Natural affection the Romans called 'pietas,' as it is obedience to the law of God. Therefore Aeneas was commonly called 'pius' for his dutiful conduct to his father Anchises, especially in carrying him on his shoulders from Troy when it was taken.

86. dedit victas] Dare manus' means 'to yield,' that is, to give the hands to the victor to be tied.

87. Egredior] 'I went out or rather it was to be carried out

without a funeral.' He means he was carried out by his friends like a corpse.

89. tenebris narratur obortis] Darkness coming over her,' that is, she fainted.

90. Semianimis] This must be read as a word of four syllables, sēm-yanimis.

93. Se modo] Now she wept for her own desertion, now for the desertion of the Penates: 'desertam' must be understood after 'se,' In reference to time, modo' means a short measure of time, 'now' or 'very lately' (see p. 9, v. 13 n). 'De' in composition (deplorasse') often has the effect of strengthening the word it is compounded with (p. 3, v. 10). Deplorasse' depends on


98. Respectuque tamen] 'She did not die through regard for


99. Vivat et] These words are repeated after the parenthesis, quoniam sic fata tulerunt.' He wishes that she may live and help him with her influence in her absence. He thought she might plead with Augustus for his pardon.

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A stormy Voyage.-P. 12.

1. custos Erymanthidos Ursae] There was a mountain in Arcadia named Erymanthus, and Erymanthis Ursa is equivalent to the Arcadian Bear, which is explained on p. 10, v. 48. The Great Bear is here meant, and the custos or guardian was Arctophylax, which in Greck signifies 'guardian of the Bear.' It had this name from its position with respect to Ursa Major.

2. suo sidere] In describing the effects of the seasons the poets usually connect them with the setting or rising of the constellations with reference to the sun. 'Sidus' is a constellation, as 'stella' is a star. In prose when 'suus' precedes a noun, it is emphatic. In poetry that is not always the case.

3. Ionium] The Ionian sea lay between the south part of Italy and the opposite coast of Greece, and must be passed on the way to the Euxine. Ovid probably travelled from Rome to Brundusium, and embarked there.

4. metu] Through fear of the wrath of Augustus he was obliged to brave the danger of the sea.


5. Me miserum] Wretched man that I am.' This is elliptical, as all exclamations are, because they represent sudden emotions. 'Ecce me miserum,' 'look at me poor wretch,' would be a complete sentence.

6. vadis] See p. 31, v. 19 n.

7. recurvae] This belongs to both. See p. 52, v. 651, about the form of a ship, and the figure at the end of the notes. The

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